Gary William Gibbons is a British theoretical physicist. Gibbons was born in Surrey, he was educated at Purley County Grammar School and the University of Cambridge, where in 1969 he became a research student under the supervision of Dennis Sciama. When Sciama moved to the University of Oxford, he became a student of Stephen Hawking, obtaining his PhD from Cambridge in 1973. Apart from a stay at the Max Planck Institute in Munich in the 1970s he has remained in Cambridge throughout his career, becoming a full professor in 1997, a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1999, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 2002. Having worked on classical general relativity for his PhD thesis, Gibbons focused on the quantum theory of black holes afterwards. Together with Malcolm Perry, he used thermal Green's functions to prove the universality of thermodynamic properties of horizons, including cosmological event horizons, he developed the Euclidean approach to quantum gravity with Stephen Hawking, which allows a derivation of the thermodynamics of black holes from a functional integral approach.
As the Euclidean action for gravity is not positive definite, the integral only converges when a particular contour is used for conformal factors. His work in more recent years includes contributions to research on supergravity, p-branes and M-theory motivated by string theory. Gibbons remains interested in geometrical problems of all sorts. Gibbons was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1999, his nomination reads
Harris City Academy Crystal Palace
Harris City Academy Crystal Palace is a mixed sex secondary school in Croydon, south London, England. It was established in 1990 to replace Sylvan High School, a newly built mixed comprehensive school which had opened in 1974. Sylvan, judged to be under-performing, re-opened as a City Technology College sponsored by Lord Harris of Peckham. In September 2007, Harris CTC became Harris City Academy Crystal Palace; the new Harris CTC introduced new systems and structures and results improved. In recent years the examination performance of the school has been excellent; the conversion to Academy status in 2007 brought with it the promise of £10 Million for new buildings and facilities. The work on the new buildings was completed by November 2010, with a new sixth form blook, internal walkways and classrooms now in use; the Sixth Form results were the best achieved by the Academy with 100% of students passing their A-level exams and 82% of all grades achieved resulting in a grade A, B or C. In October 2009, under the new tougher Ofsted inspection criteria, the Academy became the first secondary school in the country to achieve an outstanding grade in each of the 30 categories.
By Easter 2010, the Academy was still the only school in England to have achieved this result. Over 2000 applications were received for 180 places in Year 7 for September 2009; the intake of the Academy is mixed ability. The Sixth Form is part of a federated Sixth Form with Harris South Norwood, Harris Merton, Harris Purley, Harris Bromley, Harris Beckenham and Harris East Dulwich Girls; the Sixth Form at Crystal Palace delivers AS and A level courses and around 400 students are based there. The other two sites offer some AS and A levels but a range of vocational courses. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace is a registered Cisco Networking Academy and offers the CCNA course to Post-16s throughout the Federation as part of the enrichment programme; the Academy is a Talented specialist school. Specific new opportunities for students include: an annual opportunity for three Post-16 students to visit NASA astronaut training facilities in Houston and Florida in the USA and many residential trips; the new Year 7's get to go on an optional trip to PGL in October every year just for the year 7's.
The Harris Federation Student Commission is a project which involves 70 students from all the Harris Academies are working together with teachers and leading educationalists in order to explore ways of further improving teaching and learning. This Commission is part of a national project called Learning Futures. Arts Communications Maths & Commerce Science & Technology. In each year group, there are now six tutor groups consisting of 20-30 students. In each Year, the students are split into two groups x and y. There are sets for both groups. Sets: X1/Y1, X2/Y2, X3/Y3, X4/Y4, or in group y there are Y5/Y6, but only in maths and Design & Technology. 1 being the top group x3/y3 being the bottom group. From September 2009 – all students started GCSEs in maths and English a year early, from September 2009 all GCSEs are started in Year 9. Students get to choose their GCSE options in Year 8 and start doing the subjects they chose in Year 9. Maths and the 3 science are compulsory choices for your GCSEs There are four faculties at Harris City Academy Crystal Palace, identified by a colour displayed on the stripe of their students' ties.
They are:Arts Communications Maths & Commerce Science & Technology The academy has post-16 provision, which contains Year 12 and Year 13 students. The school was founded in 1990 as a City Technology College. In September 2007, Harris CTC was integrated into the Harris Federation; this Federation was set up by Lord Harris of Peckham and has been set up as a coalition of several secondary schools in Croydon and Southwark. In September 2013, the Harris Federation of South London Schools consisted of twenty one schools. Harris City Academy Crystal Palace webpage Harris Federation website Harris Federation Sixth Form website Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Twitter Harris City Academy Crystal Palace YouTube Harris City Academy Crystal Palace Flickr
Riddlesdown Collegiate is a secondary school with academy status located in the Riddlesdown area of the London Borough of Croydon, UK. Riddlesdown is a coeducational school, of 1902 students; the school takes its pupils from the Sanderstead, Purley, New Addington and South Croydon areas, specialises in science. Riddlesdown is the largest school in Croydon in terms of pupil numbers. In September 2009, the school's name changed from Riddlesdown High School to Riddlesdown Collegiate, featuring six colleges. In 2018, the collegiate was awarded the World-class schools award, one of about 60 in the UK. Four of the six colleges in the collegiate are 11–16 colleges with another for sixth form and a Creative and Performing Arts College. In an Ofsted inspection in 2016, the school has been rated outstanding. In 1992, Riddlesdown was the first school in Croydon to be awarded Grant Maintained status by the Secretary of State for Education, since about 300 pupils have been admitted to the school by the Board of Governors each year.
In 1996, a Sixth Form Centre was established on the site and Riddlesdown became a Voluntary Aided School under the Bourne Foundation in 1999. Kate Moss, supermodel, 1985–1990 Rickie Haywood Williams, DJ/broadcaster, 1991–1996 Nigel Reo-Coker, footballer, 1995–2000 Klariza Clayton, actress, 2000–2005 Kieran Gibbs, footballer, 2001–2006
Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits with a single cane made of rattan applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks or hand. Caning on the knuckles or shoulders is much less common. Caning can be applied to the soles of the feet; the size and flexibility of the cane and the mode of application, as well as the number of the strokes, vary — from a couple of light strokes with a small cane across the seat of a junior schoolboy's trousers, to 24 hard, wounding cuts on the bare buttocks with a large, soaked rattan as a judicial punishment in some Southeast Asian countries. The thin cane used for corporal punishment is not to be confused with a walking stick, sometimes called a cane, but, thicker and much more rigid, more to be made of stronger wood than of cane. Caning was a common form of judicial punishment and official school discipline in many parts of the world in the 19th and 20th centuries. Corporal punishment has now been outlawed in much, but not all, of Europe.
However, caning remains legal in numerous other countries in home, religious, judicial or military contexts, is in common use in some countries where it is no longer legal. Judicial caning, administered with a long, heavy rattan and much more severe than the canings given in schools, was/is a feature of some British colonial judicial systems, though the cane was never used judicially in Britain itself. In some countries caning is still in use in the post-independence era in Southeast Asia, in some African countries; the practice is retained, for male offenders only, under the criminal law in Malaysia and Brunei. Caning in Indonesia is a recent introduction, in the special case of Aceh, on Sumatra, which since its 2005 autonomy has introduced a form of sharia law for Muslims only, applying the cane to the clothed upper back of the offender. African countries still using judicial caning include Botswana, Nigeria and, for juvenile offenders only and Zimbabwe. Other countries that used it until the late 20th century only for male offenders, included Kenya and South Africa, while some Caribbean countries such as Trinidad and Tobago use birching, another punishment in the British tradition, involving the use of a bundle of branches, not a single cane.
In Singapore and Brunei, healthy males under 50 years of age can be sentenced to a maximum of 24 strokes of the rotan cane on the bare buttocks. It is imposed for certain breaches of prison rules. In Aceh caning can be imposed for adultery; the punishment is applied to locals alike. Two examples of the caning of foreigners which received worldwide media scrutiny are the canings in Singapore in 1994 of Michael P. Fay, an American student who had vandalised several automobiles, in the United Arab Emirates in 1996 of Sarah Balabagan, a Filipina maid convicted of homicide. Caning is used in the Singapore Armed Forces to punish serious offences against military discipline in the case of recalcitrant young conscripts. Unlike judicial caning, this punishment is delivered to the soldier's clothed buttocks. See Caning in Singapore#Military caning; the frequency and severity of canings in educational settings have varied often being determined by the written rules or unwritten traditions of the school. The western educational use of the cane dates principally to the late nineteenth century replacing birching—effective only if applied to the bare bottom—with a form of punishment more suited to contemporary sensibilities, once it had been discovered that a flexible rattan cane can provide the offender with a substantial degree of pain when delivered through a layer of clothing.
Caning as a school punishment is associated in the English-speaking world with England, but it was used in other European countries in earlier times, notably Scandinavia and the countries of the former Austrian empire. In some schools corporal punishment was administered by the headmaster, while in others the task was delegated to other teachers. In many English and Commonwealth private schools, authority to punish was traditionally given to certain senior students. In the early 20th century, such permission for prefects to cane other boys was widespread in British public schools; the perceived advantages of this were promptness of punishment and avoiding bothering the teaching staff with minor disciplinary matters. Canings from prefects took place for a wide variety of failings, including lack of enthusiasm in sport, with the punishment repeated, if necessary, until the younger boy's performance or attitude improved. From at least the late 19th century onwards, prefects had used canings to enforce youngsters' participation in other character-building aspects of public school life, such as compulsory cold baths in winter.
Another claimed advantage was that boys who misbehaved would be chastised more by receiving a caning from a pre
Department for Education
The Department for Education is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education and wider skills in England. A Department for Education existed between 1992, when the Department of Education and Science was renamed, 1995 when it was merged with the Department for Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment; the DfE was formed on 12 May 2010 by the incoming Cameron ministry, taking on the responsibilities and resources of the Department for Children and Families. In June 2012 the Department for Education committed a breach of the UK's Data Protection Act due to a security flaw on its website which made email addresses and comments of people responding to consultation documents available for download. In July 2016, the Department took over responsibilities for higher and further education and for apprenticeship from the dissolved Department for Business and Skills. Committee of the Privy Council on Education, 1839–1899 Education Department, 1856–1899 Board of Education, 1899–1944 Ministry of Education, 1944–1964 Department of Education and Science, 1964–1992 Department for Education, 1992–1995 Department for Education and Employment, 1995–2001 Department for Education and Skills, 2001–2007 Department for Children and Families, 2007–2010 The department is led by the Secretary of State for Education.
The Permanent Secretary is Jonathan Slater. DfE is responsible for education, children’s services and further education policy and wider skills in England, equalities; the predecessor department employed the equivalent of 2,695 staff as of April 2008 and as at June 2016, DfE had reduced its workforce to the equivalent of 2,301 staff. In 2015-16, the DfE has a budget of £58.2bn, which includes £53.6bn resource spending and £4.6bn of capital investments. The Department for Education's ministers are as follows: The management board is made up of: Permanent Secretary - Jonathan Slater Director-General, Social Care and Equalities - Indra Morris Director-General, Education Standards - Paul Kett Director-General and Funding - Andrew McCully Director-General and Further Education - Philippa Lloyd Chief Financial and Operating Officer, Insight and Transformation - Howard Orme Chief Executive, Education & Skills Funding Agency - Eileen MilnerNon-executive board members: Marion Plant OBE; the Education Funding Agency was responsible for distributing funding for state education in England for 3-19 year olds, as well as managing the estates of schools, colleges and the Skills Funding Agency was responsible for funding skills training for further education in England and running the National Apprenticeship Service and the National Careers Service.
The EFA was formed on 1 April 2012 by bringing together the functions of two non-departmental public bodies, the Young People's Learning Agency and Partnerships for Schools. The SFA was formed on 1 April 2010, following the closure of the Skills Council. Eileen Milner is the agency's Chief Executive; the National College for Teaching and Leadership is responsible for administering the training of new and existing teachers in England, as well as the regulation of the teaching profession and offers headteachers, school leaders and senior children's services leaders opportunities for professional development. It was established on 1 April 2013, when the Teaching Agency merged with the National College for School Leadership; the National College for Teaching and Leadership was replaced by the Department for Education and Teaching Regulation Agency in April 2018. The Standards and Testing Agency is responsible for developing and delivering all statutory assessments for school pupils in England, it was formed on 1 October 2011 and took over the functions of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency.
The STA is regulated by Ofqual. The DfE is supported by 10 public bodies: Education and children's policy is devolved elsewhere in the UK; the department's main devolved counterparts are as follows: Scotland Scottish Government – Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Department of Education Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Wales Welsh Government – Department for Education and Skills The Department for Education released a new National Curriculum for schools in England for September 2014, which included'Computing'. Following Michael Gove's speech in 2012, the subject of Information Communication Technology has been disapplied and replaced by Computing. With the new curriculum, materials have been written by commercial companies, to support non-specialist teachers, for example,'100 Computing Lessons' by Scholastic; the Computing at Schools organisation has created a'Network of Teaching Excellence'to support schools with the new curriculum. In 2015, the Department announced a major restructuring of the
British Airways is the flag carrier and the second largest airline in the United Kingdom based on fleet size and passengers carried, behind easyJet. The airline is based in Waterside near its main hub at London Heathrow Airport. In January 2011 BA merged with Iberia, creating the International Airlines Group, a holding company registered in Madrid, Spain. IAG is the world's third-largest airline group in terms of annual revenue and the second-largest in Europe, it is listed in the FTSE 100 Index. BA was created in 1974 after a British Airways Board was established by the British government to manage the two nationalised airline corporations, British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways, two regional airlines, Cambrian Airways from Cardiff, Northeast Airlines from Newcastle upon Tyne. On 31 March 1974, all four companies were merged to form British Airways. After 13 years as a state company, BA was privatised in February 1987 as part of a wider privatisation plan by the Conservative government.
The carrier expanded with the acquisition of British Caledonian in 1987, Dan-Air in 1992, British Midland International in 2012. Its preeminence highlights the reach of the country's influence as many of its destinations in several regions were part of the British Empire, it is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The alliance has since grown to become the third largest, after Star Alliance. Proposals to establish a joint British airline, combining the assets of the British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways were first raised in 1953 as a result of difficulties in attempts by BOAC and BEA to negotiate air rights through the British colony of Cyprus. BOAC was protesting that BEA was using its subsidiary Cyprus Airways to circumvent an agreement that BEA would not fly routes further east than Cyprus to the important oil regions in the Middle East; the Chairman of BOAC, Miles Thomas, was in favour of merger as a potential solution to this disagreement and had backing for the idea from the Chancellor of the Exchequer at the time, Rab Butler.
However, opposition from the Treasury blocked the proposal. It was only following the recommendations of the 1969 Edwards Report that a new British Airways Board, managing both BEA and BOAC, the two regional British airlines Cambrian Airways based at Cardiff, Northeast Airlines based at Newcastle upon Tyne, was constituted on 1 April 1972. Although each airline's individual branding was maintained two years the British Airways Board unified its branding establishing British Airways as an airline on 31 March 1974. Following two years of fierce competition with British Caledonian, the second-largest airline in the United Kingdom at the time, the Government changed its aviation policy in 1976 so that the two carriers would no longer compete on long-haul routes. British Airways and Air France operated the supersonic airliner Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde, the world's first supersonic passenger service flew in January 1976 from London Heathrow to Bahrain. Services to the US began on 24 May 1976 with a flight to Washington Dulles airport, flights to New York JFK airport followed on 22 September 1977.
Service to Singapore was established in co-operation with Singapore Airlines as a continuation of the flight to Bahrain. Following the Air France Concorde crash in Paris and a slump in air travel following the 11 September attacks in New York in 2001, it was decided to cease Concorde operations in 2003 after 27 years of service; the final commercial Concorde flight was BA002 from New York JFK to London Heathrow on 24 October 2003. In 1981 the airline was instructed to prepare for privatisation by the Conservative Thatcher government. Sir John King Lord King, was appointed chairman, charged with bringing the airline back into profitability. While many other large airlines struggled, King was credited with transforming British Airways into one of the most profitable air carriers in the world; the flag carrier was privatised and was floated on the London Stock Exchange in February 1987. British Airways effected the takeover of the UK's "second" airline, British Caledonian, in July of that same year.
The formation of Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic in 1984 created a competitor for BA. The intense rivalry between British Airways and Virgin Atlantic culminated in the former being sued for libel in 1993, arising from claims and counterclaims over a "dirty tricks" campaign against Virgin; this campaign included allegations of poaching Virgin Atlantic customers, tampering with private files belonging to Virgin and undermining Virgin's reputation in the City. As a result of the case BA management apologised "unreservedly", the company agreed to pay £110,000 damages to Virgin, £500,000 to Branson and £3 million legal costs. Lord King stepped down as chairman in 1993 and was replaced by his deputy, Colin Marshall, while Bob Ayling took over as CEO. Virgin filed a separate action in the US that same year regarding BA's domination of the trans-Atlantic routes, but it was thrown out in 1999. In 1992 British Airways expanded through the acquisition of the financially troubled Dan-Air, giving BA a much larger presence at Gatwick airport.
British Asia Airways, a subsidiary based in Taiwan, was formed in March 1993 to operate between London and Taipei. That same month BA purchased a 25% stake in the Australian airline Qantas and, with the acquisition of Brymon Airways in May, formed British Airways Citiexpress. In September 1998, British Airways, along with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Canadian
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It received its royal charter in 1905 as successor to the University College of Sheffield, established in 1897 by the merger of Sheffield Medical School, Firth College and Sheffield Technical School. Sheffield is a multi-campus university predominantly over two campus areas: the Western Bank and the St George's; the university is organised into five academic faculties composed of multiple departments. It had 20,005 undergraduate and 8,710 postgraduate students in 2016/17; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £691.8 million of which £197.5 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £636.8 million. Sheffield ranks among the top 10 of UK universities for research grant funding. Sheffield was placed 75th worldwide and 13th in the UK according to QS World University Rankings and 106th worldwide and 12th in the UK according to Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
It was ranked 12th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. In 2011, Sheffield was named'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education awards; the Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories. It is one of the original red brick universities, a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, the Worldwide Universities Network, the N8 Group of the eight most research intensive universities in Northern England and the White Rose University Consortium. There are eight Nobel laureates affiliated with Sheffield and six of them are the alumni or former long-term staff of the university; the University of Sheffield was formed by the merger of three colleges. The Sheffield School of Medicine was founded in 1828, followed in 1879 by the opening of Firth College, which developed out of the Cambridge University Extension Movement scheme, by Mark Firth, a steel manufacturer, to teach arts and science subjects.
Firth College helped to fund the opening of the Sheffield Technical School in 1884 to teach applied science, the only major faculty the existing colleges did not cover. The Sheffield Technical School was founded because of local concern about the need for technical training steelmaking in Sheffield, the school moved to St George's Square in 1886; the three institutions merged in 1897 to form the University College of Sheffield by Royal Charter. Sheffield was the only large city in England without a university. Steelworkers, coal miners, factory workers and the people of Sheffield donated over £50,000 in 1904 to help found the University of Sheffield, it was envisaged that the University College would join Manchester and Leeds as the fourth member of the federal Victoria University. However, the Victoria University began to split up as independent universities before this could happen and so the University College of Sheffield received its own Royal Charter on 31 May 1905 and became the University of Sheffield.
In July 1905, Firth Court on Western Bank was opened by King Edward Queen Alexandra. St George's Square remained the centre of departments of Applied Science, the departments of Arts and Science moved to Western Bank. Sheffield is one of the six red brick universities, the civic universities founded in the major industrial cities of England. In 1905, there were 114 full-time students, the first Hall of Residence and library had been established by then; the number of students increased to a short-lived peak of 1,000 in 1919. During the First World War, some of the academic subjects and courses were replaced by teaching of munitions making and medical appliances production. Rather than from a single centre, the university has expanded since the 1920s from two ends, the Firth Court on Western Bank and the Sir Frederick Mappin Building on the St George's site. In 1943, the University Grants Committee announced that universities in the UK should look forward to expansion in the years after the Second World War.
Sheffield predicted a 50% increase in student population but the university was unprepared for such growth. There was pressure on the university to expand since the student numbers had increased from around 1,000 to 3,000 by 1946; the university announced proposals for development in 1947, which emphasised the need for new departments, medical school, administration building, halls of residence, as well as the completion of the Western Bank Quadrangles and the extension of the Students’ Union. The university grew until the 1950s and 1960s when it began to expand rapidly. Many new buildings were built and older houses were brought into academic use. Student numbers increased to their present levels of just under 26,000. At the same time in the 1950s, the university was expanding at other sites, including the St Georges area. From the 1960s, many more buildings have been constructed or extended, including the Union of Students and St George's Library; the campus master plan proposed in the 1940s was completed by the 1970s, the university required a new development plan.
The 1980s saw the opening of many new buildings and centres, such as the multi-purpose Octagon Centre and the Sir Henry Stephenson Building. The university's teaching hospital, Northern General Hospital, was extended. In 1987 the University began to collaborate with its once would-be partners of the Victoria University by co-founding the Northern Consortium.