A Hindu temple is a symbolic house and body of god. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism; the symbolism and structure of a Hindu temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares. It represents recursion and equivalence of the macrocosm and the microcosm by astronomical numbers, by "specific alignments related to the geography of the place and the presumed linkages of the deity and the patron". A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmos—presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of Hindu sense of cyclic time and the essence of life—symbolically presenting dharma, artha and karma; the spiritual principles symbolically represented in Hindu temples are given in the ancient Sanskrit texts of India, while their structural rules are described in various ancient Sanskrit treatises on architecture. The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism.
A Hindu temple is a spiritual destination for many Hindus, as well as landmarks around which ancient arts, community celebrations and economy have flourished. Hindu temples come in many styles, are situated in diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs, yet all of them share certain core ideas and themes, they are found in South Asia India and Nepal, in southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Cambodia and islands of Indonesia and Malaysia, countries such as Canada, the Caribbean, France, Kenya, the Netherlands, South Africa, Tanzania and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States, countries with a significant Hindu community. The current state and outer appearance of Hindu temples reflect arts and designs as they evolved over two millennia; the Swaminarayanan Akshardham in Robbinsville, New Jersey, United States, between the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, was inaugurated in 2014 as one of the world's largest Hindu temples.
A Hindu temple reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of dharma, beliefs and the way of life cherished under Hinduism. It is a link between man and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space, it represents the triple-knowledge of the Vedic vision by mapping the relationships between the cosmos and the cell by a unique plan, based on astronomical numbers. Subhash Kak sees the temple form and its iconography to be a natural expansion of Vedic ideology related to recursion and equivalence. In ancient Indian texts, a temple is a place for Tirtha – pilgrimage, it is a sacred site whose ambience and design attempts to symbolically condense the ideal tenets of Hindu way of life. All the cosmic elements that create and sustain life are present in a Hindu temple – from fire to water, from images of nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from the fleeting sounds and incense smells to the eternal nothingness yet universality at the core of the temple. Susan Lewandowski states that the underlying principle in a Hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected.
The pilgrim is welcomed through 64-grid or 81-grid mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life – the pursuit of artha, the pursuit of kama, the pursuit of dharma and the pursuit of moksha. At the center of the temple below and sometimes above or next to the deity, is mere hollow space with no decoration, symbolically representing Purusa, the Supreme Principle, the sacred Universal, one without form, present everywhere, connects everything, is the essence of everyone. A Hindu temple is meant to encourage reflection, facilitate purification of one’s mind, trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee; the specific process is left to the devotee’s school of belief. The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum. In Hindu tradition, there is no dividing line between the lonely sacred. In the same spirit, Hindu temples are not just sacred spaces, they are secular spaces.
Their meaning and purpose have extended beyond spiritual life to social rituals and daily life, offering thus a social meaning. Some temples have served as a venue to mark festivals, to celebrate arts through dance and music, to get married or commemorate marriages, commemorate the birth of a child, other significant life events, or mark the death of a loved one. In political and economic life, Hindu temples have served as a venue for the succession within dynasties and landmarks around which economic activity thrived. All Hindu temples take two forms: a house or a palace. A house-themed temple is a simple shelter; the temple is a place where the devotee visits, just like he or she would visit a friend or relative. The use of moveable and immoveable images is mentioned by Pāṇini. In Bhakti school of Hinduism, temples are venues for puja, a hospitality ritual, where the deity is honored, where devotee calls upon, attends to and connects with the deity. In other schools of Hinduism, the person may perform jap, or meditation, or yoga, or introspection in his or her temple.
A pura is a Balinese Hindu temple. And the place of worship for the adherents of Balinese Hinduism in Indonesia. Puras are built in accordance to rules, style and rituals found in Balinese architecture. Most of the puras are found on the island of Bali. Mother Temple of Besakih is the most important, the holiest temple in Bali. A large number of puras have been built in Bali, leading it to be titled "the Island of a Thousand Puras"; the term pura originates from the Sanskrit word, meaning "city", "walled city", "towered city", or "palace". During the development of the Balinese language the term pura came to refer to a religious temple complex, while the term puri came to refer to palace, the residence of kings and nobles, similar to Javanese kratons. Unlike the common towering indoor Hindu temples of the Indian Subcontinent, puras are designed as an open air place of worship within enclosed walls, connected with a series of intricately decorated gates between its compounds; these walled compounds contain several shrines and bale.
The design and layout of the pura follows the trimandala concept of Balinese space allocation. Three mandala zones arranged according to a sacred hierarchy: Nista mandala: the outer zone, which directly connects the pura compound with the outer realm, the entrance to the temple; this zone takes the form of an open field or a garden that can be used for religious dance performances, or act as an additional space for preparations during religious festivals. Madya mandala: the middle zone of the temple, where the activity of adherents takes place, the location for supporting facilities of the temple. In this zone several pavilions are built, such as the bale kulkul, bale gong, bale pesandekan, bale perantenan, the temple's kitchen. Utama mandala: the holiest and the most sacred zone within the pura; this enclosed and highest of the compounds contains a padmasana, the towering lotus throne of the highest god, the pelinggih meru, several pavilions, such as bale pawedan, bale piyasan, bale pepelik, bale panggungan, bale murda, gedong penyimpenan.
However, the layout rules for arrangements the facilities of the two outer zones, nista mandala and madya mandala, are somewhat flexible. Several structures, such as the bale kulkul, could be built as outer corner tower. There are two types of gates within Balinese architecture: the split gate, known as candi bentar, the roofed tower gate known as paduraksa or kori agung. Both types of gates have specific roles in Balinese architectural design. Candi bentar is the gate used in the nista mandala, while the kori agung is employed as the gate between the madya mandala and Utama mandala inner compounds; the rules for gate types are valid for non-religious compounds such as puri, nobles' and kings' residences. There are several types of pura, each serving certain functions of Balinese rituals throughout the Balinese calendar; the Balinese temples are arranged according to the physical and spiritual realm of Balinese people, which corresponds to kaja-kelod sacred axis, from mountain tops the realms of gods, hyang spirits, the middle fertile plain the realm of humans and other beings, all the way to the beach and ocean, the many realms in Indonesia.
Pura kahyangan jagad Pura that are located in the mountainous region of the island, built upon mountain or volcano slopes. The mountains are considered as the abode of gods or hyang; the most important pura kahyangan in Bali is Mother Temple of Besakih complex on the slopes of Mount Agung. Another example is Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta on slopes of West Java. Pura tirta "Water temples", a type of pura that other than religious function have water management function as part of Subak irrigation system; the priests in these temples have authority to manage the water allocation among rice paddies in the villages surrounds the temple. Some tirta temples are noted for its sacred water and having petirtaan or sacred bathing pool for cleansing ritual. Other water temple are built within lakes, such as Pura Ulun Danu Bratan; the best example of this type of temple is Pura Tirta Empul. Pura desa A type of pura dedicated to the worship of Brahma the Gods and deities, that are located within villages or cities, serving as the center of Balinese people's religious activities.
Pura puseh A type of pura dedicated to the worship of Vishnu. Pura dalem A type of pura dedicated to the worship of Shiva, Mother nature, Sang Bhuta Diyu, Sang Bhuta Garwa, other deities, Usually Shiva's shakti, Durga, is venerated in this temple. In human life cycle, the temple is connected to rituals concerning death, it is common for a pura dalem to have a big tree like a banyan tree or a kepuh, also used as a shrine. The Pura Dalem is located next to the graveyard of the deceased prior to ngaben ceremony. Pura mrajapati A type of pura to the cosmic might. Most in this temple Shiva is worshipped in his form as prajapati. Pura segara "Sea temples", a pura that are located by the sea to appease the sea Gods and deities, it is important during the Mela
Pura Beji Sangsit
Pura Beji Sangsit is a Balinese temple or pura located in Sangsit, Buleleng, on the island of Bali, Indonesia. The village of Sangsit is located around 8 kilometres east of Singaraja. Pura Beji is dedicated to the rice goddess Dewi Sri, is revered by the farmers around the area. Pura Beji is an example of a stereotypical northern Balinese architecture with its heavier decorations than it is soutnern Balinese counterpart, its typical foliage-like carvings. Pura Beji dates back from the 15th-century, during the time of the arrival of Brahmins to Bali from the Hindu Majapahit Kingdom of Java. At that time, the village of Sangsit was known as Beji. Pura Beji was constructed during the reign of Pasek Sakti Batu Lepang in north Bali; the architect and maintainer of Pura Beji was Truna Pesaren. The word Beji has the same meaning with the Balinese temple pond, similar with one in Pura Tirta Empul; this associates Pura Beji with purification by way of holy water. In fact, a former pond fed by an ancient well has been discovered on the east side of Pura Beji.
Because of its association with a water source, the farmers around the village of Sangsit revered Pura Beji as "pura subak", subak is a term for the Balinese paddy irrigation system, introduced in 1074 during the reign of Marakata. Because of this, the temple is known as Pura Subak Beji, is revered by the farmers who honored it in return to the fertility of their rice paddy. Pura Beji has been restored several times. A 20th-century photograph shows damage on the candi bentar split gate of the Pura Beji; the temple's restoration is done by maintaining the original style back into the temple. Pura Beji is built in the style typical of northern Bali. Shrine bases and the white sandstone walls surrounding the temple are covered in foliage-like carvings e.g. vine motifs or figures of flowers, a feature that can only be found in northern Bali. Traces of colors have been discovered in these carvings, which indicate that the temple have been painted. Intact statues of demons and guardian nagas inspired by Hindu epics decorate the stone staircases and the walls.
Pura Beji is divided into three areas: the outer sanctum of the temple, the middle sanctum, the inner main sanctum. In the outer sanctum is the bale kulkul where the slit-log drum is kept to announce the time for prayer; the bale kulkul of Pura Beji is unusually lacking plant-like carvings and is bare compared with the other architectural elements of Pura Beji, which indicates that the bale kulkul was built in period and by a non-Northern Balinese sculptor. Access to the middle sanctum is provided by a candi bentar split gate; this candi bentar is carved with heavy decorations of flowers in norther Balinese style. Multiple bhoma heads are carved on the top of the candi bentar, providing extra protection to the temple against evil spirits. In the middle sanctum are bale. Access to the inner sanctum or the jero is provided with a large paduraksa portal; the portal is decorated with carvings of vines and flowers typical northern Bali style. The top of the paduraksa is carved with multiple Bhoma heads, a kind of Balinese Kirtimukha protectors of the temple.
A unique feature of the Pura Beji is that the aling-aling is carved with a figure of two Dutchmen playing stringed instruments, flanking a figure of Naga. The main shrine in the form of pelinggih is located in the inner sanctum, dedicated to Sang Hyang Widhi. Other deities honored in the temple are Dewa Braban, Dewa Ayu Manik Galih, Dewi Sri. Balinese temples
Ceto is a fifteenth-century Javanese-Hindu temple, located on the western slope of Mount Lawu on the border between Central and East Java provinces. Cetho is one of several temples built on the northwest slopes of Mount Lawu in the fifteenth century. By this time, Javanese religion and art had diverged from Indian precepts, so influential on temples styles during the 8-10th century; this area was the last significant area of temple building in Java before the island's courts were converted to Islam in the 16th century. The temples' distinctiveness and the lack of records of Javanese ceremonies and beliefs of the era make it difficult for historians to interpret the significance of these antiquities, it is close to Sukuh temple. Indonesia portal Candi of Indonesia Media related to Candi Ceto at Wikimedia Commons
Trowulan is an archaeological site in Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, in the Indonesian province of East Java. It includes 100 square kilometres and has been theorized to be the site of the eponymous capital city of the Majapahit Empire, described by Mpu Prapanca in the 14th-century poem Nagarakretagama and in a 15th-century Chinese source; when it was the capital of the Majapahit Empire, the city was known as Wilwatikta, a name synonymous with the empire's name. It was razed during the invasion of Girindrawardhana to defeat Kertabhumi in 1478. After this event Majapahit's capital was moved to Daha; the Trowulan Museum includes a collection of artifacts. The Nagarakretagama contains poetic descriptions of the palace of Majapahit and its surroundings, but is limited to the royal and religious sectors; some of the details are vague, scholars who have tried to compile a plan of the capital have come to different conclusions. Older research at Trowulan has concentrated on monumental remains: temples, a bathing place.
Archaeological surveys and excavations have found the remains of industrial and religious activity, habitation areas, water supply systems and water canals all of which are evidence of dense population during the 14th to 15th centuries. In October 2009 Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Indonesia submitted Trowulan as UNESCO World Heritage list. According to the account of Prapanca in the Nagarakretagama poem, the royal compound was surrounded by a thick, high wall of red brick. Nearby was the fortified guard post; the main gate into the palace was located in the north wall, was entered through huge doors of decorated iron. Outside the north gate was a long building where courtiers met once a year, a market place, a sacred crossroads. Just inside the north gate was a courtyard containing religious buildings. On the eastern side of this courtyard were pavilions surrounded by canals where people bathed. At the south end a gate led to rows of houses set on terraces. Another gate led to a third courtyard crowded with houses and a great hall for those waiting to be admitted into the ruler's presence.
The king's own quarters, which lay to the west of this courtyard, had pavilions on decorated red brick bases, ornately carved wooden pillars, a roof decorated with clay ornaments. Outside the palace were quarters for Shiva priests and other members of the nobility. Further away, separated from the palace by open fields, were more royal compounds, including that of the chief minister Gajah Mada. Here Prapanca's descriptions end. A 15th-century Chinese source describes the palace as clean and well kept, it was said to have been enclosed within a brick wall more than 10 metres high and with a double gate. The houses inside were built on pillars and were 10–13 metres high, with wooden floors covered with fine mats on which people sat. Roofs were made from wooden shingles and the dwellings of the common people were roofed with straw. A book on Majapahit court etiquette defines the capital as'All where one can go out without passing through paddy fields.' Temple reliefs from Majapahit do not depict urban scenes, but some contain sketches of settlements indicated as pavilions enclosed within walls.
The word'kuwu' in Nagarakretagama seems to refer the settlement units consisting of a group of buildings surrounded by wall, in which a large number of people lived under the control of a nobleman. This pattern characterised the 16th-century coastal cities of Java described by early European visitors, Majapahit's capital was composed of such units; the ancient city ruins at Trowulan had been discovered by the 19th century. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lieutenant-Governor of British Java, Governor-General of Bencoolen from 1811 until 1816 and an indefatigable enthusiast for the island's history, reported the existence of' ruins of temples.... Scattered about the country for many miles'. Much of the region was blanketed with dense teak forest at that time, making detailed survey impossible. Nonetheless, Raffles was so impressed by what he saw that he was to refer to Trowulan as' this pride of Java'. Most of archaeological relics discovered in Trowulan and its vicinity is stored and displayed in Trowulan Museum, located on west side of Segaran pool.
Excavations in and around Trowulan have shown that parts of the old settlement still lie buried under several metres of mud and volcanic debris, a result of the frequent eruptions of nearby Mount Kelud, as well as frequent flooding of the Brantas River. Several archaeological ruins lie scattered around Trowulan village. Several are quite damaged. Most are constructed of red brick. Candi Tikus is a ritual bathing pool, the most exciting recent archaeological finding at Trowulan. Candi Tikus means'rat temple', the name given to the discovery in 1914 because the site appeared during the excavation to be a rat-breeding enclosure. Restored to its present condition in 1985 and 1989, this complex of red brick takes the form of a sunken, rectangular basin, into which a flight of steps descends on the northern side; the principal structure, which projects from the southern wall of the basin, was modelled on the legendary Mount Mahameru. No longer complete, it consisted of terraced foundations, upon which would have rested a concentric arrangement of'turrets' surrounding the highest peak of the building.
Not far from Candi Tikus in the Keraton hamlet stands the restored gateway of Bajang Ratu, an elegant red brick paduraksa gate dating from the mid-14th century. The form of the structure is tall and slender, rising to a height of 16.5 metres and displaying intricate relief decoration on the r
Sukuh is a 15th-century Javanese-Hindu temple, located on the western slope of Mount Lawu on the border between Central and East Java provinces. Sukuh temple has a distinctive thematic reliefs from other candi where life before birth and sexual education are its main theme, its main monument is a simple pyramid structure with reliefs and statues in front of it, including three tortoises with flattened shells and a male figure grasping his penis. A giant 1.82 m high of lingga with four testes, representing penile incisions, was one of the statues, relocated to the National Museum of Indonesia. Sukuh is one of several temples built on the northwest slopes of Mount Lawu in the 15th century. By this time, Javanese religion and art had diverged from Indian precepts, so influential on temples styles during the 8th–10th centuries; this was the last significant area of temple building in Java before the island's courts were converted to Islam in the 16th century. It is difficult for historians to interpret the significance of these antiquities due to the temple's distinctiveness and the lack of records of Javanese ceremonies and beliefs of the era.
The founder of Candi Sukuh thought that the slope of Mount Lawu was a sacred place for worshiping the ancestors and nature spirits and for observance of the fertility cults. The monument was built around 1437, as written as a chronogram date on the western gate, meaning that the area was under the rule of the Majapahit Kingdom during its end; some archaeologists believe the founder had cast the fall of Majapahit, based on the reliefs that displaying the feud between two aristocratic houses, symbolizing two internal conflicts in the kingdom. In 1815, Sir Thomas Raffles, the ruler of Java during 1811–1816, visited the temple and found it in bad condition. In his account, many statues had been thrown down on the ground and most of the figures had been decapitated. Raffles found the giant lingga statue broken into two pieces, glued together; this vandalism of traditional culture is to be an effect of the Islamic invasion of Java during the 16th century, based upon the identical patterns found in all other Islamic and monotheistic invasions generally.
The central pyramid of the complex sits at the rear of the highest of three terraces. Worshippers would have accessed the complex through a gateway at the western or lowest terrace. To the left of the gate is a carving of a monster eating a man, birds in a tree, a dog, thought to be a chronogram representing 1437 CE, the date of the temple's consecration. There is an obvious depiction of sexual intercourse in a relief on the floor at the entrance where it shows a paired lingam, represented physiologically by the and yoni, represented bodily by the. Genitalia are portrayed on several statues from the site, unique among Javanese classical monuments; the main structure of Sukuh temple is like no other ancient edifice. The Sukuh temple does not follow the Hindu architecture Wastu Vidya because it was built after the Hindu religion had weakened. Temples have a rectangular or square shape, but Sukuh temple is a trapezium with three terraces, with one terrace higher than the others. A stone stairway rises through the front side of the pyramid to its summit.
It is not known. One suggestion is. There is no evidence; the only object recovered from its summit was a 1.82-metre lingga statue bearing an inscription and it is now in the National Museum of Indonesia). The statue may once have stood on the platform over the stairway; the lingga statue has a dedicated inscription carved from top to bottom representing a vein followed by a chronogram date equivalent to 1440. The inscription translates "Consecration of the Holy Ganges sudhi in... the sign of masculinity is the essence of the world." Reliefs of a kris blade, an eight-pointed sun and a crescent moon decorate the statue. The wall of the main monument has a relief portraying two men forging a weapon in a smithy with a dancing figure of Ganesha, the most important Tantric deity, having a human body and the head of an elephant. In Hindu-Java mythology, the smith is thought to possess not only the skill to alter metals, but the key to spiritual transcendence. Smiths drew their powers to forge a kris from the god of fire.
Hindu-Javanese kingship was sometimes empowered by the possession of a kris. The elephant head figure with a crown in the smithy relief depicts Ganesha, the god who removes obstacles in Hinduism; the Ganesha figure, differs in some small respects with other usual depictions. Instead of sitting, the Ganesha figure in Candi Sukuh's relief is shown dancing and it has distinctive features including the exposed genitalia, the demonic physiognomy, the strangely awkward dancing posture, the rosary bones on its neck and holding a small animal a dog; the Ganesha relief in Candi Sukuh has a similarity with the Tantric ritual found in the history of Buddhism in Tibet written by Taranatha. The Tantric ritual is associated with several figures, one of whom is described as the "King of Dogs", who taught his disciples by day, by night performed Ganacakra in a burial ground or charnel ground. Other statues in Candi Sukuh include a life-sized male figure wit
Hinduism in Indonesia
Hinduism in Indonesia is practised by 1.7% of the total population, by 83.5% of the population in Bali as of the 2010 census. Hinduism is one of the six official religions of Indonesia. Hinduism came to Indonesia in the 1st-century through traders, sailors and priests. A syncretic fusion of pre-existing Javanese culture and Hindu ideas, that from the 6th-century synthesized Buddhist ideas as well, evolved as the Indonesian version of Hinduism; these ideas continued to develop during the Majapahit empires. About 1400 CE, these kingdoms were attacked from coast-based Muslim armies, thereafter Hinduism vanished from many of the islands of Indonesia. In 2010, there were an estimated total of over 4 million Hindus in Indonesia according to Indonesian census; the Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia disputed the census methodology, estimated 18 million Hindus lived in Indonesia in 2005. In 2010, the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia estimated that about 10 million Hindus lived on Indonesian islands, in contrast to the Indonesian official decadal census of over 4 million.
The Bali island in Indonesia has a Hindu majority and the largest number of Hindus living in Indonesia. The natives of Indonesian Archipelago practiced indigenous animism and dynamism, beliefs common to the Austronesian people. Native Indonesians revered ancestral spirits; this unseen spiritual entity that has supernatural power is identified by ancient Javanese and Balinese as "hyang" that can mean either divine or ancestral. In modern Indonesian, "hyang" tends to be associated with God. Hindu influences reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. Historical evidence is unclear about the diffusion process of cultural and spiritual ideas from India. Java legends refer to Saka-era, traced to 78 AD. Stories from the Mahabharata Epic have been traced in Indonesian islands to the 1st century; the Javanese prose work Tantu Pagelaran of the 14th century, a collection of ancient tales and crafts of Indonesia, extensively uses Sanskrit words, Indian deity names and religious concepts.
Ancient Chandis excavated in Java and western Indonesian islands, as well as ancient inscriptions such as the 8th century Canggal inscription discovered in Indonesia, confirm widespread adoption of Shiva lingam iconography, his companion goddess Parvati, Vishnu, Brahma and other Hindu deities by about the middle to late 1st millennium AD. Ancient Chinese records of Fa Hien on his return voyage from Ceylon to China in 414 AD mention two schools of Hinduism in Java, while Chinese documents from 8th century refer to the Hindu kingdom of King Sanjaya as Holing, calling it "exceedingly wealthy," and that it coexisted peacefully with Buddhist people and Sailendra ruler in Kedu Plain of the Java island; the two major theories for the arrival of Hinduism in Indonesia include that South Indian sea traders brought Hinduism with them, second being that Indonesian royalty welcomed Indian religions and culture, it is they who first adopted these spiritual ideas followed by the masses. Indonesian islands adopted both Hindu and Buddhist ideas, fusing them with pre-existing native folk religion and Animist beliefs.
In the 4th century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, Holing in Central Java, were among the early Hindu states established in the region. Excavations between 1950 and 2005 at the Cibuaya and Batujaya sites, suggests that Tarumanagara revered deity Wisnu of Hinduism. Ancient Hindu kingdoms of Java built many square temples, named rivers on the island as Gomati and Ganges, completed major irrigation and infrastructure projects. Several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu kingdoms were Mataram, famous for the construction of one of the world's largest Hindu temple complexes - the Prambanan temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. Hinduism along with Buddhism spread across the archipelago. Numerous sastras and sutras of Hinduism were translated into the Javanese language, expressed in art form. Rishi Agastya, for example, is described as the principal figure in the 11th century Javanese text Agastya parva; the Hindu-Buddhist ideas reached the peak of their influence in the 14th century.
The last and largest among the Hindu-Buddhist Javanese empires, influenced the Indonesian archipelago. Sunni Muslim traders of the Shafi'i fiqh, as well as Sufi Muslim traders from India and Yemen brought Islam to Indonesia; the earliest known mention of a small Islamic community midst the Hindus of Indonesia is credited to Marco Polo, about 1297 AD, whom he referred to as a new community of Moorish traders in Perlak. Over 15th and 16th centuries, a Muslim campaign led by Sultans attacked Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and various communities in the Indonesian archipelago, with each Sultan trying to carve out a region or island for control. Four diverse and contentious Islamic Sultanates emerged in north Sumatra, south Sumatra and central Java, in southern Borneo; these Sultanates declared Islam as their state religion and pursued war against each other as well as the Hindus and other non-Muslim infidels. Hindu, Buddhist and Animist communities in these Indonesian Sultanates bought peace by agreeing to pay jizya tax to the Muslim ruler, while others began adopting Islam to escape the jizya tax.
For example, jizya was imposed on unbelievers