Johnson & Johnson
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886. Its common stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and the company is ranked No. 37 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Johnson & Johnson is headquartered in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the consumer division being located in Skillman, New Jersey; the corporation includes some 250 subsidiary companies with operations in 60 countries and products sold in over 175 countries. Johnson & Johnson had worldwide sales of $70.1 billion during calendar year 2015. Johnson & Johnson's brands include numerous household names of first aid supplies. Among its well-known consumer products are the Band-Aid Brand line of bandages, Tylenol medications, Johnson's baby products, Neutrogena skin and beauty products, Clean & Clear facial wash and Acuvue contact lenses. Johnson & Johnson operates over 250 companies in what is termed "the Johnson & Johnson family of companies".
The company operates in three broad divisions. Inspired by a speech by antiseptic advocate Joseph Lister, Robert Wood Johnson joined his brothers James Wood Johnson and Edward Mead Johnson to create a line of ready-to-use surgical dressings in 1885; the company produced its first products in 1886 and incorporated in 1887. Those products featured a logo resembling the signature of James Wood Johnson similar to the logo used today, it is one of the longest-used company logos in the world. Robert Wood Johnson served as the first president of the company, he worked to improve sanitation practices in the nineteenth century, lent his name to the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Upon his death in 1910, he was succeeded in the presidency by his brother James Wood Johnson until 1932, by his son, Robert Wood Johnson II. Robert Wood Johnson's granddaughter, Mary Lea Johnson Richards, was the first baby to appear on a Johnson & Johnson baby powder label, his great-grandson, Jamie Johnson, made a documentary called Born Rich about the experience of growing up as the heir to one of the world's greatest fortunes.
McNeil Consumer Healthcare was founded on March 1879, by 23-year-old Robert McNeil. In 1904, one of McNeil's sons, Robert Lincoln McNeil, became part of the company, together they created McNeil Laboratories in 1933; the company focused on direct marketing of prescription drugs to hospitals and doctors. Development of acetaminophen began under the leadership of Robert L. McNeil, Jr. who served as the firm's chairman. In 1959, Johnson & Johnson acquired McNeil Laboratories and a year the company was able to sell Tylenol for the first time without a prescription. In 1977, two subsidiary companies were created: McNeil Medicals Products and McNeil Consumer Products Company; the focus of McNeil medicals. In 1993 McNeil medicals products merged with the Ortho Pharmaceutical to form Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical. In 2001 McNeil Consumer Healthcare changed its name to McNeil Consumer & Specialty medicals products. However, it was changed to "McNeil Consumer Healthcare"; the company markets over-the-counter and prescription medicals products including complete lines of Tylenol and Motrin IB products for adults and children.
In 2008 a Wellness & Prevention Platform was established with the double acquisition of Orlando-based LGE Performance Systems, Inc. and Ann Arbor-based HealthMedia, Inc. In 1933, Swiss chemist Bernhard Joos set up a small research laboratory in Schaffhausen, Switzerland; this set the basis for the founding of Chemische Industrie-Labor AG on 12 May 1936. In 1959, Cilag joined the Johnson family of companies. In the early nineties, the marketing organizations of Cilag and Janssen Pharmaceutica were joined to form Janssen-Cilag; the non-marketing activities of both companies still operate under their original name. Cilag continues to have operations under the Cilag name in Switzerland, ranging from research and development through manufacturing and international services. In May 2011 Cilag acquired the over-the-counter operations of J B Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited for around $260 million. In June 2012, the division announced the acquisition of CorImmun GmbH, its lead compound, COR-1, a small cyclic peptide in development for the treatment of heart failure.
In August 2014, Cilag acquired Covagen a biopharmaceutical company which specializes in the development of multi-specific protein-based therapeutics. As part of the acquisition Cilag will gain access to Covagen's lead drug candidate, COVA 322, a bi-specific anti-tumor necrosis factor -alpha/anti-interleukin -17A FynomAb, is in a Phase Ib study for psoriasis. Janssen Pharmaceuticals can be traced back to 1933. In 1933, Constant Janssen, the father of Paul Janssen, acquired the right to distribute the pharmaceutical products of Richter, a Hungarian pharmaceutical company, for Belgium, the Netherlands and Belgian Congo. On 23 October 1934, he founded the N. V. Produkten Richter in Turnhout. After the Second World War, the name for the company products was changed to Eupharma, although the company name Richter would remain until 1956. Paul Janssen founded his own research laboratory in 1953 on the third floor of the building in the Statiestraat, still within the Richter-Eurpharma company of his father.
On 5 April 1956, the name of the company was changed to NV Laboratoria Pharmaceutica C. Janssen. On 2 May 1958, the research department in Beerse became a separate legal entity, the N. V. Research Laboratori
Pfizer Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut. It is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, it is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, its shares have been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 2004. Pfizer ranked No. 57 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. On December 19, 2018, Pfizer announced a joint merger of their consumer healthcare division with UK pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline; the company develops and produces medicines and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines, including immunology, cardiology and neurology. Its products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor, used to lower LDL blood cholesterol. In 2016, Pfizer Inc. was expected to merge with Allergan, Plc to create the Ireland-based "Pfizer plc" in a deal that would have been worth $160 billion. The merger was called off in April 2016, because of new rules from the United States Treasury against tax inversions, a method of avoiding taxes by merging with a foreign company.
The company has made the second-largest pharmaceutical settlement with the United States Department of Justice. Pfizer was founded in 1849 by German-American Charles Pfizer and his cousin Charles F. Erhart from Ludwigsburg, Germany, they launched the chemicals business Charles Pfizer and Company from a building at the intersection of Harrison Avenue and Bartlett Street in Williamsburg, where they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acid that kick-started Pfizer's growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the block bounded by Bartlett Street, Harrison Avenue, Gerry Street, Flushing Avenue. Pfizer's original administrative headquarters was at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan. By 1906, sales totaled $3.4 million. World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate which Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, the company began a search for an alternative supply.
Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid, they were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919, the company developed expertise in fermentation technology as a result. These skills were applied to the mass production of the antibiotic penicillin during World War II in response to the need to treat injured Allied soldiers. Penicillin became inexpensive in the 1940s, Pfizer searched for new antibiotics with greater profit potential, they discovered Terramycin in 1950, this changed the company from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a research-based pharmaceutical company. Pfizer developed a drug discovery program focusing on in vitro synthesis in order to augment its research in fermentation technology; the company established an animal health division in 1959 with an 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana. By the 1950s, Pfizer had established offices in Belgium, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom. In 1960, the company moved its medical research laboratory operations out of New York City to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut.
In 1980, they launched Feldene, a prescription anti-inflammatory medication that became Pfizer's first product to reach one billion dollars in total sales. During the 1980s and 1990s, Pfizer Corporation growth was sustained by the discovery and marketing of Zoloft, Norvasc, Aricept and Viagra. In this decade, Pfizer grew by mergers, including those with Warner–Lambert and Wyeth. In 2003, the company acquired Esperion Therapeutics for $1.3 billion, protecting Lipitor from ETC-216. In 2004, Pfizer announced. In 2005, the company made a number of acquisitions: Vicuron Pharmaceuticals for $1.9 billion, Idun for just less than $300 million and Angiosyn for $527 million. On June 26, 2006, Pfizer announced it would sell its Consumer Healthcare unit to Johnson & Johnson for $16.6 billion. Development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease, was cancelled in December 2006. During a Phase III clinical trial involving 15,000 patients, more deaths occurred in the group that took the medicine than expected, a sixty percent increase in mortality was seen among patients taking the combination of torcetrapib and Lipitor versus Lipitor alone.
Lipitor alone was not implicated in the results, but Pfizer lost nearly $1 billion developing the failed drug and the market value of the company plummeted afterwards. The company announced it would acquire Powermed and Rivax. In September 2009, Pfizer pleaded guilty to the illegal marketing of the arthritis drug Bextra for uses unapproved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, agreed to a $2.3 billion settlement, the largest health care fraud settlement at that time. A July 2010 article in BusinessWeek reported that Pfizer was seeing more success in its battle against makers of counterfeit prescription drugs by pursuing c
Propylene glycol is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2. It is a viscous, colorless liquid, nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Chemically it is classed as a diol and is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water and chloroform, it is produced on a large scale and is used in the production of polymers, but sees use in food processing, as a process fluid in low-temperature heat-exchange applications. In the European Union, it has the E-number E1520 for food applications. For cosmetics and pharmacology, the number is E490. Propylene glycol is present in propylene glycol alginate which known as E405; the compound is sometimes called α-propylene glycol to distinguish it from the isomer propane-1,3-diol, known as β-propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is a clear and hygroscopic liquid. Propylene glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two enantiomers; the commercial product is a racemic mixture. Pure optical isomers can be obtained by hydration of optically pure propylene oxide.
The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylene glycol, owing to the effects of dissolution of a solute in a solvent. In general, glycols are non-corrosive, have low volatility and low toxicity. Industrially, propylene glycol is produced from propylene oxide, global capacity in 1990 was 900,000 tonnes per year. Different manufacturers use either non-catalytic high-temperature process at 200 °C to 220 °C, or a catalytic method, which proceeds at 150 °C to 180 °C in the presence of ion exchange resin or a small amount of sulfuric acid or alkali. Final products contain 20% propylene glycol, 1.5% of dipropylene glycol and small amounts of other polypropylene glycols. Further purification produces finished industrial grade or USP/JP/EP/BP grade propylene glycol, 99.5% or greater. Propylene glycol can be converted from glycerol, a biodiesel byproduct; this starting material is reserved for industrial use because of the noticeable odor and taste that accompanies the final product.
S-Propanediol may be synthesized from D-mannitol, through the following scheme: Forty-five percent of propylene glycol produced is used as chemical feedstock for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. In this regard, propylene glycol reacts with a mixture of unsaturated maleic anhydride and isophthalic acid to give a copolymer; this unsaturated polymer undergoes further crosslinking to yield thermoset plastics. Related to this application, propylene glycol reacts with propylene oxide to give oligomers and polymers that are used to produce polyurethanes. Propylene glycol is used in waterbased acrylic architectural paints to extend dry time which it accomplishes by preventing the surface from drying due to its slower evaporation rate compared to water. Propylene glycol is used as a humectant and preservative in food and for tobacco products, it is one of the major ingredients, along with Vegetable Glycerin, of the e-liquid and cartridges used in electronic cigarettes where it is aerosolized in the atomizer.
It is used in model railway and model boat applications to simulate steam or smoke, using a small heating element. Over time, there has been a reported increase in the use of PG in personal care products in the United States. In a 1994 safety assessment, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review noted use of PG in 5676 products listed in the Voluntary Cosmetic Registry. Propylene glycol is used in various edible items such as coffee-based drinks, liquid sweeteners, ice cream, whipped dairy products and soda. Vaporizers used for delivery of pharmaceuticals or personal-care products include propylene glycol among the ingredients. In alcohol-based hand sanitizers, it is used as a humectant to prevent the skin from drying. Propylene glycol is used as a solvent in many pharmaceuticals, including oral and topical formulations, such as for diazepam and lorazepam which are insoluble in water. Certain formulations of artificial tears, such as Systane, use proplyene glycol as an ingredient. Like ethylene glycol, propylene glycol is able to lower the freezing point of water, so it is used as aircraft de-icing fluid.
Water-propylene glycol mixtures dyed pink to indicate the mixture is nontoxic are sold under the name of RV or marine antifreeze. Propylene glycol is used as a substitute for ethylene glycol in low toxicity, environmentally friendly automotive antifreeze, it is used to winterize the plumbing systems in vacant structures. The eutectic composition/temperature is 60:40 propylene glycol:water/-60 °C; the −50 °F/−45 °C commercial product is, water rich. Propylene glycol is used in veterinary medicine as an oral treatment for hyperketonaemia in ruminants. Glucose, which can be used in non-ruminants for this purpose, is not effective due to its consumption by the resident microbes of the rumen. Propylene glycol is metabolized in the rumen to propionate which can be used as an energy source; the remainder is used by the liver for gluconeogenesis. A study by Corrie Moreau and colleagues showed that propylene glycol was similar to 95% ethanol as a preservative for ant DNA, important because Propylene glycol is much less flammable, does not evaporate (so is
GOJO Industries, Inc. is a held manufacturer of hand hygiene and skin care products founded in 1946 in Akron, where it is again headquartered after a period in Cuyahoga Falls. A well known product is Purell instant hand sanitizer; the company was GOJO introduced Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer in 1988, its Provon brand name in 1989. It offers an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system for medical institutions. GOJO was founded in Ohio, by Goldie and Jerry Lippman. During World War II, Goldie worked at the Miller Tire Co. rubber factory and Jerry at the Goodyear Aircraft plant. Like other employees there, both came home with sticky, difficult-to-remove graphite and carbon on their hands and clothes, they disliked the products the cleaners used to clean their clothes, so they set out to find an effective cleaning product that could be used without water. Goldie and Jerry worked with Professor Clarence Cook of Kent State University’s chemistry department to formulate a heavy-duty hand cleaner, they called it GOJO Hand Cleaner and sold it to rubber workers, who had sometimes used benzene and other noxious chemicals to clean their skin.
After the war they began marketing to automotive service facilities. They quit their factory jobs and started GOJO; the company's first name and product was GoGo, Goldie's nickname, but another company had used the name, so the founders came up with GOJO, with the "G" standing for Goldie and the "J" standing Jerry. In 1950, GOJO invented a liquid soap dispenser after realizing that users were using much more than was needed to clean their hands, causing buyers to think the product was too expensive. Jerry Lipmann filed a patent for this portion-limiting dispenser in 1952. In 2004, GOJO sold Pfizer the exclusive rights to distribute Purell in the consumer market, while GOJO Industries retained the rights to existing industrial markets. In 2006, Pfizer sold its Consumer Healthcare division, hence the rights to Purell, to Johnson & Johnson. In 2010, GOJO bought the brand back from Johnson. In February 2014, GOJO Industries acquired held Laboratoires Prodene Klint of Croissy-Beaubourg, France; the acquisition allows both companies greater geographic footprint and increased manufacturing operations.
Prodene Klint manufactures professional hygiene and disinfectant products. On June 6, 2015, GOJO launched its GOJO SMARTLINK Observation System, a mobile application that connects to GOJO SMARTLINK web-based software and allows for the electronic collection and collation of hand hygiene and personal protective equipment compliance metrics. GOJO operates worldwide, with offices in the United Kingdom, Australia and Brazil, it has factories in Ohio and across North America, as well as in Latin America, South America and Asia. GOJO's main manufacturing and distribution facilities are at its Lippman Campus in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. GOJO is a family-owned company. In 1946, GOJO was founded by Goldie Lippman. Today, Joseph Kanfer runs the company of his aunt, along with other family members. Kanfer's eldest daughter, Marcella Kanfer Rolnick, is vice chairwoman of GOJO's board. Marcella Kanfer Rolnick runs The Lippman Kanfer Family Foundation focused on Jewish philanthropy and its sister organization Lippman Kanfer Foundation for Living Torah, along with other family members.
GOJO markets skin health and hygiene solutions for away-from-home settings. Its products include hand soaps and sanitizers, shower washes, foam hand washes, surgical scrubs, perineal care products, skin conditioners, chemical removing hand cleaners, hand protection products, dispensers. GOJO's products are found in public facilities. For many of these facilities, such as manufacturing and hospitals, GOJO makes placement guides, helping consumers place various GOJO product brands in strategic locations. GOJO's most popular products are its industrial hand soaps and sanitizers, as well as its Provon and Purell brands. GOJO's main office is a 213,000 sq ft building at One Gojo Plaza on South Main Street in Akron, Ohio; the company bought the property from the City of Akron for $1 in 2000 as part of a deal to bring its headquarters to downtown Akron from Cuyahoga Falls. The headquarters of Goodrich Corporation and Michelin Americas Small Tires, the building now holds about 600 GOJO employees. GOJO Industries website
Glycerol is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, viscous liquid, sweet-tasting and non-toxic; the glycerol backbone is found in many lipids which are known as glycerides. It is used in the food industry as a sweetener and humectant in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Although achiral, glycerol is prochiral with respect to reactions of one of the two primary alcohols. Thus, in substituted derivatives, the stereospecific numbering labels each carbon as either sn-1, sn-2, or sn-3. Glycerol is obtained from plant and animal sources where it occurs in triglycerides, esters of glycerol with long-chain carboxylic acids; the hydrolysis, saponification, or transesterification of these triglycerides produces glycerol as well as the fatty acid derivative: Triglycerides can be saponified with sodium hydroxide to give glycerol and fatty sodium salt or soap. Typical plant sources include soybeans or palm.
Animal-derived tallow is another source. 950,000 tons per year are produced in the United States and Europe. The EU directive 2003/30/EC set a requirement that 5.75% of petroleum fuels are to be replaced with biofuel sources across all member states by 2010. It was projected in 2006 that by the year 2020, production would be six times more than demand, creating an excess of glycerol. Glycerol from triglycerides is produced on a large scale, but the crude product is of variable quality, with a low selling price of as low as 2-5 U. S. cents per kilogram in 2011. It can be purified, but the process is expensive; some glycerol is burned for energy, but its heat value is low. Crude glycerol from the hydrolysis of triglycerides can be purified by treatment with activated carbon to remove organic impurities, alkali to remove unreacted glycerol esters, ion exchange to remove salts. High purity glycerol is obtained by multi-step distillation. Although not cost-effective, glycerol can be produced by various routes from propylene.
The epichlorohydrin process is the most important. This epichlorohydrin is hydrolyzed to give glycerol. Chlorine-free processes from propylene include the synthesis of glycerol from acrolein and propylene oxide; because of the large-scale production of biodiesel from fats, where glycerol is a waste product, the market for glycerol is depressed. Thus, synthetic processes are not economical. Owing to oversupply, efforts are being made to convert glycerol to synthetic precursors, such as acrolein and epichlorohydrin. (See the Chemical intermediate section of this article. In food and beverages, glycerol serves as a humectant and sweetener, may help preserve foods, it is used as filler in commercially prepared low-fat foods, as a thickening agent in liqueurs. Glycerol and water are used to preserve certain types of plant leaves; as a sugar substitute, it has 27 kilocalories per teaspoon and is 60% as sweet as sucrose. It does not feed the bacteria that form plaques and cause dental cavities; as a food additive, glycerol is labeled as E number E422.
It is added to icing to prevent it from setting too hard. As used in foods, glycerol is categorized by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as a carbohydrate; the U. S. Food and Drug Administration carbohydrate designation includes all caloric macronutrients excluding protein and fat. Glycerol has a caloric density similar to table sugar, but a lower glycemic index and different metabolic pathway within the body, so some dietary advocates accept glycerol as a sweetener compatible with low-carbohydrate diets, it is recommended as an additive when using polyol sweeteners such as erythritol and xylitol which have a cooling effect, due to its heating effect in the mouth, if the cooling effect is not wanted. Glycerol is used in medical and personal care preparations as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication, as a humectant. Ichthyosis and xerosis have been relieved by the topical use glycerin, it is found in allergen immunotherapies, cough syrups and expectorants, mouthwashes, skin care products, shaving cream, hair care products and water-based personal lubricants.
In solid dosage forms like tablets, glycerol is used as a tablet holding agent. For human consumption, glycerol is classified by the U. S. FDA among the sugar alcohols as a caloric macronutrient. Glycerol is used in blood banking to preserve red blood cells prior to freezing. Glycerol is a component of glycerin soap. Essential oils are added for fragrance; this kind of soap is used by people with sensitive irritated skin because it prevents skin dryness with its moisturizing properties. It draws moisture up through skin layers and slows or prevents excessive drying and evaporation. Taken rectally, glycerol functions as a laxative by irritating the anal mucosa and inducing a hyperosmotic effect, it may be administered undiluted either as a suppository or as a small-volume enema. Alternatively, it may be administered in a dilute solution, e.g. 5%, as a high volume enema. Taken orally, glycerol can cause a rapid, temporary decrease in the internal pressure of the eye; this can be useful for the initial emergency treatment of elevated eye pressure.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl