Homeschooling known as home education is the education of children at home or a variety of other places. Home education is conducted by a parent or tutor or online teacher. Many families use less formal ways of educating. "Homeschooling" is the term used in North America, whereas "home education" is used in the United Kingdom, in many Commonwealth countries. Before the introduction of compulsory school attendance laws, most childhood education was done by families and local communities. In many developed countries, homeschooling is a legal alternative to private schools. In other nations, homeschooling remains illegal or restricted to specific conditions, as recorded by homeschooling international status and statistics. According to the US National Center for Education Statistics, about three percent of all children in the US were homeschooled in 2011–2012 school year; the study found that 83 percent were White, 5 percent were Black, 7 percent were Hispanic, 2 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander.
As of 2016, there are about 1.7 million homeschooled students in the United States. On average, homeschoolers score above the national average on standardized tests. Homeschool students have been accepted into many Ivy League universities. For most of history and in different cultures, the education of children at home by family members was a common practice. Enlisting professional tutors was an option available only to the wealthy. Homeschooling declined in the 19th and 20th centuries with the enactment of compulsory attendance laws. But, it continued to be practiced in isolated communities. Homeschooling began a resurgence in the 1960s and 1970s with educational reformists dissatisfied with industrialized education; the earliest public schools in modern Western culture were established during the reformation with the encouragement of Martin Luther in the German states of Gotha and Thuringia in 1524 and 1527. From the 1500s to 1800s the literacy rate increased. Home education and apprenticeship continued to remain the main form of education until the 1830s.
However, in the 18th century, the majority of people in Europe lacked formal education. Since the early 19th century, formal classroom schooling became the most common means of schooling throughout the developed countries. In 1647, New England provided compulsory elementary education. Regional differences in schooling existed in colonial America. In the south and plantations were so dispersed that community schools such as those in the more compact settlements of the north were impossible. In the middle colonies, the educational situation varied. Most Native American tribal cultures traditionally used home education and apprenticeship to pass knowledge to children. Parents were supported by tribal leaders in the education of their children; the Native Americans vigorously resisted compulsory education in the United States. In the 1960s, Rousas John Rushdoony began to advocate homeschooling, which he saw as a way to combat the secular nature of the public school system in the United States, he vigorously attacked progressive school reformers such as Horace Mann and John Dewey, argued for the dismantling of the state's influence in education in three works: Intellectual Schizophrenia, The Messianic Character of American Education, The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum.
Rushdoony was called as an expert witness by the Home School Legal Defense Association in court cases. He advocated the use of private schools. During this time, American educational professionals Raymond and Dorothy Moore began to research the academic validity of the growing Early Childhood Education movement; this research included independent studies by other researchers and a review of over 8,000 studies bearing on early childhood education and the physical and mental development of children. They asserted that formal schooling before ages 8–12 not only lacked the anticipated effectiveness, but harmed children; the Moores published their view that formal schooling was damaging young children academically mentally, physiologically. The Moores presented evidence that childhood problems such as juvenile delinquency, increased enrollment of students in special education classes and behavioral problems were the result of earlier enrollment of students; the Moores cited studies demonstrating that orphans who were given surrogate mothers were measurably more intelligent, with superior long-term effects – though the mothers were "mentally retarded teenagers" – and that illiterate tribal mothers in Africa produced children who were and more advanced than typical western children, "by western standards of measurement".
Their primary assertion was that the bonds and emotional development made at home with parents during these years produced critical long-term results that were cut short by enrollment in schools, could neither be replaced nor corrected in an institutional setting afterward. Recognizing a necessity for early out-of-home care for some children special needs and impoverished children and children from exceptionally inferior homes, they maintained that the vast majority of children were far better situated at home with mediocre parents, than with the most gifted and motivated teachers in a school setting, they described the difference as follows: "This is like saying, if you can help a child by taking him off the cold street and housing him in a warm tent warm tents should be provided for all children – when obviousl
Cohousing is an intentional community of private homes clustered around shared space. Each attached or single family home has traditional amenities, including a private kitchen. Shared spaces feature a common house, which may include a large kitchen and dining area and recreational spaces. Shared outdoor space may include parking, open space, gardens. Neighbors share resources like tools and lawnmowers. Households have independent incomes and private lives, but neighbors collaboratively plan and manage community activities and shared spaces; the legal structure is a homeowner association or housing cooperative. Community activities feature regularly-scheduled shared meals and workdays. Neighbors gather for parties, movies, or other events. Cohousing makes it easy to form clubs, organize child and elder care, carpool. Cohousing facilitates interaction among neighbors and thereby provides social, practical and environmental benefits. Cohousing communities are structured - in principle and in architecture - to encourage frequent interactions and the formation of close relationships between their members.
Neighbors are encouraged to care for their neighbors. Cohousing developments are intentionally limited to around 20-40 homes and feature large common areas for residents to interact in. While cohousing developments are designed to encourage community, residents still have as much personal privacy as they want. Residents are able to choose how much they engage in order to find the right balance between their privacy and the community. Decision making in cohousing communities is based on forming a consensus within the community. Residents have shared space which they can all use saving money. Cohousing is similar to Coliving, distinguished by individual units in Cohousing with personal amenities such as kitchens and bathrooms, while Coliving involves the communal use of shared bathrooms and common spaces such as kitchens and living rooms; the modern theory of cohousing originated in Denmark in the 1960s among groups of families who were dissatisfied with existing housing and communities that they felt did not meet their needs.
Bodil Graae wrote a newspaper article titled "Children Should Have One Hundred Parents," spurring a group of 50 families to organize around a community project in 1967. This group developed the cohousing project Sættedammen, the oldest known modern cohousing community. Another key organizer was Jan Gudmand Høyer who drew inspiration from his architectural studies at Harvard and interaction with experimental U. S. communities of the era. He published the article "The Missing Link between Utopia and the Dated Single Family House" in 1968, converging a second group; the Danish term bofællesskab was introduced to North America as cohousing by two American architects, Kathryn McCamant and Charles Durrett, who visited several cohousing communities and wrote a book about it. The book resonated with some existing and forming communities, such as Sharingwood in Washington state and N Street in California, who embraced the cohousing concept as a crystallization of what they were about. Though most cohousing groups seek to develop multi-generational communities, some focus on creating senior communities.
Charles Durrett wrote a handbook on creating senior cohousing. The first community in the United States to be designed and occupied for cohousing is Muir Commons in Davis, California. Architects, Kathryn McCamant and Charles Durrett were responsible for the programming and the design of the site plan, common house and private houses. There are precedents for cohousing in the 1920s in New York with the cooperative apartment housing with shared facilities and good social interaction; the Siheyuan, or quadrangle design of housing in China has a shared courtyard and is thus similar in some respects to cohousing. Cohousing communities are part of the new cooperative economy in the United States and are predicted to expand in the next few decades as individuals and families seek to live more sustainably, in community with neighbors. Since the first cohousing community was completed in the U. S. – Muir Commons in Davis, now celebrating 25 years – more than 160 communities have been established in 25 states plus the District of Columbia, with more than 125 in process.
For a listing of cohousing communities visit www.cohousing.org/directory. Most cohousing communities are intergenerational with both elders; these communities come in a variety, but are environment friendly and sustainable. Hundreds of cohousing communities exist in other countries in northern Europe. In Canada, there are 14 completed communities, 22 in the forming, development, or construction phase. There are more than 300 cohousing communities in the Netherlands, with about 60 others in planning or construction phases. There are communities in Australia, the United Kingdom, other parts of the world. Cohousing started to develop in the UK at the end of the 1990s; the movement has built up momentum and there are now 14 purpose built cohousing communities. A further 40+ cohousing groups are developing projects and new groups are forming all the time. Cohousing communities in
A housing cooperative, co-op, or housing company, is a legal entity a cooperative or a corporation, which owns real estate, consisting of one or more residential buildings. Housing cooperatives are a distinctive form of home ownership that have many characteristics that differ from other residential arrangements such as single family home ownership and renting; the corporation is membership-based, with membership granted by way of a share purchase in the cooperative. Each shareholder in the legal entity is granted the right to occupy one housing unit. A primary advantage of the housing cooperative is the pooling of the members' resources so that their buying power is leveraged, thus lowering the cost per member in all the services and products associated with home ownership. Another key element in some forms of housing cooperatives is that the members, through their elected representatives and select who may live in the cooperative, unlike any other form of home ownership. Housing cooperatives fall into two general tenure categories: ownership.
In non-equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted subject to an occupancy agreement, similar to a lease. In equity cooperatives, occupancy rights are sometimes granted by way of the purchase agreements and legal instruments registered on the title; the corporation's articles of incorporation and bylaws as well as occupancy agreement specifies the cooperative's rules. The word cooperative is used to describe a non-share capital co-op model in which fee-paying members obtain the right to occupy a bedroom and share the communal resources of a house, owned by a cooperative organization; such is the case with student cooperatives in some college and university communities across the United States. As a legal entity, a co-op can contract with other companies or hire individuals to provide it with services, such as a maintenance contractor or a building manager, it can hire employees, such as a manager or a caretaker, to deal with specific things that volunteers may prefer not to do or may not be good at doing, such as electrical maintenance.
However, as many housing cooperatives strive to run self-sufficiently, as much work as possible is completed by its members. In non-equity cooperatives and in limited equity cooperatives, a shareholder in a co-op does not own real estate, but a share of the legal entity that does own real estate. Co-operative ownership is quite distinct from condominiums where people own individual units and have little say in who moves into the other units; because of this, most jurisdictions have developed separate legislation, similar to laws that regulate companies, to regulate how co-ops are operated and the rights and obligations of shareholders. Each resident or resident household has membership in the co-operative association. In non-equity cooperatives, members have occupancy rights to a specific suite within the housing co-operative as outlined in their "occupancy agreement", or "proprietary lease", a lease. In ownership cooperatives, occupancy rights are transferred to the purchaser by way of the title transfer.
Since the housing cooperative holds title to all the property and housing structures, it bears the cost of maintaining and replacing them. This relieves the member from the burden of such work. In that sense, the housing cooperative is like the landlord in a rental setting. However, another hallmark of cooperative living is that it is nonprofit, so that the work is done at cost, with no profit motive involved. In some cases, the co-op follows Rochdale Principles. Most cooperatives are incorporated as limited stock companies where the number of votes an owner has is tied to the number of shares owned by the person. Whichever form of voting is employed it is necessary to conduct an election among shareholders to determine who will represent them on the board of directors, the governing body of the co-operative; the board of directors is responsible for the business decisions including the financial requirements and sustainability of the co-operative. Although politics vary from co-op to co-op and depend on the wishes of its members, it is a general rule that a majority vote of the board is necessary to make business decisions.
In larger co-ops, members of a co-op elect a board of directors from amongst the shareholders at a general meeting the annual general meeting. In smaller co-ops, all members sit on the board. A housing cooperative's board of directors is elected by the membership, providing a voice and representation in the governance of the property. Rules are determined by the board, providing a flexible means of addressing the issues that arise in a community to assure the members' peaceful possession of their homes. A housing cooperative is de facto non-profit, since most of its income comes from the rents paid by its residents, who are invariably its members. There is no point in creating a deliberate surplus—except for operational requirements such as setting aside funds for replacement of assets—since that means that the rents paid by members are set higher than the expenses. In the lifecycle of buildings, the replacement of assets requires si
Workers' self-management referred to as self-management, labor management and autogestión, is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organization's workforce. Self-management is a characteristic of many forms of socialism, with proposals for self-management having appeared many times throughout the history of the socialist movement, advocated variously by libertarian and market socialists and anarchists. There are many variations of self-management. In some variants, all the worker-members manage the enterprise directly through assemblies while in other forms workers exercise management functions indirectly through the election of specialist managers. Self-management may include worker supervision and oversight of an organization by elected bodies, the election of specialized managers, or self-directed management without any specialized managers as such; the goals of self-management are to improve performance by granting workers greater autonomy in their day-to-day operations, boosting morale, reducing alienation and eliminating exploitation when paired with employee ownership.
An enterprise, self-managed is referred to as a labour-managed firm. Self-management refers to control rights within a productive organization, being distinct from the questions of ownership and what economic system the organization operates under. Self-management of an organization may coincide with employee ownership of that organization, but self-management can exist in the context of organizations under public ownership and to a limited extent within private companies in the form of co-determination and worker representation on the board of directors. An economic system consisting of self-managed enterprises is sometimes referred to as a participatory economy, self-managed economy, or cooperative economy; this economic model is a major version of market socialism and decentralized planned economy, stemming from the notion that people should be able to participate in making the decisions that affect their well-being. The major proponents of self-managed market socialism in the 20th century include the economists Benjamin Ward, Jaroslav Vanek and Branko Horvat.
The Ward–Vanek model of self-management involves the diffusion of entrepreneurial roles amongst all the partners of the enterprise. Branko Horvat notes that participation is not more desirable, but more economically viable than traditional hierarchical and authoritarian management as demonstrated by econometric measurements which indicate an increase in efficiency with greater participation in decision-making. According to Horvat, these developments are moving the world toward a self-governing socialistic mode of organization. In the economic theory of self-management, workers are no longer employees but partners in the administration of their enterprise. Management theories in favor of greater self-management and self-directed activity cite the importance of autonomy for productivity in the firm and economists in favor of self-management argue that cooperatives are more efficient than centrally-managed firms because every worker receives a portion of the profit, thereby directly tying their productivity to their level of compensation.
Historical economic figures who supported cooperatives and self-management of some kind include the anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon, classical economist John Stuart Mill and the neoclassical economist Alfred Marshall. Contemporary proponents of self-management include the American Marxist economist Richard D. Wolff and anarchist philosopher Noam Chomsky; the theory of the labor manager firm explains the behavior and nature of self-managed organizational forms. Although self-managed firms can coincide with worker ownership, the two are distinct concepts and one need not imply the other. According to traditional neoclassical economic theory, in a competitive market economy ownership of capital assets by labor should have no significant impact on firm performance; the classical liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill believed that worker-run and owned cooperatives would displace traditional capitalist firms in the competitive market economy due to their superior efficiency and stronger incentive structure.
While both Mill and Karl Marx thought that democratic worker management would be more efficient in the long run compared with hierarchical management, Marx was not hopeful about the prospects of labor-managed and owned firms as a means to displace traditional capitalist firms in the market economy. Despite their advantages in efficiency, in Western market economies the labor-managed firm is comparatively rare. Benjamin Ward critiqued. According to Ward, the labor-managed firm strives to maximize net income for all its members as contrasted with the traditional capitalist firms' objective function of maximizing profit for external owners; the objective function of the labor managed firm creates an incentive to limit employment in order to boost the net income of the firm's existing members. Thus, an economy consisting of labor-managed firms would have a tendency to underutilize labor and tend toward high rates of unemployment. In the 19th century, the idea of a self-managed economy was first articulated by the anarchist philosopher and economist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
This economic model was called mutualism to highlight the mutual relationship among individuals in this system and involved cooperatives operating in a free-market economy. The classical liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill argued worker-run cooperatives would eventu
Student housing cooperative
A student housing cooperative known as co-operative housing, is a housing cooperative for student members. Members live in alternative cooperative housing that they own and maintain; these houses are designed to lower housing costs while providing an educational and community environment for students to live and grow in. They are, in general, nonprofit and self-governing, with students pooling their monetary and personal resources to create a community style home. Many student housing cooperatives share operation and governing of the house; as with most cooperatives, student housing coops follow the Rochdale Principles and promote collaboration and community work done by the members for mutual benefit. Most student housing coops in Canda and the United States are members of North American Students of Cooperation. Several of the earliest US student cooperatives had begun by at least 1915, for the purpose of housing female students. Most student housing cooperatives are formed to provide an alternative dorm for students who are unable to afford college due to housing costs.
For example, the Harriet E. Richards House at Boston University was established to provide a cheap alternative to dorm life for women scholars; the Berkeley Student Cooperative, amongst others, started during the Great Depression to help provide affordable food and housing for Berkeley students. Other early examples that started in the Depression years: the Cooperative Living Organization at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida founded in 1931 and the Michigan Socialist House at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan founded in 1932. Others were formed to provide a more supportive environment for students. Many student housing cooperatives are focused around socialist principles or political activism, veganism or vegetarianism, racial or ethnic identity, or environmental concerns. Throughout the twentieth century, student housing cooperatives expanded. Many formed coalitions in the face of rising bankruptcy; the North American Students of Cooperation was formed in 1968 as a way to link existing cooperatives together while educating and improving cooperatives across North America.
Today, NASCO serves as an association that promotes development and communication amongst coops and promotes communal living. There is not a standard way of running a housing cooperative. Most student housing cooperative members have full voting privileges on issues such as rent, future members, community activity and maintain an elected board of committee members who oversee the running of the cooperative. Many student housing cooperatives require work shifts; these may include chores or cooking. Some coops award points to the type of chore and members are required to complete a certain number of points a week. All cooperatives expect members to contribute assistance throughout the year to keep the cooperative running smoothly and efficiently, it is up to the individual coops as to whether the members elect a board or committee to oversee the entire cooperative. Student co-operatives are situated in close proximity to universities; the second biggest student co-operative is Waterloo Co‑operative Residence Inc. in Waterloo, Ontario with 800 resident members.
The East Coast is represented by: New Brunswick Residence Co‑operative from Fredericton, New Brunswick. Central Canada is represented by: Educational Community Living Environment in Montreal, Quebec Coopérative d'habitation étudiant Triangle Rose in Montreal, Quebec Campus Co‑operative Residence Inc in Toronto, Ontario Guelph Campus Co‑operative in Guelph, Ontario Waterloo Co‑operative Residence Inc. in Waterloo, Ontario Science ’44 in Kingston, OntarioThe West Coast is represented by: College Housing Co‑operative Limited in Winnipeg, Manitoba Common Ground Co‑operative in Winnipeg, Manitoba Assiniboia Community Housing Co‑operative in Edmonton, Alberta. Campus Residence Co‑operative Association in New Westminster, British ColumbiaMany of the co-ops are members of The Cooperative Housing Federation of Canada and NASCO; the Student Co-operative Dwellings was set up to stimulate greater opportunities for students to live in co-operatives. There are three operational student housing co-operatives in the UK: Edinburgh Student Housing Co-operative Birmingham Student Housing Co-operative Sheffield Student Housing Co-operativeThere are initiatives at various stages of development to establish Housing Co-operatives in: Exeter, Leeds, Newcastle and Nottingham.
All operating coops and initiatives are members of Students for Cooperation, a UK wide federation of student co-operatives which includes a number of other groups across the UK working to establish student housing co-operatives. Students for Cooperation have conducted a primary report and are seeking to establish a National Body of Student Housing Cooperatives to help support and grow the UK student housing cooperative movement. An unsuccessful plan to launch a student housing co-operative took place in 2004, when MMUnion partnered with the National Union of Students and Confederation of Co-operative Housing to offer cheaper cooperatively owned alternatives to city housing for Manchester MetrConfederation of Co-operative Housingopolitan University students; the NUS plan fell through as NUS management changed. Artist and community co-operatives are common in the San Francisco Bay Area. Many of these housing co-operatives are members of organizations such as NASCO; the biggest student co-op is the Berkeley Student Cooperative known as the University Students Cooperative Ass
The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. They were first set out in 1844 by the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers in Rochdale and have formed the basis for the principles on which co-operatives around the world continue to operate; the implications of the Rochdale Principles are a focus of study in co-operative economics. The original Rochdale Principles were adopted by the International Co-operative Alliance in 1937 as the Rochdale Principles of Co-operation. Updated versions of the principles were adopted by the ICA in 1966 as the Co-operative Principles and in 1995 as part of the Statement on the Co-operative Identity; the Rochdale Principles, according to the 1995 ICA revision, can be summarised. The first of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, "Co-operatives are voluntary organisations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, racial, political or religious discrimination."
To discriminate is to make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category. Examples of social discrimination include racial, sexual, sexual orientation and ethnic discrimination. To fulfil the first Rochdale Principle, a Co-operative society should not prevent anyone willing to participate from doing so on any of these grounds. However, this does not prohibit the co-operative from setting reasonable and relevant ground rules for membership, such as residing in a specific geographic area or paying a membership fee to join, so long as all persons meeting such criteria are able to participate if they so choose. Given the voluntary nature of co-operatives, members need reasons to participate; each person's motivations will be unique and will vary from one co-operative to another, but they will be a combination of the following: Financial – Some co-operatives are able to provide members with financial benefits. Quality of life – Serving the community through a co-operative because doing service makes one's own life better is the most significant motivation for volunteering.
Included here would be the benefits people get from being with other people, staying active, above all having a sense of the value of ourselves in society that may not be as clear in other areas of life. Giving back – Many people have in some way benefited from the work of a co-operative and volunteer to give back. Altruism – Some volunteer for the benefit of others. A sense of duty – Some see participation in community as a responsibility that comes with citizenship. In this case, they may not describe themselves as volunteers. Career experience – Volunteering offers experiences that can add to career prospects; the second of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have democratic member control. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership.
In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights and co-operatives at other levels are organised in a democratic manner.” Member economic participation is one of the defining features of co-operative societies, constitutes the third Rochdale Principle in the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity. According to the ICA, co-operatives are enterprises in which “Members contribute equitably to, democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is the common property of the co-operative. Members receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; this principle, in turn, can be broken down into a number of constituent parts. The first part of this principle states that “Members contribute equitably to, democratically control, the capital of their co-operative.
At least part of that capital is the common property of the co-operative.” This enshrines democratic control over the co-operative, how its capital is used. The second part of the principle deals with how members are compensated for funds invested in a Co-operative, how surpluses should be used. Unlike for-profit corporations, co-operatives are a form of social enterprise. Given this, there are at least three purposes for which surplus funds can be used, or distributed, by a Co-operative. “Members receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership.” “Developing their co-operative by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible. "Benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative. “Supporting other activities approved by the membership.” The fourth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must be autonomous and independent. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members.
If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from externa
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members. They operate within the market system, independently of the state, as a form of mutual aid, oriented toward service rather than pecuniary profit. Consumers' cooperatives take the form of retail outlets owned and operated by their consumers, such as food co-ops. However, there are many types of consumers' cooperatives, operating in areas such as health care, housing and personal finance. In some countries, consumers' cooperatives are known as cooperative retail societies or retail co-ops, though they should not be confused with retailers' cooperatives, whose members are retailers rather than consumers. Consumers' cooperatives may, in turn, form cooperative federations; these may come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies, through which consumers' cooperatives collectively purchase goods at wholesale prices and, in some cases, own factories.
Alternatively, they may be members of cooperative unions. Consumer cooperation has been a focus of study in the field of cooperative economics. Consumer cooperatives rose to prominence during the industrial revolution as part of the labour movement; as employment moved to industrial areas and job sectors declined, workers began organizing and controlling businesses for themselves. Workers cooperative were sparked by "critical reaction to industrial capitalism and the excesses of the industrial revolution." The formation of some workers cooperatives were designed to "cope with the evils of unbridled capitalism and the insecurities of wage labor". The first documented consumer cooperative was founded in 1769, in a furnished cottage in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, when local weavers manhandled a sack of oatmeal into John Walker's whitewashed front room and began selling the contents at a discount, forming the Fenwick Weavers' Society. In the decades that followed, several cooperatives or cooperative societies formed including Lennoxtown Friendly Victualling Society, founded in 1812.
The philosophy that underpinned the cooperative movement stemmed from the socialist writings of thinkers including Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Robert Owen, considered by many as the father of the cooperative movement, made his fortune in the cotton trade, but believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children; these ideas were put into effect in the cotton mills of New Lanark, Scotland. It was here. Spurred on by the success of this, he had the idea of forming "villages of co-operation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and becoming self-governing, he tried to form such communities in Orbiston in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities failed. Similar early experiments were made in the early 19th century and by 1830 there were several hundred co-operatives. Dr William King made Owen's ideas more practical, he believed in starting small, realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction.
He founded a monthly periodical called The Co-operator, the first edition of which appeared on 1 May 1828. This gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles; the first successful organization was the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, established in England in 1844. The Rochdale Pioneers established the ` Rochdale Principles'; this became the basis for the growth of the modern cooperative movement. As the mechanization of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, over a period of four months they struggled to pool one pound sterling per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital. On December 21, 1844, they opened their store with a meagre selection of butter, flour, oatmeal and a few candles.
Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods. The Co-operative Group formed over 140 years from the merger of many independent retail societies, their wholesale societies and federations. In 1863, twenty years after the Rochdale Pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England Co-operative Society was launched by 300 individual co-ops across Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it had become known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Through the 20th century, smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the South Suburban Co-operative Society. Consumer cooperatives utilize the cooperative principle of democratic member control, or one member/one vote. Most consumer cooperatives have a board of directors elected from the membership; the board is responsible for hiring management and ensuring that the cooperative meets its goals, both financial and otherwise.
Democratic functions, such as petitioning or recall of board members, may be codified in the bylaws or organizing document of the cooperative. Most consumer cooperatives hold regular membership meetings; as mutually owned businesses, each member of a society has a shareholding equal to the sum they paid in when they joined. Large consumers' co-ops are r