Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is an 842-square-mile federally protected marine sanctuary located at the mouth of Massachusetts Bay, between Cape Cod and Cape Ann. It is known as an excellent whale watching site, is home to many other species of marine life; the sanctuary lies within Massachusetts Bay, 25 miles east of Boston, 5 miles east of Gloucester, 5 miles north of Provincetown, Massachusetts. The heart of the sanctuary is Stellwagen Bank, an underwater plateau stretching 19 miles north to south, six miles across at its widest, near the southern end; the bank is, on average, 100 to 120 feet below the surface, while surrounding waters to the west are over 300 feet deep and to the northeast as deep as 600 feet. The steep sides of the plateau cause deep-water currents to rise up. Over 130 species from numerous classes of the animal kingdom call the bank home at least temporarily; some such fish are the Atlantic cod, silver hake, yellow-tail flounder, blue-fin and yellow-fin tuna, striped bass, blue fish and numerous species of shark including the great white shark.
Shellfish such as the American lobster, sea scallops and ocean quahogs are prevalent. Many marine birds call the bank home including gannets, storm petrels, fulmars and razorbills. Reptiles are present being represented by the leatherback sea turtle; the most famous animals on Stellwagen Bank are the mammals. Five species of seals, numerous whale species swim in the waters of Stellwagen. Whale watchers can see humpback whales, minke whales and fin whales. There are occasional sightings of one of the most critically endangered whale species, North Atlantic right whale. Several other whale species can be seen here including the sperm whale, orca, pilot whale, White-beaked dolphin, Atlantic white-sided dolphin, common dolphin, bottlenose dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, harbor porpoise, blue whale, sei whale. Stellwagen Bank owes much of its existence to the last major ice age. 25,000 years ago, the Laurentide ice sheet advanced over the eastern United States, pushing in front of it large amounts of earth and rocks.
The southern margin of the glaciers formed local geographical features including Cape Cod and Stellwagen Bank. The bank was above water, but subsided over time as the post-glacial rebound subsided. In the 17th century it was observed. Large cod and tuna were caught in the area, whaling ships caught many whales in the area. In 1854, the US Navy map the area, it was known that there was a bank in the area. Sounding could show ships how close they were to the dangerous waters of Boston Harbor, so better maps were needed. Prior to Stellwagen's survey, it was believed there were two small banks in the area: one just to the north of Cape Cod, one in the middle of the entrance to Massachusetts Bay. Stellwagen showed; as a result, the Navy named the bank after him in 1855. On October 7, 1992, Congress designated the area a National Marine Sanctuary. In 1999, the DeepWorker 2000 submersible was used to quantify the species of fish as well as the space resources within the Sanctuary. Remotely operated underwater vehicles were used from 1993 to 2003 to make additional observations of the fish within the Sanctuary and adjacent locations.
The Sanctuary's headquarters is located in Massachusetts. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary homepage
Appalachian Trail by state
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail spans fourteen U. S. states during its 2,200 miles -long journey: Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine. It begins at Springer Mountain and follows the ridgeline of the Appalachian Mountains, crossing many of its highest peaks and running with only a few exceptions continuously through wilderness before ending at Mount Katahdin, Maine; the trail is protected along more than 99% of its course by federal or state land ownership or right-of-way. Annually, more than 4,000 volunteers contribute over 175,000 hours to maintain the trail, an effort coordinated by the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, assisted by some thirty trail clubs and multiple partnerships. Counties crossed: Fannin County → Union County → Lumpkin County → White County → Towns County → Habersham County → Rabun County Georgia has 76.4 miles of the trail, including the southern terminus at Springer Mountain. An 8.8-mile approach trail begins at the Amicalola Falls State Park visitor center.
The approach trail is littered with items cast aside by overburdened hikers unprepared for the difficulties of the initial hike. At 4,458 feet, Blood Mountain is the highest point on the trail in Georgia; the AT and approach trail are maintained by the Georgia Appalachian Trail Club. See: Georgia Peaks on the Appalachian Trail Counties crossed: Clay County → Macon County → Swain County → Graham County → Swain County → Haywood County → Madison County → Yancey County → Mitchell County → Avery County North Carolina has 95.5 miles of the trail, not including more than 200 miles along the Tennessee border. Altitude ranges from 1,725 to 5,498 feet; the trail crosses Bly Gap one-tenth of a mile north of the Georgia state line. The trail further north includes peaks such as Standing Indian Mountain, Mount Albert, Wayah Bald, followed by a Nantahala Gorge crossing by Wesser Falls and at Nantahala Outdoor Center, and, at the section's north end, is the Fontana Dam Shelter, affectionately known as the Fontana Hilton, known for its view of fjordlike Fontana Lake, comparatively spacious accommodations, water spigots, flush toilets, nearby free hot showers, a three dollar shuttle into Fontana Dam, North Carolina.
Counties crossed: Blount County → Sevier County → Cocke County → Greene County → Unicoi County → Carter County → Johnson County → Sullivan County Tennessee has 287.9 miles of the trail, including more than 200 miles along or near the North Carolina border. The section that runs just below the summit of Clingmans Dome in Great Smoky Mountains National Park is the highest point on the trail at 6,625 feet; the trail enters Tennessee from North Carolina atop Doe Knob and exits Tennessee into Virginia atop Holston Mountain. The first 64 miles of the A. T. in Tennessee follow the crest of the Smokies, are shared with North Carolina. In the western Smokies, the trail traverses a young forest that replaced what was once a large highland pasture, most noticeable in areas such as Spence Field, Thunderhead Mountain, Silers Bald; the trail reaches 6,000 feet for the first time on the western slope of Mount Buckley, where it first enters the sub-alpine spruce-fir forest, comes within a few meters of the summit of Clingmans.
The trail crosses U. S. Route 441 at Newfound Gap and traverses a series of rocky cliffs known as "The Sawteeth" en route to the high ridges of the Eastern Smokies. Here, the trail crosses Mount Chapman and Mount Guyot, passes one of its most remote shelters at Tricorner Knob before descending. Just beyond Mount Cammerer, the A. T. exits the Smokies. After traversing Snowbird Mountain, Max Patch Bald, Lemon Gap, the trail exits Tennessee atop Bluff Mountain and re-enters again atop Rich Mountain, some 10 miles to the northeast. After traversing the Bald Mountains, the Appalachian Trail crosses the Nolichucky River and enters the Unakas ascending to the Roan Highlands near the town of Roan Mountain in Carter County. Atop Roan High Knob, the A. T. again eclipses 6,000 feet, passes the highest shelter along the entire trail. After crossing Grassy Ridge, the longest stretch of grassy bald in the Appalachians, the trail descends to the Laurel Fork Valley, where it turns west away from the state boundary.
Just beyond White Rocks Mountain, the trail passes through Hampton, before turning north again. At Watauga Lake at the TVA Watauga Dam, the trail turns northeast, crossing Iron Mountain before turning to the northwest at the Carter County-Johnson County line. After passing over Cross Mountain, the trail again turns northeast and ascends Holston Mountain en route to Virginia. Counties crossed: Washington County → Smyth County → Grayson County → Wythe County → Bland County → Tazewell County → Giles County Briefly joins the West Virginia border here → Craig County → Montgomery County → Roanoke County → Botetourt County → Bedford County → Rockbridge County → Amherst County → Nelson County → Augusta County → Albemarle County → Rockingham County → Greene County → Page County → Rappahannock County→ Warren County → Fauquier County → Clarke County → Loudoun County Virginia has the most mileage of the trail of any state with 550.3 miles (885
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site
The John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic Site is the birthplace and childhood home of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States; the house is at 83 Beals Street in the Coolidge Corner neighborhood of Massachusetts. The property is now owned by the National Park Service; the Kennedy home was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, was established as a National Historic Site on May 26, 1967. The house was purchased by Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr. on 20 August 1914 in preparation for his marriage to Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald on 7 October 1914. John and his sisters Rosemary and Kathleen were born in the upstairs master bedroom; the family lived there until 1920, when the growth of the family motivated the Kennedys to move to a larger home just a few blocks away on the corner of Abbottsford and Naples Roads. The Kennedys sold the Beals Street house to his family; the Kennedys lived in the Abbottsford Road home until 1927, when Joe Kennedy's business interests prompted the family's move to Riverdale, New York.
The Kennedy family was the third owner of the house on Beals Street. It was built in a period of rapid growth in Brookline; the Kennedys moved into the home the last on the street, after returning from their honeymoon in 1914. A few months after they were married, Joe Kennedy purchased a new Model T Ford that he used to commute to downtown, where he worked as the president of the Columbia Trust Bank; the "T" line to Coolidge Corner existed. Rose Kennedy would walk from the Beals Street house down to the shopping district in Coolidge Corner, where there was a S. S. Pierce store -- which replaced the Brothers General Store -- among the other shops. Brookline was a growing suburb of Boston, it appealed to the growing Kennedy family because the suburbs would have more space for the children to play than if they were raised in the crowded inner city of Boston. In 1966, the Kennedy family repurchased the home. From 1966 to 1969, Rose Kennedy restored it to her recollection of its 1917 appearance, she wanted to restore the home to the hour of John's birth, but the home paints a picture of a typical American home 1914–1920.
About 19% of the artifacts in the home are original to the Kennedy family, either used in the Beals Street residence or in homes and returned to Beals Street during the restoration. Rose Kennedy worked with an interior designer named Robert Luddington as she restored the home, he was in charge of procuring the rest of the items in the home, which are either period antiques or reproductions. Rose Kennedy donated the home to the National Park Service in 1967 as a memorial to her son, it is open to the public and visitors can take a ranger-guided tour or self-guided tours through the home. The house: Visitors can tour each of these rooms by both the ranger led and the self-guided tours; the basement is the visitors' entrance and National Park visitor center. There is a small Eastern National retail shop. Visitors can watch a film. Living room Visitors to the Kennedy home would have been shown into the living room, or parlor as it would have been called when the family lived there. Here, visitors can see both a space for formal entertaining within the home, but a space where the family would relax in the evenings when the children were getting ready for bed and when Joe Kennedy returned from his office in Boston.
The piano dominating the parlor belonged to Rose Kennedy and is one of the original pieces in the home. It was a wedding gift from two of her uncles. Dining room The dining room has the home's most complete collection of Kennedy artifacts; the china was Rose's wedding china. The table would not have been set with a formal place setting for day to day meals. Rose Kennedy sets the table this way because as she is turning the house into a museum, she is expecting company. Meals were a time for the family to have lively discussions about topics that ranged from history, to politics, current events and religion. Rose was fond of saying "history is shaped by those who get their ideas across" and mealtime discussions were a staple in the Kennedy home. Meals were a formal affair, with the family assembling in the dining room and the food brought from the kitchen by a uniformed maid. Master bedroom The master bedroom is where Jack and Kathleen Kennedy were born. Jack Kennedy was born at 3:00pm on May 29, 1917.
Rose Kennedy had seven of her nine children at home, the same doctor, Dr. Good, delivered all of them, as well as the final two who were born in a hospital; the bedroom has several photographs, including the 6 month old baby pictures of Joe Jr. Jack and Kathleen. Nursery The nursery has a bassinet that will hold each of the nine Kennedy children, as well as a christening cap, a number of books and toys Joe Jr. and Jack would have played with. Visitors can see Jack's two favorite books: "King Arthur and his Knights" and "Billy Whiskers and His Kids." Guest bedroom The guest bedroom showcases linens bearing Rose's initials - REF - and Rosemary Kennedy's toiletry set. The guest room was converted to a girl's bedroom as soon as Kathleen were born. Boudoir The boudoir was Rose's private space as well as her office space, she would use the desk to do her correspondence. The desk showcases a card file. Rose kept an index card for each of her children where she would list important milestones in their medical history - things like vaccinations, major illnesses and hospital stays, as well as birthdays and confirmation dates.
Jack Kennedy's card is on the desk. Ki
The Taunton River, is a river in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States. It arises in the town of Bridgewater. From there it meanders through the towns of Halifax and Raynham, through the city of Taunton for which it is named, the towns of Berkley, Dighton and the Assonet section of Freetown, to Fall River where it joins Mount Hope Bay, an arm of Narragansett Bay; the total length of the river is 37.0 miles from the junction of the Town and Matfield Rivers in Bridgewater to the mouth of the Quequechan River in Fall River. It has a watershed of 562 square miles; the river's watershed includes the largest freshwater wetland in the state. The Taunton River is one of the flattest rivers in New England, dropping only about twenty feet in elevation over its length; the river is tidal as far north as Taunton. The river is home including some animals found nowhere else in the state. Over 154 bird species have been documented along the Taunton River during breeding season; the watershed supports 28 species of reptiles and amphibians, 29 species of fish, including native brook trout and Atlantic sturgeon, which can be found in the lower part of the watershed.
The Mystic Valley Amphipod, native only to eastern New England, has been found in various wetlands throughout the watershed. All along the river, otters can be found on the shoreline, harbor seals have been sighted in the watershed in some of the smaller tributaries; the watershed is home to 7 species of freshwater mussels, the largest herring run in New England. In 2005, a young harp seal was found in the Nemasket River. In early summer 2014, a young male Beluga whale was sighted in the Taunton River, in late August 2014, a basking shark was spotted in the Taunton. Over 360 plant species were sampled from the floodplain wetlands and the immediate river corridors, various vegetative communities can be found along the river; these include Atlantic White Cedar Swamps, Forested Bogs, Coastal Plain Pondshores, among many others. Since the development of industry beginning with the iron works of the mid-17th century, the Taunton River has played an important role in the economy of the Greater Taunton Area.
The shipbuilding industry was active in the Taunton area during the 19th century. The Taunton River is the longest coastal river in New England without dams and supports 45 species of fish and many species of shellfish; the Taunton River is the principal river. The watershed is the habitat including 12 rare types, it is home to otter, grey fox and deer. Battleship Cove, the world's largest museum of warships, is located on the Fall River side of the river at its confluence with Mount Hope Bay, beneath the Braga Bridge. After over five years of study for possible inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic River System, such designation was obtained in April 2009. List of crossings of the Taunton River Winnetuxet River, at Halifax Nemasket River, at Middleborough Mill River, at Taunton Three Mile River at Dighton Assonet River at Freetown Fall River, Massachusetts List of Massachusetts rivers Taunton, Massachusetts Three Mile River Weetamoo U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Taunton River Taunton River Stewardship Program: The Wildlands Trust of Southeastern Massachusetts Taunton River Watershed Alliance University of Rhode Island: Taunton River Watershed critical resource atlas.
Sutton is a town in Worcester County, United States. The population was 8,963 at the 2010 census. A Nipmuc, John Wampas, visited England in the 1600s and deeded land in the Sutton area to Edward Pratt. Pratt sold interests in this land to others, competing claims among them and the Nipmucs led to a General Court case in Massachusetts in 1704, which granted Pratt and his fellow proprietors an eight-mile-square section of land, now Sutton. Three families were the first to settle on the land, that of Benjamin Marsh, Elisha Johnson and Nathaniel Johnson. Brothers Samuel and Daniel Carriel occupied the Marsh family cabin; the "big snow" of 1717 buried their cabins. A friendly Indian found the cabin of the Johnson family only by seeing smoke from the chimney coming out of the snow; the Indian rescued the family, as Mrs. Johnson recalled, "No voice sounded so sweet as that of that Indian down the chimney." Marsh served as a selectman, town moderator and in various other positions of responsibility as the town became established.
Benjamin Marsh founded the town's Baptist church, the fourth oldest Baptist church in Massachusetts. He served as elder of the church, was pastor from 1737 until his death in 1775, they settled on property in the area called Manchaug, near Marble Village. It is home of one of the oldest schoolhouses in America dating back to the 18th century, according to the Worcester Telegram & Gazette. By 1735, Hassananmisco and a small portion of the northeastern territory of the township of Sutton had incorporated as the town of Grafton. Millbury was set apart from Sutton in 1813. In early days, Millbury was called North Parish. Another area name is "Pleasant Valley," now known due to a golf course of the same name in Sutton. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Sutton was a town that enjoyed both agricultural and industrial benefits; the farms and orchards in the area did well, as did the three large mills that were built in the Manchaug area. The town is part of the historic Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor and has several of its sites.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.9 square miles, of which 32.4 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles, or 4.57%, is water. The town contains five villages, known as Sutton Center, Wilkinsonville, West Sutton, South Sutton. Located in the Blackstone Valley, Sutton shares its borders with the towns of Millbury, Northbridge, Douglas and Oxford. Purgatory Chasm State Reservation is located in the eastern part of town; as of the 2010 U. S. Census there were 8,963 people residing in Sutton; as of the census of 2000, there were 8,250 people, 2,811 households, 2,282 families residing in the town. The population density was 254.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,950 housing units at an average density of 91.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.18% White, 0.68% African American, 0.01% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.70% of the population. There were 2,811 households out of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.3% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.8% were non-families.
15.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.27. In the town, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $75,141, the median income for a family was $81,000. Males had a median income of $53,482 versus $37,463 for females; the per capita income for the town was $27,490. About 3.4% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. Vaillancourt Folk Art, chalkware collectible studios Sutton has an open town meeting type government; the town government in Sutton consists of the Board of Selectmen.
The current Town Manager is James A. Smith, the current members of the Board of Selectmen are John Hebert, David Hall, Jesse Limanek, Wendy Mead; the Sutton Free Library was established in 1876. In fiscal year 2008, the town of Sutton spent 0.7% of its budget on its public library—some $18 per person. The public services in Sutton include the police and highway departments; the Police Department is located at 4 Uxbridge Road. A new Police station is under construction on Putnam Hill Road; the Fire Department has three stations, one in the center of town, one in the Wilkinsonville village, one in the Manchaug village. The Sutton Highway Department is located at 25 Pleasant Valley Road. Public schools in Sutton fall under the jurisdiction of Sutton Public School District. Sutton public schools consist of the Simonian Center for Early Learning, Sutton Elementary School, Sutton Middle School, Sutton Memorial High School. Edward Putnam, early pioneer of Sutton Rufus Putnam, Revolutionary War general Solomon Sibley, first mayor of Detroit, was born in Sutton Amos Singletary, Anti-Federalist Representative in the Massachusetts General Court Homer Sprague, Civil War Colonel and academic who served as president of the University of North Dakota and Mil
Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge
Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge, is a 2,230-acre protected National Wildlife Refuge located 25 miles west of Boston, 4 miles west of the Eastern Massachusetts National Wildlife Refuge Complex Headquarters, along the Assabet River. It is located in portions of the Towns of Hudson, Maynard and Sudbury; the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge consists of two separate pieces of land. The larger northern section is just north of Hudson Road, extending north to the Assabet River; the southern section is located to the south of Hudson Road. There is a visitor center located on Winterberry Way; the refuge contains a diverse mixture of pine and hardwood forest, old fields, wetland habitats, including vernal pools. The Refuge is an "important feeding and breeding areas for migratory birds and other wildlife." The rare Blanding's Turtle species is found in the Refuge where it is monitored as scientists are working to help increase the population in the region. The Refuge "is 70% forested and there are 476 acres designated as wetlands" with a "habitat for a large number of bird species as well as migratory birds and waterfowl" and "otters, turkeys, beavers and deer."
On March 26, 2005, the refuge opened for wildlife dependent recreation. A map of existing trails is available at the refuge website; as of September 24, 2014, there are 15 miles of trails open to the public for wildlife observation, half of which are open to biking. The Assabet River Rail Trail has a section with a north end at the South Acton and a south end at the north entrance to ARNWR; the refuge is open for hunting and fishing, with hunting seasons set for deer, grouse, woodcock and squirrels. Dogs are not allowed, as well as other pets, fires, overnight camping, ATVs, snowmobiles; the Friends of the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge is a non-profit organization formed in 2000, nearly a full year prior to the transfer of the annex to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Since that time, the Friends Group has provided the refuge invaluable assistance in preparing to open the refuge for wildlife-dependent recreational activities by removing physical safety hazards; the land on which the wildlife refuge sits was occupied by Native Americans and became farmland for early colonists in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
During the Revolutionary War, ammunition wagons traveled along the Concord to Marlborough road to provide George Washington arms for his defense of Trenton. In 1851 transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau, who lived in Concord, wrote about his walk along the Assabet River in what is now the refuge in Maynard in his famous journal, he wrote a poem entitled Old Marlborough Road about the road which ran from Concord to Marlborough, parts in ARNWR now known as Winterberry Way and Powerline Trail. Origins of the refuge date back to the 1942 World War II seizure of land spanning Maynard, Sudbury and Stow by federal eminent domain. Landowners were given about ten days to pack up and leave, by their own accounts received around ten cents on the dollar of what the land was worth. One of the most interesting features of the refuge is the World War II-era ammunition bunkers; the site was chosen to be convenient to railroad shipping to the Boston Navy Yard, yet far enough inland so that a German battleship could not shell the area.
Each of the 50 bunkers referred to as “igloos,” has inside dimensions of 81×26×12 feet, with a curved roof. Sides and roofs were disguise from aerial view. Bunker #303 is sometimes open for tours. After World War II this site served as a troop training ground, ordnance testing and laboratory disposal area for Natick Labs, otherwise known as the United States Army Soldier Systems Center. A 1980s assessment led to this being categorized as an EPA “Superfund” clean-up site in 1990, as the site was contaminated with arsenic and other chemicals, which were removed. Extensive Army clean-up efforts continued for years, ending with the site being turned over to the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service in 2000. Official Refuge website Friends of the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service