The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of significant consumer protection laws, enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration. Its main purpose was to ban foreign and interstate traffic in adulterated or mislabeled food and drug products, it directed the U. S. Bureau of Chemistry to inspect products and refer offenders to prosecutors, it required that active ingredients be placed on the label of a drug's packaging and that drugs could not fall below purity levels established by the United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair, with its graphic and revolting descriptions of unsanitary conditions and unscrupulous practices rampant in the meatpacking industry, was an inspirational piece that kept the public's attention on the important issue of unhygienic meat processing plants that led to food inspection legislation. Sinclair quipped, "I aimed at the public's heart and by accident I hit it in the stomach," as outraged readers demanded and got the pure food law.
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was a key piece of Progressive Era legislation, signed by President Theodore Roosevelt on the same day as the Federal Meat Inspection Act. Enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act was assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, renamed the U. S. Food and Drug Administration in 1930; the Meat Inspection Act was assigned to what is now known as the Food Safety and Inspection Service, which remains in the U. S. Department of Agriculture; the first federal law regulating foods and drugs, the 1906 Act's reach was limited to foods and drugs moving in interstate commerce. Although the law drew upon many precedents and legal experiments pioneered in individual states, the federal law defined "misbranding" and "adulteration" for the first time and prescribed penalties for each; the law recognized the U. S. Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary as standards authorities for drugs, but made no similar provision for federal food standards.
The law was principally a "truth in labeling" law designed to raise standards in the food and drug industries and protect the reputations and pocketbooks of honest businessmen. Under the law, drug labels, for example, had to list any of 10 ingredients that were deemed "addictive" and/or "dangerous" on the product label if they were present, could not list them if they were not present. Alcohol, morphine and cannabis were all included on the list of these "addictive" and/or "dangerous" drugs; the law established a federal cadre of food and drug inspectors that one Southern opponent of the legislation criticized as "a Trojan horse with a bellyful of inspectors and other employees." Penalties under the law were modest, but an under-appreciated provision of the Act proved more powerful than monetary penalties. Goods found in violation of various areas of the law were subject to seizure and destruction at the expense of the manufacturer. That, combined with a legal requirement that all convictions be published as Notices of Judgment, proved to be important tools in the enforcement of the statute and had a deterrent effect upon would-be violators.
Deficiencies in this original statute, which had become noticeable by the 1920s, led to the replacement of the 1906 statute with the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, enacted in 1938 and signed by President Franklin Roosevelt. This act, along with its numerous amendments, remains the statutory basis for federal regulation of all foods, biological products, medical devices and radiation-emitting devices by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, it took 27 years to adopt the 1906 statute, during which time the public was made aware of many problems with foods and drugs in the U. S. Muckraking journalists, such as Samuel Hopkins Adams, targeted the patent medicine industry with its high-alcoholic content patent medicines, soothing syrups for infants with opium derivatives, "red clauses" in newspaper contracts providing that patent medicine ads would be withdrawn if the paper expressed support for food and drug regulatory legislation; the Chief Chemist of the Bureau of Chemistry, Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley, captured the country's attention with his hygienic table studies, which began with a modest Congressional appropriation in 1902.
The goal of the table trial was to study the human effects of common preservatives used in foods during a period of rapid changes in the food supply brought about by the need to feed cities and support an industrializing nation dependent on immigrant labor. Wiley recruited young men to eat all their meals at a common table as he added increased "doses" of preservatives including borax, formaldehyde and salicylates; the table trials captured the nation's fancy and were soon dubbed "The Poison Squad" by newspapers covering the story. The men soon adopted the motto "Only the Brave dare eat the fare" and at times the publicity given to the trials became a burden. Though many results of the trial came to be in dispute, there was no doubt that formaldehyde was dangerous and it disappeared as a preservative. Wiley himself felt that he had found adverse effects from large doses of each of the preservatives and the public seemed to agree with Wiley. In many cases, most with ketchup and other condiments, the use of preservatives was used to disguise insanitary production practices.
Although the law itself did not proscribe the use of some of these preservatives, consumers turned away from many products with known preservatives. The 1906 statute regulated food and drugs moving in interstate commerce and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transpo
Wing Commander Lance Cleo "Wildcat" Wade DSO, DFC & Two Bars was an American pilot who joined the Royal Air Force during World War II and became a flying ace. He remained with RAF until his death in a flying accident in 1944 in Italy, he was described as a "distinguished American fighter ace who epitomized more than any other American airman the wartime accords between Britain and the United States." Wade was born in the small farming community of Broaddus, Texas in 1915. He was the second son of Bill and Susan Wade, who named him L. C.. After the family moved to a farm near Reklaw, Texas in 1922 he worked on the family farm and attended the local school, he was unable to join the US Army Aviation Cadet Program due to a lack of a college education. He began flying at age 17, at Arizona. In 1934 at age 19, Wade joined the Civilian Conservation Corps in Arizona, he trained with No. 52 Operational Training Unit. Wade was sent to the British aircraft carrier Ark Royal and flew off her deck in Hawker Hurricane to reinforce the depleted ranks of aircraft on the island of Malta.
He was sent to Egypt as a Hawker Hurricane Mk I pilot in September 1941, was posted to 33 Squadron. The squadron's mission was to provide close air support for Operation Crusader, the British assault launched on November 18, 1941, against the German Afrika Korps, his first kills were two Fiat CR.42s on 18 November. He attained the rank of "ace" on 24 November 1941. On 2 December, his Hurricane was damaged by debris from a bomber. Wade was forced to land 25 miles behind enemy lines, but evaded capture and returned to British lines on foot, he began flying Hurricane Mk IIs in April 1942, was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. He had 13 victories as of September 1942, he spent the next several months back in the US on various RAF projects including evaluating some American fighters at Wright Field. He sold war bonds, which he disliked. Upon his return to operational duty in the Middle East, Wade said that this duty was more exhausting than air combat, he returned to combat as a Flight Commander in 145 Squadron with a Bar to his DFC, flying Supermarine Spitfire Mk Vs. Promoted to squadron leader, he had a busy 60 days, as by the end of April his score was 21, by flying Spitfire Mk IXs.
His squadron moved to Italy, as a Spitfire VIII pilot he claimed two Focke-Wulf Fw 190s of Schlachtgeschwader 4 on 2 October 1943. His last claims were three Fw 190s damaged on 3 November. Wade was promoted to wing commander and joined the staff of the Desert Air Force but was there only as he was killed in a flying accident on 12 January 1944 at Foggia, Italy, he was credited with 23 victories, one probable, 13 damaged. He is credited with one destroyed and five damaged on the ground. Wing Commander Wade is listed with 25 victories but official RAF records show that he had 22 solo victories and half each of two more for a total of 23, not counting one probable. Regardless of whether his score is 25, or 23 victories, he is still the leading American fighter ace to serve in any foreign air force. Since he never transferred to the USAAF, or any other American Air service, Wade never got the publicity that other American aces received and thus is more obscure than his peers. Citation for the award of the Distinguished Flying Cross to Pilot Officer Lance Wade, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 33 Squadron.
Citation for the award of Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross to Acting Flight Lieutenant Lance Wade, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 33 Squadron. Since being awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross this officer has destroyed 7 enemy aircraft thus bring his total victories to 15. In September, 1942, during a reconnaissance patrol his aircraft was attacked by some 8 Italian fighters. Flight Lieutenant Wade, fought them off. By his skill and determination he contributed materially to the success of the reconnaissance and much valuable information was obtained. Flight Lieutenant Wade's courage and devotion to duty has been an inspiration to all. Citation for the award of a second Bar to the Distinguished Flying Cross to Acting Squadron Leader Lance Wade, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 145 Squadron. The leader of a squadron which has achieved much success in recent operations. During March, 1943, the squadron destroyed 21 enemy aircraft, 4 of which were shot down by Squadron Leader Wade.
By his great skill and daring, this officer has contributed materially to the high standard of operational efficiency of the squadron he commands. Squadron Leader Wade has destroyed 19 enemy aircraft. Citation for the award of the Distinguished Service Order to Wing Commander Lance Wade DFC, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 33 Squadron. Texas State Legislature bill honoring Lance Wade Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Felicity Green is a British fashion journalist and former newspaper executive. Green grew up in Essex in rooms above a bike shop. From an impoverished Jewish background, Green's father ran a local shoe shop while her mother, though deaf, was the more formidable parent, her father was cruel to her mother, although Green, their only child, attempted to control his behaviour. She did share a love of the cinema with him, they saw two double features together each Thursday. From the movies, Green acquired her interest in fashion. A short hand typist and secretary at Woman & Beauty in the 1940s, she was promoted to fashion editor within two years, she was promoted to fashion editor within two years. After this she left for Housewife, where she assumed the same post, joined W. S. Crawford, the advertising agency, for a time. In 1955, Hugh Cudlipp asked Green's opinion of Woman's Sunday Mirror, a publication for which he was responsible. Following a severe analysis, she was hired as Fleet Street's first female associate editor.
The title was short-lived. Green moved on to the Sunday Pictorial in 1959 filling the same post as before. Since 1955, her immediate boss had been Lee Howard, she became associate editor of the Daily Mirror in 1961 when Howard was appointed as the newspaper's editor. Green recalled her new colleagues response to her: "They were all being as helpfully'feminine' as they could, the last thing I wanted. My plan was to make the pages interesting to men, too."Her responsibilities included women's editor, to promote the interests of women in all areas of the newspaper's activities. Her writing for the paper included fashion, although Green wrote in 2011 that she is more interested in style, admitted to modelling herself on film star Audrey Hepburn. For including the miniskirts of Mary Quant in the Mirror, Green was threatened with the sack by Cecil King chairman of the International Publishing Corporation, of which the Mirror Group of Newspapers was a part. Cudlipp, by chairman of the Mirror Group, supported her.
According to Roy Greenslade, Cuidlipp told Green in December 1964: "I don't understand what you're doing but I trust you. So I've decided to give you the front and back pages of the Mirror to tell our readers what the Swinging 60s are all about."Sex and Nonsense, published in November 2014, is Green's anthology of her 1960s work for the Daily Mirror. Green feels she retained a distance as a journalist and avoided being absorbed into the fashion industry. "Fashion is not a bloody religion, as most fashion editors seem to think it is," she told Anna Murphy of The Daily Telegraph in 2014. "There is a difference between fashion and clothes. One is the real stuff, the clothes. There is fashion, some kind of mesmeric stuff out there that persuades the world to go in certain directions rather mysteriously. It's all big business, and I'd rather people spent money on clothes than arms."Later Green became executive women's editor across the three Mirror titles, in 1973, the group's publicity director. She joined the first woman to achieve such a position, at this point.
Green had some initial trouble, as the only woman, using the directors' lift. She felt. "You can't", she told Katharine Whitehorn for a 1978 article, "when you are five foot ome and a half." She survived at the Miirror so long "by being nice to people. Don't start arguments. People can either hinder you. Well, you are an idiot. So I'm tactful - if you are tactful people are always ready to help you." In 1978 she resigned after discovering that a new male journalist had been appointed to the board at £30,000, more than twice her own salary of £14,000. "Apparently, I was supposed to be honoured to be a director", she observed years later. Meanwhile, in December 1977, Green joined Vidal Sassoon as managing director of operations in Europe and Executive Vice-President of the American company, she advised the board of the Telegraph and worked for the M&S magazine, which included interviewing Margaret Thatcher about her fashion interests. In the early 1990s Green was a senior lecturer in fashion journalism at the Central St. Martins College of Art and Design.