Chastity is a virtue related to temperance, one of the seven virtues and it is defined as refraining from deviant sexual conduct. Chastity is defined within the moral standards and guidelines of a culture, civilization or religion; the term is associated with sexual abstinence in the context of premarital and extramarital sex. The words "chaste" and "chastity" stem from the Latin adjective castus; the words entered the English language around the middle of the 13th century. At that time, they meant different things. "Chaste" meant "virtuous or pure from unlawful sexual intercourse", while "chastity" meant "virginity". Not until the late 16th century did the two words come to have the same basic meaning as a related adjective and noun. For many Muslims and Christians, acts of sexual nature are restricted to marriage. For unmarried persons, chastity is identified with sexual abstinence. Sexual acts outside or apart from marriage, such as adultery and prostitution, are considered immoral due to lust.
In many Christian traditions, chastity is synonymous with sexual purity. Chastity means not having any sexual relations before marriage, it means fidelity to husband or wife during marriage. In Catholic morality, chastity is placed opposite the deadly sin of lust, is classified as one of seven virtues; the moderation of sexual desires is required to be virtuous. Reason and desire can harmoniously work together to do what is good. In marriage, the spouses commit to a lifelong relationship that excludes sexual intimacy with other persons. A third form of chastity called "vidual chastity", is expected of a woman for a period after her husband dies. For example, Anglican Bishop Jeremy Taylor defined 5 rules in Holy Living, including abstaining from marrying "so long as she is with child by her former husband" and "within the year of mourning"; the particular ethical system may not prescribe each of these. For example, Roman Catholics view sex within marriage as chaste, but prohibit the use of artificial contraception as an offense against chastity, seeing contraception as unnatural, contrary to God's will and design of human sexuality.
Many Anglican communities allow for artificial contraception, seeing the restriction of family size by artificial contraception as not contrary to God's will. A stricter view is held by the Shakers; the Catholic Church has set up various rules regarding clerical celibacy, while most Protestant communities allow clergy to marry. Celibacy is required of monastics—monks and friars—even in a rare system of double cloisters, in which husbands could enter the monastery while their wives entered a sister monastery. Required celibacy among the clergy is a recent practice: it became Church policy at the Second Lateran Council in 1139, it was not uniformly enforced among the clergy until 200 years later. Eastern Catholic priests are permitted to marry, provided they do so before ordination and outside monastic life. Vows of chastity can be taken by laypersons, either as part of an organised religious life or on an individual basis: as a voluntary act of devotion, or as part of an ascetic lifestyle, or both.
Some protestant religious communities, such as the Bruderhof, take vows of chastity as part of the church membership process. The voluntary aspect has led it to being included among the main counsels of perfection. Chastity is a pivotal concept in Roman Catholic praxis. Chastity's importance in traditional Roman Catholic teaching stems from the fact that it is regarded as essential in maintaining and cultivating the unity of body with spirit and thus the integrity of the human being, it is regarded as fundamental to the practise of the Catholic life because it involves an apprenticeship in self-mastery. By attaining mastery over one's passions, reason and desire can harmoniously work together to do what is good. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, chastity is important, quoting: "Physical intimacy between husband and wife is a beautiful and sacred part of God's plan for His children, it is an expression of love within marriage and allows husband and wife to participate in the creation of life.
God has commanded that this sacred power be expressed only between a man and a woman who are married. The law of chastity applies to both women, it includes strict abstinence from sexual relations before marriage and complete fidelity and loyalty to one's spouse after marriage. "The law of chastity requires that sexual relations be reserved for marriage between a man and a woman. "In addition to reserving sexual intimacy for marriage, we obey the law of chastity by controlling our thoughts and actions. Jesus Christ taught,"Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: but I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her in his heart"." LDS teaching includes that sexual expression within marriage is an important dimension of spousal bonding apart from, but not avoiding its procreative result. Chastity is mandatory in Islam. Sex outside legitimacy is prohibited, for both women whether married or unmarried; the most famous personal example of chastity in the Quran is Virgin Mary: "And the one who guarded her chastity, so We blew into her through Our angel, We made her and her son a sign for the worlds."
"And she t
Silver Ring Thing
Silver Ring Thing is a virginity pledge program which encourages teens and young adults to remain sexually abstinent until marriage. It is based in the United States and was until 2005 funded by the U. S. federal government. Drawing on Christian theology, SRT uses rock/hip hop concert-style events in an attempt to appeal to 21st-century teenagers. SRT events feature high-energy music, club-style lighting and sound, music videos, sketch comedy, a Christian abstinence message. During the gathering, participants commit to a vow of sexual abstinence until marriage by purchasing rings. Shortly before the end of the event, they receive their rings inscribed with Bible verses, which are worn on the ring finger of the left hand. True to the organization's name, for years the rings were made of sterling silver with the area around the Bible verse stamped and oxidized to make the letters stand out; the verse is 1 Thessalonians 4:3-4, "For this is the will of God your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication.
That every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour". The rings are tokens of their vow, a reminder of their decision to remain celibate; the rings are a way to signal to others that they are pledged to celibacy. After they put on their rings, they take a vow to remain abstinent; some studies of the efficacy of virginity pledges have found they may be effective in delaying vaginal intercourse but ineffective in reducing the rate of sexually transmitted infection. They reduce the likelihood of contraceptive use. Additionally, it has been reported that pledgers replace vaginal intercourse with other sexual activities, such as oral or anal sex. At least one study has found no difference in the sexual behavior of pledgers and non-pledgers after controlling for pre-existing differences between the groups. Silver Ring Thing was created in 1995 by Denny Pattyn, an evangelical Christian youth minister from Yuma, Arizona, as a way to combat what he saw as rising rates of STDs and pregnancies amongst teenagers, as well as a way to protect teens from what the founders saw as a distinctly American obsession with unhealthy sex, according to Pattyn, was a byproduct of the “promiscuity the sexual revolution of the ‘60s”.
In 2000, Pattyn became Executive Director of the John Guest Evangelistic Team of Sewickley, SRT became part of the national outreach of the John Guest Team. In 2004, SRT claimed to have won pledges of chastity of more than 16,000 young adults since its inception, Pattyn stated that SRT planned to have rings on the fingers of 2 million youngsters by 2010. SRT was funded by private sources, but beginning in 2003, SRT began receiving money from the federal faith-based initiatives program. By 2004, SRT had received more than US $1,100,000 in U. S. government federal funding. In 2004 SRT began expanding operations into the United Kingdom, with mixed results. While some teenagers in the UK embraced the message of abstinence, some critics rejected and ridiculed SRT, saying it was anti-sex or unrealistic, that it seemed unlikely that abstinence programs would attract widespread support in the UK because of the UK's differing attitude toward sexuality and sex education; the group's Assistant National Director for the UK, Denise Pfeiffer, said there was a real need for such a movement in the UK to curb what she sees as the ever-increasing rates of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancies, both of which she claims are the highest in Western Europe.
In 2005, the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts sued the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services because it believed SRT used tax dollars to promote Christianity. SRT presented a two-part programme: the first part about abstinence, the second about how Christianity fits into an abstinence commitment; the ACLU claimed federal funding given to this program violated the separation of state. On 22 August, the Department suspended SRT's US$75,000 federal grant until it submitted a "corrective action plan". In 2006, a corrective action plan was accepted by the Department, the lawsuit was dismissed and SRT received federal funding. In 2007 Lydia Playfoot, a 16-year-old from Horsham, West Sussex, took a case to the High Court of Justice alleging that her school had violated her rights under the Human Rights Act by forbidding her from wearing a purity ring; the case was funded by individual donations gathered through the group Christian Concern For Our Nation. On 16 July 2007 the High Court ruled that Playfoot's human rights were not violated, with the judge finding the school's actions to have been "fully justified" and that wearing the ring was not "intimately linked" to Playfoot's beliefs.
Her father, Phil Playfoot, was the UK pastor for Silver Ring Thing at the time, was ordered to pay £12,000 towards the school's costs. In the 2011 book Making Chastity Sexy: The Rhetoric of Evangelical Abstinence Campaigns, Christine Gardner criticizes Silver Ring Thing for "using sex to sell abstinence" by promising more satisfying sexual activity within marriage for those who abstain from premarital sex. True Love Waits Virgin Nation: Sexual Purity and American Adolescence by Sara Moslener, Oxford University Press, 2015. Alisha, Hipwell. "Federal grant to fund message of abstinence". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. John Robinson Block. Retrieved 2008-08-26. "'Purity' ring case in High Court
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
American Civil Liberties Union
The American Civil Liberties Union is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike. The ACLU works through litigation and lobbying and it has over 1,200,000 members and an annual budget of over $100 million. Local affiliates of the ACLU are active in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico; the ACLU provides legal assistance in cases. Legal support from the ACLU can take the form of direct legal representation or preparation of amicus curiae briefs expressing legal arguments when another law firm is providing representation. In addition to representing persons and organizations in lawsuits, the ACLU lobbies for policy positions that have been established by its board of directors. Current positions of the ACLU include: opposing the death penalty.
The ACLU consists of two separate but affiliated nonprofit organizations: the American Civil Liberties Union, a 501 social welfare group, the ACLU Foundation, a 501 public charity. Both organizations engage in civil rights litigation and education, but only donations to the 501 foundation are tax deductible, only the 501 group can engage in unlimited political lobbying; the two organizations share employees. The ACLU was founded in 1920 by a committee including Helen Keller, Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Walter Nelles, Morris Ernst, Albert DeSilver, Arthur Garfield Hays, Jane Addams, Felix Frankfurter, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Rose Schneiderman, its focus was on freedom of speech for anti-war protesters. During the 1920s, the ACLU expanded its scope to include protecting the free speech rights of artists and striking workers, working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to decrease racism and discrimination. During the 1930s, the ACLU started to engage in work combating police misconduct and supporting Native American rights.
Many of the ACLU's cases involved Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1940, the ACLU leadership voted to exclude Communists from its leadership positions, a decision rescinded in 1968. During World War II, the ACLU defended Japanese-American citizens, unsuccessfully trying to prevent their forcible relocation to internment camps. During the Cold War, the ACLU headquarters was dominated by anti-communists, but many local affiliates defended members of the Communist Party. By 1964, membership had risen to 80,000, the ACLU participated in efforts to expand civil liberties. In the 1960s, the ACLU continued its decades-long effort to enforce separation of state, it defended several anti-war activists during the Vietnam War. The ACLU was involved in the Miranda case, which addressed conduct by police during interrogations, in the New York Times case, which established new protections for newspapers reporting on government activities. In the 1970s and 1980s, the ACLU ventured into new legal areas, involving the rights of homosexuals, students and the poor.
In the twenty-first century, the ACLU has fought the teaching of creationism in public schools and challenged some provisions of anti-terrorism legislation as infringing on privacy and civil liberties. Fundraising and membership spiked after the 2016 election; the ACLU is led by a president and an executive director, Susan N. Herman and Anthony Romero in 2015; the president acts as chairman of the ACLU's board of directors, leads fundraising, facilitates policy-setting. The executive director manages the day-to-day operations of the organization; the board of directors consists of 80 persons, including representatives from each state affiliate, as well as at-large delegates. The organization has its headquarters in 125 Broad Street, a 40-story skyscraper located in Lower Manhattan, New York City; the leadership of the ACLU does not always agree on policy decisions. In 1937, an internal debate erupted over whether to defend Henry Ford's right to distribute anti-union literature. In 1939, a heated debate took place over whether to prohibit communists from serving in ACLU leadership roles.
During the early 1950s and Cold War McCarthyism, the board was divided on whether to defend communists. In 1968, a schism formed over. In 1973, there was internal conflict over. In 2005, there was internal conflict about whether or not a gag rule should be imposed on ACLU employees to prevent publication of internal disputes. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the ACLU and the ACLU Foundation had a combined income from support and revenue of $100.4 million, originating from grants, membership donations, donated legal services and revenue. Membership dues are treated as donations. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the combined expenses of the ACLU and ACLU Foundation were $133.4 million, s
Celibacy is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both for religious reasons. It is in association with the role of a religious official or devotee. In its narrow sense, the term celibacy is applied only to those for whom the unmarried state is the result of a sacred vow, act of renunciation, or religious conviction. In a wider sense, it is understood to only mean abstinence from sexual activity. Celibacy has existed in one form or another throughout history, in all the major religions of the world, views on it have varied; the Romans viewed it as an aberration and legislated fiscal penalties against it, with the sole exception granted to the Vestal Virgins. The Islamic attitudes toward celibacy have been complex as well; some Hadiths claim that Muhammad denounced celibacy. Classical Hindu culture encouraged asceticism and celibacy in the stages of life, after one has met his societal obligations. Jainism, on the other hand, preached complete celibacy for young monks and considered celibacy to be an essential behavior to attain moksha.
Buddhism has been influenced by Jainism in this respect. There were, significant cultural differences in the various areas where Buddhism spread, which affected the local attitudes toward celibacy, it was not well received in China, for example, where other religions movements such as Daoism were opposed to it. A somewhat similar situation existed in Japan, where the Shinto tradition opposed celibacy. In most native African and American Indian religious traditions, celibacy has been viewed negatively as well, although there were exceptions like periodic celibacy practiced by some Mesoamerican warriors; the English word celibacy derives from the Latin caelibatus, "state of being unmarried", from Latin caelebs, meaning "unmarried". This word derives from two Proto-Indo-European stems, *kaiwelo- "alone" and *libs- "living"; the words abstinence and celibacy are used interchangeably, but are not the same thing. Sexual abstinence known as continence, is abstaining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for some limited period of time, while celibacy may be defined as a voluntary religious vow not to marry or engage in sexual activity.
Asexuality is conflated with celibacy and sexual abstinence, but it is considered distinct from the two, as celibacy and sexual abstinence are behavioral and those who use those terms for themselves are motivated by factors such as an individual's personal or religious beliefs. A. W. Richard Sipe, while focusing on the topic of celibacy in Catholicism, states that "the most assumed definition of celibate is an unmarried or single person, celibacy is perceived as synonymous with sexual abstinence or restraint." Sipe adds that in the uniform milieu of Catholic priests in the United States "there is no clear operational definition of celibacy". Elizabeth Abbott commented on the terminology in her A History of Celibacy: "I drafted a definition that discarded the rigidly pedantic and unhelpful distinctions between celibacy and virginity"; the concept of "new celibacy" was introduced by Gabrielle Brown in her 1980 book The New Celibacy. In a revised version of her book, she claims that "abstinence is a response on the outside to what's going on, celibacy is a response from the inside".
According to her definition, celibacy is much more than not having sex. It is more intentional than abstinence, its goal is personal growth and empowerment; this new perspective on celibacy is echoed by several authors including Elizabeth Abbott, Wendy Keller, Wendy Shalit. The rule of celibacy in the Buddhist religion, whether Theravada, has a long history. Celibacy was advocated as an ideal rule of life for all monks and nuns by Gautama Buddha, except for Japan where it is not followed due to historical and political developments following the Meiji Restoration. In Japan, celibacy was an ideal among Buddhist clerics for hundreds of years, but violations of clerical celibacy were so common for so long that in 1872, state laws made marriage legal for Buddhist clerics. Subsequently, ninety percent of Buddhist monks/clerics married. An example is Higashifushimi Kunihide, a prominent Buddhist priest of Japanese royal ancestry, married and a father whilst serving as a monk for most of his lifetime.
Gautama known as the Buddha, is known for his renunciation of his wife, Princess Yasodharā, son, Rahula. In order to pursue an ascetic life, he needed to renounce aspects of the impermanent world, including his wife and son. On both his wife and son joined the ascetic community and are mentioned in the Buddhist texts to have become enlightened. In another sense, a buddhavacana recorded the zen patriarch Vimalakirti as being an advocate of marital continence instead of monastic renunciation, the sutra became somewhat popular due to its brash humour as well as integrating the role of women in laity as well as spiritual life. In the religious movement of Brahma Kumaris, celibacy is promoted for peace and to defeat power of lust and to prepare for life in forthcoming Heaven on earth for 2,500 years when children will be created by the power of the mind for householders to like holy brother and sister. In this belief system, celibacy is given the utmost importance, it is said that, as per the direction of the Supreme God those lead a pure and celibate life will be able to conquer the surging vices.
The power of celibacy creates an unseen environment of divinity bringing peace, purity and fortune. Those with the powe
Selena Marie Gomez is an American singer and producer. After appearing on the children's television series Barney & Friends, she received wider recognition for her portrayal of Alex Russo on the Disney Channel television series Wizards of Waverly Place, which aired for four seasons from 2007 until 2012. With her former band Selena Gomez & the Scene, she attained the top-ten albums Kiss & Tell, A Year Without Rain and When the Sun Goes Down on the US Billboard 200; as a solo artist, Gomez has released the two number-one albums Stars Revival. She has earned seven top-ten entries on the US Billboard Hot 100: "Come & Get It", "The Heart Wants What It Wants", "Good for You" with ASAP Rocky, "Same Old Love", "Hands to Myself", "We Don't Talk Anymore" and "It Ain't Me" with Kygo. In 2017, Billboard reported that Gomez has sold over 7 million albums and 22 million singles worldwide. Gomez's acting credits include starring roles in the films Another Cinderella Story, Princess Protection Program, Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie and Beezus, Monte Carlo, Spring Breakers and The Fundamentals of Caring.
She voices the character of Mavis in the Hotel Transylvania film franchise. Outside of entertainment, Gomez released her own clothing line through Kmart in 2010 and a self-titled fragrance in 2013. In 2017, she released a limited-edition collection of handbags called "Selena Grace" that she designed in collaboration with the luxury brand Coach, Inc, she has worked with various charitable organizations for years and became a UNICEF ambassador at the age of seventeen. Gomez was the most followed Instagram user in the world before being surpassed by athlete Cristiano Ronaldo in late October 2018. Gomez has earned numerous awards throughout her career, including an ALMA Award, an American Music Award, an MTV Video Music Award, a People's Choice Award, two Billboard Women in Music Awards, eighteen Teen Choice Awards. Selena Marie Gomez was born in Grand Prairie, Texas on July 22, 1992, to Ricardo Joel Gomez and former stage actress Amanda Dawn "Mandy" Cornett. Gomez was named after Tejano singer and actress Selena Quintanilla-Pérez, who died in 1995.
Her father is of Mexican descent while her mother, adopted, has some Italian ancestry. Regarding her Hispanic heritage, Gomez has stated, "My family does have Quinceañeras, we go to the communion church. We do everything that's Catholic, but we don't have anything traditional except go to the park and have barbecues on Sundays after church." Gomez's parents divorced when she was five years old, she remained with her mother. Selena has two younger half-sisters: Gracie Elliot Teefey through Amanda and her second husband Brian Teefey, Victoria "Tori" Gomez through Ricardo and his wife Sara Gomez, she earned her high-school diploma through homeschooling in May 2010. When Gomez was born, her mother was sixteen years old; the family had financial troubles during Gomez's childhood, with her mother struggling to provide for the pair. At one point, Gomez recalled, they had to search for quarters just to get gas for their car, her mother recalled that the two would walk to their local dollar store to purchase spaghetti for dinner.
Gomez stated, "I was frustrated that my parents weren't together, never saw the light at the end of the tunnel where my mom was working hard to provide a better life for me. I'm terrified of what I would have become if I'd stayed." She added that " was strong around me. Having me at 16 had to have been a big responsibility, she gave up everything for me, had three jobs, supported me, sacrificed her life for me." Gomez had a close relationship with her grandparents as a child, appeared in various pageants growing up. Her grandparents took care of her while her parents finished their schooling, the pair went as far as stating that they "raised her" up until she found success in the entertainment industry. Gomez first gained an interest in pursuing a career in the entertainment industry watching her mother prepare for stage productions, she began auditioning for various roles, meeting Demi Lovato during an audition for Barney & Friends. Both Gomez and Lovato were selected to appear on the series in 2002, with Gomez portraying the character of Gianna.
The show was her first experience in acting, with Gomez recalling, "I was shy when I was little I didn't know what'camera right' was. I didn't know. I learned everything from Barney." Gomez appeared in thirteen episodes of the show between 2002 and 2004, though the show's producers released her as she was getting "too old" for the series. While working on the series, Gomez had a cameo role in the film Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over and the made-for-television film Walker, Texas Ranger: Trial by Fire. Gomez made a guest appearance in a 2006 episode of the Disney series The Suite Life of Cody. Gomez was given a recurring role on the popular Disney Channel series Hannah Montana in 2007, portraying pop star Mikayla. During this time, Gomez filmed pilot episodes for two potential Disney Channel series, she auditioned for a role in the Disney series Wizards of Waverly Place winning the lead role of Alex Russo. Upon receiving the role and her mother moved to Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Wizards of Waverly Place saw Gomez portraying a teenage girl in a family of wizards who own a restaurant in New York.
The series became a hit fo
Secularity is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being allied with or against any particular religion. The word secular was not related or linked to religion, but was a freestanding term in Latin which would relate to any mundane endeavour. However, the term, saecula saeculorum as found in the New Testament in the Vulgate translation of the original Koine Greek phrase "εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων", e.g. at Galatians 1:5, was used in the early Christian church, in the doxologies, to denote the coming and going of the ages, the grant of eternal life, the long duration of created things from their beginning to forever and ever. The idea of a dichotomy between religion and the secular originated in the European Enlightenment. Furthermore, since religion and secular are both Western concepts that were formed under the influence of Christian theology, other cultures do not have words or concepts that resemble or are equivalent to them. In many cultures, "little conceptual or practical distinction is made between'natural' and'supernatural' phenomena" and the notions of religious and nonreligious dissolve into unimportance, nonexistence, or unawareness since people have beliefs in other supernatural or spiritual things irrespective of belief in God or gods.
Conceptions of what is and what is not religion vary in contemporary East Asia as well. The shared term for "irreligion" or "no religion" with which the majority of East Asian populations identify themselves implies non-membership in one of the institutional religions but not non-belief in traditional folk religions collectively represented by Chinese Shendao and Japanese Shinto. In modern Japan, religion has negative connotation since it is associated with foreign belief systems so many identify as "nonreligious", but this does not mean they have a complete rejection or absence of beliefs and rituals relating to supernatural, metaphysical, or spiritual things. In the Meiji era, the Japanese government consciously excluded Shinto from the category of religion in order to enforce State Shinto while asserting their state followed American-mandated requirements for freedom of religion. One can regard eating and bathing as examples of secular activities, because there may not be anything inherently religious about them.
Some religious traditions see both eating and bathing as sacraments, therefore making them religious activities within those world views. Saying a prayer derived from religious text or doctrine, worshipping through the context of a religion, performing corporal and spiritual works of mercy, attending a religious seminary school or monastery are examples of religious activities; the "secular" is experienced in diverse ways ranging from separation of religion and state to being anti-religion or pro-religion, depending on the culture. For example, the United States has both separation of church and state and pro-religiosity in various forms such as protection of religious freedoms. A related term, involves the principle that government institutions and their representatives should remain separate from religious institutions, their beliefs, their dignitaries. Many businesses and corporations, some governments operate on secular lines; this stands in contrast to government with deity as its highest authority.
Secular and secularity derive from the Latin word saeculum which meant "of a generation, belonging to an age" or denoted a period of about one hundred years. In the ancient world, saeculum was not defined in contrast to any sacred concerns and had a freestanding usage in Latin, it was in Christian Latin of medieval times, that saeculum was used for distinguishing this temporal age of the world from the eternal realm of God. The Christian doctrine that God exists outside time led medieval Western culture to use secular to indicate separation from religious affairs and involvement in temporal ones; this does not imply hostility to God or religion, though some use the term this way. According to cultural anthropologists such as Jack David Eller, secularity is best understood, not as being "anti-religious", but as being "religiously neutral" since many activities in religious bodies are secular themselves and most versions of secularity do not lead to irreligiosity. According to the anthropologist Jack David Eller's review of secularity, he observes that secularization is diverse and can vary by degree and kind.
He notes the sociologist Peter Glasner's ten institutional, normative, or cognitive processes for secularization as: Decline – the reduction in quantitative measures of religious identification and participation, such as lower church attendance/membership or dec