Canes Venatici is one of the 88 official modern constellations. It is a small northern constellation, created by Johannes Hevelius in the 17th century, its name is Latin for "hunting dogs", the constellation is depicted in illustrations as representing the dogs of Boötes the Herdsman, a neighboring constellation. Cor Caroli is the constellation's brightest star, with an apparent magnitude of 2.9. La Superba is one of one of the brightest carbon stars; the Whirlpool Galaxy is a spiral galaxy tilted face-on to observers on Earth, was the first galaxy whose spiral nature was discerned. The stars of Canes Venatici are not bright. In classical times, they were listed by Ptolemy as unfigured stars below the constellation Ursa Major in his star catalogue. In medieval times, the identification of these stars with the dogs of Boötes arose through a mistranslation; some of Boötes's stars were traditionally described as representing the club of Boötes. When the Greek astronomer Ptolemy's Almagest was translated from Greek to Arabic, the translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq did not know the Greek word and rendered it as a similar-sounding Arabic word for a weapon, writing al-`aşā dhāt al-kullāb, which means "the spearshaft having a hook".
When the Arabic text was translated into Latin, the translator Gerard of Cremona mistook kullāb, meaning "hook", for kilāb, meaning "dogs", writing hastile habens canes. In 1533, the German astronomer Peter Apian depicted Boötes as having two dogs with him; these spurious dogs floated about the astronomical literature until Hevelius decided to specify their presence in the sky by making them a separate constellation in 1687. Hevelius chose the name Asterion for the northern dog and Chara for the southern dog, as Canes Venatici, the Hunting Dogs, in his star atlas. In his star catalogue, the Czech astronomer Bečvář assigned the names Asterion to β CVn and Chara to α CVn. Canes Venatici is bordered by Ursa Major to the north and west, Coma Berenices to the south, Boötes to the east; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is'CVn'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 14 sides.
In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 12h 06.2m and 14h 07.3m, while the declination coordinates are between +27.84° and +52.36°. Covering 465 square degrees, it ranks 38th of the 88 constellations in size. Canes Venatici contains no bright stars and Beta Canum Venaticorum being only of 3rd and 4th magnitude respectively. Flamsteed catalogued 25 stars in the constellation, labelling them 1 to 25 Canum Venaticorum, however 1 turned out to be in Ursa Major, 13 was in Coma Berenices and 22 did not exist. Alpha Canum Venaticorum known as Cor Caroli, is the constellation's brightest star, named by Sir Charles Scarborough in memory of King Charles I, the deposed king of Britain. Legend has it that α CVn was brighter than usual during the Restoration, as Charles II returned to England to take the throne. Cor Caroli is a wide double star, with a primary of magnitude 2.9 and a secondary of magnitude 5.6. The primary has an unusually strong variable magnetic field.
Beta Canum Venaticorum, or Chara, is a yellow-hued main sequence star of magnitude 4.2, 27 light-years from Earth. Its common name comes from the word for "joy". Y Canum Venaticorum is a semiregular variable star that varies between magnitudes 5.0 and 6.5 over a period of around 158 days. It is deep red in color. AM Canum Venaticorum, a blue star of magnitude 14, is the prototype of a special class of cataclysmic variable stars, in which the companion star is a white dwarf, rather than a main sequence star. RS Canum Venaticorum is the prototype of a special class of binary stars of chromospherically active and optically variable components. R Canum Venaticorum is a Mira variable that ranges between magnitudes 6.5 and 12.9 over a period of 329 days. The Giant Void, an large void is within the vicinity of this constellation, it may be the largest void discovered larger than the Eridanus Supervoid and 1,200 times the volume of expected typical voids. It was discovered in 1988 in a deep-sky survey.
Canes Venatici contains five Messier objects, including four galaxies. One of the more significant galaxies in Canes Venatici is the Whirlpool Galaxy and NGC 5195, a small barred spiral galaxy, seen face on; this was the first galaxy recognised as having a spiral structure, this structure being first observed by Lord Rosse in 1845. It is a face-on spiral galaxy 37 million light-years from Earth. Considered to be one of the most beautiful galaxies visible, M51 has many star-forming regions and nebulae in its arms, coloring them pink and blue in contrast to the older yellow core. M51 has a smaller companion, NGC 5195, that has few star-forming regions and thus appears yellow, it may be the cause of the larger galaxy's prodigious star formation. Other notable spiral galaxies in Canes Venatici are the Sunflower Galaxy, M94, M106. M63, the Sunflower Galaxy, was named for its appearance in large amateur telescopes, it is a spiral galaxy with an integrated magnitude of 9.0. M94 is a small face-on spiral
Auriga is one of the 88 modern constellations. Located north of the celestial equator, its name is the Latin word for “the charioteer”, associating it with various mythological beings, including Erichthonius and Myrtilus. Auriga is most prominent during winter evenings in the northern Hemisphere, along with the five other constellations that have stars in the Winter Hexagon asterism; because of its northern declination, Auriga is only visible in its entirety as far as 34° south. A large constellation, with an area of 657 square degrees, it is half the size of the largest constellation, Hydra, its brightest star, Capella, is an unusual multiple star system among the brightest stars in the night sky. Beta Aurigae is an interesting variable star in the constellation; because of its position near the winter Milky Way, Auriga has many bright open clusters in its borders, including M36, M37, M38, popular targets for amateur astronomers. In addition, it has one prominent nebula, the Flaming Star Nebula, associated with the variable star AE Aurigae.
In Chinese mythology, Auriga's stars were incorporated into several constellations, including the celestial emperors' chariots, made up of the modern constellation's brightest stars. Auriga is home to the radiant for the Aurigids, Zeta Aurigids, Delta Aurigids, the hypothesized Iota Aurigids; the first record of Auriga's stars was in Mesopotamia as a constellation called GAM, representing a scimitar or crook. However, this may have represented just the modern constellation as a whole. GAM in the MUL. APIN; the crook of Auriga shepherd. It was formed from most of the stars of the modern constellation. Bedouin astronomers created constellations that were groups of animals, where each star represented one animal; the stars of Auriga comprised a herd of goats, an association present in Greek mythology. The association with goats carried into the Greek astronomical tradition, though it became associated with a charioteer along with the shepherd. In Greek mythology, Auriga is identified as the mythological Greek hero Erichthonius of Athens, the chthonic son of Hephaestus, raised by the goddess Athena.
Erichthonius was credited to be the inventor of the quadriga, the four-horse chariot, which he used in the battle against the usurper Amphictyon, the event that made Erichthonius the king of Athens. His chariot was created in the image of the Sun's chariot, the reason Zeus placed him in the heavens; the Athenian hero dedicated himself to Athena and, soon after, Zeus raised him into the night sky in honor of his ingenuity and heroic deeds. Auriga, however, is sometimes described as Myrtilus, Hermes's son and the charioteer of Oenomaus; the association of Auriga and Myrtilus is supported by depictions of the constellation, which show a chariot. Myrtilus's chariot was destroyed in a race intended for suitors to win the heart of Oenomaus's daughter Hippodamia. Myrtilus earned his position in the sky when Hippodamia's successful suitor, killed him, despite his complicity in helping Pelops win her hand. After his death, Myrtilus's father Hermes placed him in the sky, yet another mythological association of Auriga is Theseus's son Hippolytus.
He was ejected from Athens after he refused the romantic advances of his stepmother Phaedra, who committed suicide as a result. He was revived by Asclepius. Regardless of Auriga's specific representation, it is that the constellation was created by the ancient Greeks to commemorate the importance of the chariot in their society. An incidental appearance of Auriga in Greek mythology is as the limbs of Medea's brother. In the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, as they journeyed home, Medea killed her brother and dismembered him, flinging the parts of his body into the sea, represented by the Milky Way; each individual star represents a different limb. Capella is associated with the mythological she-goat Amalthea, it forms an asterism with the stars Epsilon Aurigae, Zeta Aurigae, Eta Aurigae, the latter two of which are known as the Haedi. Though most associated with Amalthea, Capella has sometimes been associated with Amalthea's owner, a nymph; the myth of the nymph says that the goat's hideous appearance, resembling a Gorgon, was responsible for the Titans' defeat, because Zeus skinned the goat and wore it as his aegis.
The asterism containing the three goats had been a separate constellation. Before that, Capella was sometimes seen as its own constellation—by Pliny the Elder and Manilius—called Capra, Caper, or Hircus, all of which relate to its status as the "goat star". Zeta Aurigae and Eta Aurigae were first called the "Kids" by Cleostratus, an ancient Greek astronomer. Traditionally, illustrations of Auriga represent it as its driver; the charioteer has two kids under his left arm. However, depictions of Auriga have been inconsistent over the years; the reins in his right hand have been drawn as a whip, though Capella is always over his left shoulder and the Kids under his left arm. The 1488 atlas Hyginus deviated from this typical depiction by showing a four-wheeled cart driven by Auriga
Horn (Chinese constellation)
The Horn mansion is one of the Twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations. It is one of the eastern mansions of the Azure Dragon
Ursa Minor known as the Little Bear, is a constellation in the Northern Sky. Like the Great Bear, the tail of the Little Bear may be seen as the handle of a ladle, hence the North American name, Little Dipper: seven stars with four in its bowl like its partner the Big Dipper, it was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Ursa Minor has traditionally been important for navigation by mariners, because of Polaris being the North Star. Polaris, the brightest star in the constellation, is a yellow-white supergiant and the brightest Cepheid variable star in the night sky, ranging from an apparent magnitude of 1.97 to 2.00. Beta Ursae Minoris known as Kochab, is an aging star that has swollen and cooled to become an orange giant with an apparent magnitude of 2.08, only fainter than Polaris. Kochab and magnitude 3 Gamma Ursae Minoris have been called the "guardians of the pole star". Planets have been detected orbiting four including Kochab.
The constellation contains an isolated neutron star—Calvera—and H1504+65, the hottest white dwarf yet discovered, with a surface temperature of 200,000 K. In the Babylonian star catalogues, Ursa Minor was known as the "Wagon of Heaven", it is listed in the MUL. APIN catalogue, compiled around 1000 BC among the "Stars of Enlil"—that is, the northern sky. According to Diogenes Laërtius, citing Callimachus, Thales of Miletus "measured the stars of the Wagon by which the Phoenicians sail". Diogenes identifies these as the constellation of Ursa Minor, which for its reported use by the Phoenicians for navigation at sea were named Phoinikē; the tradition of naming the northern constellations "bears" appears to be genuinely Greek, although Homer refers to just a single "bear". The original "bear" is thus Ursa Major, Ursa Minor was admitted as second, or "Phoenician Bear" only according to Strabo due to a suggestion by Thales, who suggested it as a navigation aid to the Greeks, navigating by Ursa Major.
In classical antiquity, the celestial pole was somewhat closer to Beta Ursae Minoris than to Alpha Ursae Minoris, the entire constellation was taken to indicate the northern direction. Since the medieval period, it has become convenient to use Alpha Ursae Minoris as the north star though it was still several degrees away from the celestial pole, its New Latin name of stella polaris was coined only in the early modern period. The ancient name of the constellation is Cynosura; the origin of this name is unclear. Instead, the mythographic tradition of Catasterismi makes Cynosura the name of an Oread nymph described as a nurse of Zeus, honoured by the god with a place in the sky. There are various proposed explanations for the name Cynosura. One suggestion connects it to the myth of Callisto, with her son Arcas replaced by her dog being placed in the sky by Zeus. Others have suggested that an archaic interpretation of Ursa Major was that of a cow, forming a group with Bootes as herdsman, Ursa Minor as a dog.
George William Cox explained it as a variant of Λυκόσουρα, understood as "wolf's tail" but by him etymologized as "trail, or train, of light". Allen points for comparison. Brown suggested a non-Greek origin of the name. An alternative myth tells of two bears that saved Zeus from his murderous father Cronus by hiding him on Mount Ida. Zeus set them in the sky, but their tails grew long from being swung up into the sky by the god; because Ursa Minor consists of seven stars, the Latin word for "north" is septentrio, from septem and triones, from seven oxen driving a plough, which the seven stars resemble. This name has been attached to the main stars of Ursa Major. In Inuit astronomy, the three brightest stars—Polaris and Pherkad—were known as Nuutuittut "never moving", though the term is more used in the singular to refer to Polaris alone; the Pole Star is too high in the sky at far northern latitudes to be of use in navigation. In Chinese astronomy, the main stars of Ursa Minor are divided between two asterisms: 勾陳 Gòuchén and 北極 Běijí.
Ursa Minor is bordered by Camelopardalis to the west, Draco to the west, Cepheus to the east. Covering 256 square degrees, it ranks 56th of the 88 constellations in size. Ursa Minor is colloquially known in the US as the Little Dipper because its seven brightest stars seem to form the shape of a dipper; the star at the end of the dipper handle. Polaris can be found by following a line through the two stars—Alpha and Beta Ursae Majoris—that form the end of the'bowl' of the Big Dipper, for 30 degrees across the night sky; the four stars constituting the bowl of the Little Dipper are of second, third and fifth magnitudes, provide an easy guide to determining what magnitude stars are visible, useful for city dwellers or testing one's eyesight. The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the IAU in 1922, is "UMi"; the official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 22 seg
The Four Symbols are four mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations. They are the Azure Dragon of the East, the Vermilion Bird of the South, the White Tiger of the West, the Black Turtle of the North; each one of them represents a direction and a season, each has its own individual characteristics and origins. Symbolically and as part of spiritual and religious belief, they have been culturally important across countries in the East Asian cultural sphere; the Four Symbols were given human names. The Azure Dragon has the name Meng Zhang, the Vermilion Bird was called Ling Guang, the White Tiger Jian Bing, the Black Turtle Zhi Ming. In 1987, a tomb was found at Xishuipo in Henan. There were some clam shells and bones forming the images of the Azure Dragon, the White Tiger, the Big Dipper, it is believed. The Rongcheng Shi manuscript recovered in 1994 gives five directions rather than four and places the animals quite differently: Yu the Great gave banners to his people marking the north with a bird, the south with a snake, the east with the sun, the west with the moon, the center with a bear.
The colours of the animals match the colours of soil in the corresponding areas of China: the bluish-grey water-logged soils of the east, the reddish iron-rich soils of the south, the whitish saline soils of the western deserts, the black organic-rich soils of the north and the yellow soils from the central loess plateau. These mythological creatures have been syncretized into the five principles system; the Azure Dragon of the East represents Wood, the Vermilion Bird of the South represents Fire, the White Tiger of the West represents Metal, the Black Turtle of the North represents Water. In this system, the fifth principle Earth is represented by the Yellow Dragon of the Center; the four beasts each represent a season. The Azure Dragon of the East represents Spring, the Vermilion Bird of the South represents Summer, the White Tiger of the West represents Autumn, the Black Turtle of the North represents Winter. Chinese astrology Chinese constellations Four Holy Beasts, the Vietnamese version Four temperaments Purple Forbidden enclosure 28 Chinese Constellations
Camelopardalis is a large but faint constellation of the northern sky representing a giraffe. The constellation was introduced in 1613 by Petrus Plancius; some older astronomy books give Camelopardalus or Camelopardus as alternative spellings of the name, but the official version recognized by the International Astronomical Union is Camelopardalis. First attested in English in 1785, the word camelopardalis comes from Latin, it is the romanization of the Greek "καμηλοπάρδαλις" meaning "giraffe", from "κάμηλος", "camel" + "πάρδαλις", "leopard", because it has a long neck like a camel and spots like a leopard. Although Camelopardalis is the 18th largest constellation, it is not a bright constellation, as the brightest stars are only of fourth magnitude. In fact, it only contains four stars below magnitude 5.0. Α Cam is a blue-hued supergiant star of 5000 light-years from Earth. It is one of the most distant stars visible with the naked eye. Β Cam is the brightest star in Camelopardalis with an apparent magnitude of 4.03.
This star is a double star, with components of magnitudes 4.0 and 8.6. The primary is a yellow-hued supergiant 1000 light-years from Earth. 11 Cam is a star of 650 light-years from Earth. It is close to magnitude 6.1 12 Cam 650 light-years from Earth, but the two stars are not a true double star because of their separation. Σ 1694 is a binary star 300 light-years from Earth. Both components have a blue-white hue. CS Cam is the second brightest star, it is of magnitude 4.21 and is variable. Z Cam is observed as part of a program of AAVSO, it is the prototype of Z Camelopardalis variable stars. Other variable stars are U Camelopardalis, VZ Camelopardalis, Mira variables T Camelopardalis, X Camelopardalis, R Camelopardalis. RU Camelopardalis is one of the brighter Type II Cepheids visible in the night sky. In 2011 a supernova was discovered in the constellation. Camelopardalis is in the part of the celestial sphere facing away from the galactic plane. Accordingly, many distant galaxies are visible within its borders.
NGC 2403 is a galaxy in the M81 group of galaxies, located 12 million light-years from Earth with a redshift of 0.00043. It is classified as being between an elliptical and a spiral galaxy because it has faint arms and a large central bulge. NGC 2403 was first discovered by the 18th century astronomer William Herschel, working in England at the time, it has an integrated magnitude of 8.0 and is 0.25° long. NGC 1502 is a magnitude 6.9 open cluster about 3,000 light years from Earth. It has about 45 bright members, features a double star of magnitude 7.0 at its center. NGC 1502 is associated with Kemble's Cascade, a simple but beautiful asterism appearing in the sky as a chain of stars 2.5° long, parallel to the Milky Way and is pointed towards Cassiopeia. NGC 1501 is a planetary nebula located 1.4° south of NGC 1502. IC 342 is one of the brightest two galaxies in the IC 342/Maffei Group of galaxies; the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 is a magnitude 11.9 starburst galaxy, about 11 million light years away.
NGC 2655 is a large lenticular galaxy with visual magnitude 10.1. MS0735.6+7421 is a galaxy cluster with a redshift of 0.216, located 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. It is unique for its intracluster medium, which emits X-rays at a high rate; this galaxy cluster features two cavities 600,000 light-years in diameter, caused by its central supermassive black hole, which emits jets of matter. MS0735.6 +7421 is one of the most distant examples of this phenomenon. Tombaugh 5 is a dim open cluster in Camelopardalis, it is located 5,800 light-years from Earth. It is a Shapley class c and Trumpler class III 1 r cluster, meaning that it is irregularly shaped and appears loose. Though it is detached from the star field, it is not concentrated at its center at all, it has more than 100 stars which do not vary in brightness being of the 15th and 16th magnitude. NGC 2146 is an 11th magnitude barred spiral starburst galaxy conspicuously warped by interaction with a neighbour. MACS0647-JD, one of the possible candidates for the farthest known galaxies in the universe, is in Camelopardalis.
The annual May meteor shower Camelopardalids from comet 209P/LINEAR have a radiant in Camelopardalis. The space probe Voyager 1 is moving in the direction of this constellation, though it will not be nearing any of the stars in this constellation for many thousands of years, by which time its power source will be long dead. Camelopardalis is not one of Ptolemy's 48 constellations in the Almagest, it was created by Petrus Plancius in 1613. It first appeared in a globe produced by Pieter van den Keere. One year Jakob Bartsch featured it in his atlas. Johannes Hevelius depicted this constellation in his works which were so influential that it was referred to as Camelopardali Hevelii or abbreviated as Camelopard. Hevel. Part of the constellation was hived off to form the constellation Sciurus Volans, the Flying Squirrel, by William Croswell in 1810; however this was not taken up by cartographers. In Chinese astronomy, the stars of Camelopardalis are located within a group of circumpolar stars called the Purple Forbidden Enclosure.
Camelopardalis Citations References The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations: Camelopardalis Star Tales – Camelopardalis NASA – Voyager Interstellar Mission Characteristics
Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky. Its name is Latin for dragon, it was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy, remains one of the 88 modern constellations today. The north pole of the ecliptic is in Draco. Draco is circumpolar, can be seen all year from northern latitudes. Thuban was the northern pole star from 3942 BC, when it moved farther north than Theta Boötis, until 1793 BC; the Egyptian Pyramids were designed to have one side facing north, with an entrance passage geometrically aligned so that Thuban would be visible at night. Due to the effects of precession, it will again be the pole star around the year AD 21000, it is a blue-white giant star of 309 light-years from Earth. The traditional name of Alpha Draconis, means "head of the serpent". There are three stars under magnitude 3 in Draco; the brighter of the three, the brightest star in Draco, is Gamma Draconis, traditionally called Etamin or Eltanin. It is an orange giant star of 148 light-years from Earth.
The aberration of starlight was discovered in 1728. Nearby Beta Draconis, traditionally called Rastaban, is a yellow giant star of magnitude 2.8, 362 light-years from Earth. Its name shares a meaning with Thuban, "head of the serpent". Draco is home to binary stars. Eta Draconis is a double star with a yellow-hued primary of magnitude 2.8 and a white-hued secondary of magnitude 8.2 located south of the primary. The two are separated by 4.8 arcseconds. Mu Draconis, traditionally called Alrakis, is a binary star with two white components. Magnitude 5.6 and 5.7, the two components orbit each other every 670 years. The Alrakis system is 88 light-years from Earth. Nu Draconis is a similar binary star with 100 light-years from Earth. Both components are of magnitude 4.9 and can be distinguished in a small amateur telescope or a pair of binoculars. Omicron Draconis is a double star divisible in small telescopes; the primary is an orange giant of 322 light-years from Earth. The secondary is of magnitude 7.8.
Psi Draconis is a binary star divisible in binoculars and small amateur telescopes, 72 light-years from Earth. The primary is a yellow-white star of magnitude 4.6 and the secondary is a yellow star of magnitude 5.8. 16 Draconis and 17 Draconis are part of a triple star 400 light-years from Earth, divisible in medium-sized amateur telescopes. The primary, a blue-white star of magnitude 5.1, is itself a binary with components of magnitude 5.4 and 6.5. The secondary is of magnitude 5.5 and the system is 400 light-years away. 20 Draconis is a binary star with a white-hued primary of magnitude 7.1 and a yellow-hued secondary of magnitude 7.3 located east-northeast of the primary. The two have an orbital period of 420 years; as of 2012, the two components are approaching their maximum separation. 39 Draconis is a triple star 188 light-years from Earth, divisible in small amateur telescopes. The primary is a blue star of magnitude 5.0, the secondary is a yellow star of magnitude 7.4, the tertiary is a star of magnitude 8.0.
40 Draconis and 41 Draconis are a binary star divisible in small telescopes. The two orange dwarf stars are 170 light-years from Earth and are of magnitude 5.7 and 6.1. R Draconis is a red Mira-type variable star with a period of about 8 months, its average minimum magnitude is 12.4, its average maximum magnitude is 7.6. It was discovered to be a variable star by Hans Geelmuyden in 1876; the constellation contains the star named Kepler-10, confirmed to be orbited by Kepler-10b, the smallest rocky Earth-sized planet yet detected outside of the Solar System. One of deep-sky objects in Draco is the Cat's Eye Nebula, a planetary nebula 3,000 light-years away, discovered by English astronomer William Herschel in 1786, it is 9th magnitude and was named for its appearance in the Hubble Space Telescope, though it appears as a fuzzy blue-green disk in an amateur telescope. NGC 6543 has a complex shape due to gravitational interactions between the components of the multiple star at its center, the progenitor of the nebula 1,000 years ago.
It is located 9.6 arcminutes away from the north ecliptic pole to the west-northwest. It is related to IC 4677, a nebula that appears as a bar 1.8 arcminutes to the west of the Cat's Eye nebula. In long-term exposures, IC 4677 appears as a portion of a ring surrounding the planetary nebula. There are several faint galaxies in Draco, one of, the lenticular galaxy NGC 5866 that bears its name to a small group that includes the spiral galaxies NGC 5879 and NGC 5907. Another is the Draco Dwarf Galaxy, one of the least luminous galaxies with an absolute magnitude of −8.6 and a diameter of only about 3,500 light years, discovered by Albert G. Wilson of Lowell Observatory in 1954. Another dwarf galaxy found in this constellation is PGC 39058. Draco features several interacting galaxies and galaxy clusters. One such massive cluster is Abell 2218, located at a distance of 3 billion light-years, it acts as a gravitational lens for more distant background galaxies, allowing astronomers to study those galaxies as well as Abell 2218 itself.
One of the most well-known interacting galaxies is Arp 188 called the "Tadpole Galaxy". Named for its appearance, which features a "