Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
U.S. Route 101 in California
U. S. Route 101 in the state of California is one of the last remaining and longest U. S. Routes still active in the state, the longest highway of any kind in California. US 101 was one of the original national routes established in 1926. Significant portions of US 101 between the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area follow El Camino Real, the historic road connecting the former Alta California's 21 missions. Although the highway has been superseded in overall importance for transportation through the state by Interstate 5, US 101 continues to be the major coastal north–south route that links the Greater Los Angeles Area, the Central Coast, the San Francisco Bay Area, the North Coast. Referred to as "101" by residents of Northern California, in Southern California it is called "The 101"; the highway has portions designated as the Santa Ana Freeway, the Hollywood Freeway, the Ventura Freeway, South Valley Freeway, Bayshore Freeway. The Redwood Highway, the 350-mile-long northernmost segment of the highway, begins at the Golden Gate and passes through the world's tallest and only extensive preserves of virgin, old-growth coast redwood trees.
US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. The south terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles, about one mile east of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange known as the "Commuters' Complex"; this southernmost portion is named the Santa Ana Freeway, inheriting that title as the northerly extension of the roadway now known as I-5. After merging with westbound traffic from the San Bernardino Freeway, US 101 proceeds northwest via the Downtown Slot under the northern edge of Los Angeles' Civic Center to State Route 110 at the Four Level Interchange. From here, US 101 becomes the Hollywood Freeway, it heads to Hollywood and up through the Cahuenga Pass before reaching the San Fernando Valley. US 101 intersects with SR 134 and SR 170 at the interchange known as the Hollywood Split. Here, the alignment of US 101 shifts to the alignment of SR 134 and thereafter is referred to as the Ventura Freeway until it reaches Ventura.
Though confusing, the "Hollywood Freeway" name continues northward from this interchange on SR 170, the "Ventura Freeway" name continues eastward to SR 134. From the Hollywood Split, US 101 is an east–west highway, it meets with I-405 in Sherman Oaks, an interchange which holds claim to the most traveled intersection in the nation. The east–west geographical alignment of the Ventura Freeway and the north–south designation which appears on the freeway signs can be confusing to visitors. After the Conejo Grade, a 7% grade incline, the freeway enters the Oxnard Plain and runs concurrent with SR 1 for the first time. Upon reaching Ventura, there is an interchange with SR 126. North of Santa Barbara, US 101 switches intermittently between freeway and expressway status, but there are no traffic signals until San Francisco; the last traffic signals along this stretch of the route were removed in 1991 when the section through downtown Santa Barbara was constructed to freeway standards after years of disagreement over the impact that the original elevated design would have on the community.
From Ventura and through Santa Barbara, US 101 follows the Pacific coastline until Gaviota State Park, about 23 miles west of Goleta. At Gaviota State Park, the highway shifts back from an east–west highway to a north–south alignment. About one mile north of this point, US 101 passes through the Gaviota Tunnel. A few miles north of the Gaviota Tunnel, SR 1 splits from US 101 and heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline parallel and to the west of US 101. US 101 passes through Buellton, Los Alamos, Santa Maria, Nipomo. South of Santa Maria, US 101 widens from a four-lane highway to a six-lane freeway. SR 166 joins US 101 for about 3 miles before splitting just north of the city limits, while US 101 continues as a four-lane freeway before reverting to expressway status north of Nipomo. Farther north, SR 1 rejoins US 101 between San Luis Obispo. US 101 takes an inland route through the Salinas Valley, while Highway 1 heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline in California, parallel and to the west of US 101.
A steep segment between San Luis Obispo and Atascadero is known as the Cuesta Grade. North of Atascadero, the highway joins SR 46 for about three miles through Paso Robles. From Paso Robles to Salinas, US 101 is an expressway known as the Salinas River Valley Highway, since the Salinas River Valley extends from Santa Margarita to the SR 156 junction in Prunedale. US 101 resumes freeway status between San Miguel and King City, passing through the smaller towns of Camp Roberts and San Ardo, as well as the San Ardo Oil Field about five miles south of San Ardo. Near this point, the wide agricultural bottomlands of the Salinas Valley begins. North of King City, US 101 once again switches intermittently between freeway and
Downtown Long Beach station
Downtown Long Beach is an at-grade light rail station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located on 1st Street between Pine Avenue and Pacific Avenue in Downtown Long Beach in southwestern California; this station is the southern terminus of the Blue Line route and only offers northbound service, as it is located in a loop. The light rail station is a key part of the Long Beach Transit Mall, which extends along 1st Street between Pacific Avenue and Long Beach Boulevard; as the city's major transit center, this section of 1st Street is closed to private vehicles and only trains and transit vehicles are allowed. From 1990 to July 2013, the station was known as Transit Mall Station. In 2010, a $7 million project was undertaken by Long Beach Transit to upgrade the transit mall. New bus shelters were constructed, with new artwork; the project was completed in spring 2011. During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the station will serve spectators traveling to and from Olympic venues located in Long Beach.
Blue Line service hours are from 04:45 until 01:00 weekdays and 04:45 until 02:00 on weekends. Metro Local: 60, 232 Long Beach Transit: 1, 21, 22, 46, 51, 52, 61, 71, 81, 91, 92, 93, 94, 111, 112, 121, 151, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 191, 192, Passport LADOT Commuter Express: 142 Torrance Transit: 3, Rapid 3 Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach: 1b FlyAway to LAX Flixbus Aquarium of the Pacific Rainbow Harbor and Shoreline Village The Pike Entertainment Complex Pine Avenue Entertainment District Long Beach Performing Arts Center Media related to Transit Mall at Wikimedia Commons Long Beach Transit Mall info
Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is permitted, though sometimes with restrictions; some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' users. Countries and local governments have rules for use of parking spaces. Facilities include indoor and outdoor private property belonging to a house, the side of the road where metered or laid out for such use, a parking lot or car park and outdoor multi-level structures, shared underground parking facilities and facilities for particular types of vehicle such as dedicated structures for cycle parking. In the U. S. after the first public parking garage for motor vehicles was opened in Boston, May 24, 1898, livery stables in urban centers began to be converted into garages. In cities of the Eastern US, many former livery stables, with lifts for carriages, continue to operate as garages today; the following terms give regional variations. All except carport refer to outdoor multi-level parking facilities.
In some regional dialects, some of these phrases refer to indoor or single-level facilities. Parking ramp. Elsewhere, the term "ramp" would apply to the inclines between floors of a parking garage, but not to the entire structure itself. Multi-storey car park Car park Parking structure Parking garage Parking building Carport Cycle park Parkade In addition to basic car parking/parking lots variations of serviced parking types exist. Common serviced parking types are: Park and ride Valet Parking Airport Parking Meet and Greet Parking Park and Fly Parking Peer-to-Peer Share ParkingParking spaces may be variously arranged. Parking lots for bicycles are becoming more prevalent in many countries; these may include bicycle parking racks and locks, as well as more modern technologies for security and convenience. For instance, one bicycle parking lot in Tokyo has an automated parking system. Urban parking spaces can have a high value. In Boston in 2009 a single parking space sold for $300,000. According to Parkopedia’s 2017 Global Parking Index, the cost for 2 hours of parking in USD$ for the top 25 cities is as follows: In congested urban areas parking of motor vehicles is time-consuming and expensive.
Urban planners who are in a position to override market forces must consider whether and how to accommodate or "demand manage" large numbers of motor vehicles in small geographic areas. The authorities set minimum, or more maximum, numbers of motor vehicle parking spaces for new housing and commercial developments, may plan their location and distribution to influence their convenience and accessibility; the costs or subsidies of such parking accommodations can become a heated point in local politics. For example, in 2006 the San Francisco Board of Supervisors considered a controversial zoning plan to limit the number of motor vehicle parking spaces available in new residential developments. In the graph to the right the value above the line represents the out-of-pocket cost per trip, per person for each mode of transportation; when cities charge market rates for on-street parking and municipal parking garages for motor vehicles, when bridges and tunnels are tolled for these modes, driving becomes less competitive in terms of out-of-pocket costs compared to other modes of transportation.
When municipal motor vehicle parking is underpriced and roads are not tolled, the shortfall in tax expenditures by drivers, through fuel tax and other taxes, might be regarded as a large subsidy for automobile use: much greater than common subsidies for the maintenance of infrastructure and discounted fares for public transportation. Where car parking spaces are a scarce commodity, owners have not made suitable arrangements for their own parking, ad hoc overspill parking takes place along sections of road where there is no planned scheme by a municipal authority to allocate roadspace. Heated social discourse sometimes revolves around the sense of "ownership". Many use parking chairs and other markers without approval of municipal authorities. For example, during the winter of 2005 in Boston, the practice of some people saving convenient roadway for themselves became controversial. At that time, many Boston districts had an informal convention that if a person shoveled the snow out of a roadspace, that person could claim ownership of that space with a marker.
However, city government cleared markers out of spaces. Festivals and sporting events spawn a cottage industry of parking. Homeowners and businesses make extra money by charging a flat-rate fee for all-day parking during the event. In some countries, such "cottage industry parking" has become large-scale business; the UK airport parking industry is estimated to be worth 1.3 billion GBP per year. According to the International Parking Institute, "parking is a $25 billion industry and plays a pivotal role in transportation, building design, quality of life and environmental issues". Annual parking revenue in the US alone is $10 billion; some airports charge more for parking cars than for parking aircraft. Parking control is an
North Hollywood station
North Hollywood is a combined heavy rail subway station and a bus rapid transit station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at the intersection of Lankershim Boulevard and Chandler Boulevard in the North Hollywood district in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles; this station is served by the Red Line subway service as well as the Orange Line BRT service. The station is the northern terminus of the Red Line, the eastern terminus of the Orange Line in the Los Angeles County Metro Liner system. Red Line service hours are from 4:30 AM until 1:00 AM daily. Metro Liner Orange Line BRT service hours are from 4:00 AM until 1:00 AM daily. Metro constructed a second entrance on the west side of Lankershim Boulevard, which allows riders to connect between the Orange Line and the Red Line via an underground passageway; this underground connection was completed in August 2016. North Hollywood Metro station is located on Lankershim Boulevard, which forms the western border of the station and parking lot.
It is one block West of Vineland Avenue. The station is located in district of the same name in the San Fernando Valley section of Los Angeles. Since the opening of the station in 2000, transit-oriented developments have begun to be constructed adjacent to the station. NoHo Tower is across the street from the station and NoHo Commons, a multi-use complex which includes several floors of apartments above a level of retail. In September 2007, transportation officials approved NoHo Art Wave, the largest "transit-oriented" development in L. A. County history, consisting of a $1.3-billion apartment and high-rise office tower complex totaling more than 1,700,000 square feet of development on 15.6 acres. That project did not start due to the recession but in 2016 a public-private partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was proposed on the 16 acres surrounding the station; the Southern Pacific Railway built the Lankershim Depot in 1896 on land, adjacent to the current Orange Line platforms.
It served as a stop on the Pacific Electric system after its North Hollywood Line opened in 1911. In 2014, the station was restored for a cost of $3.6 million, is occupied by a coffee shop. Metro Local: 152, 154, 162, 183, 224, 237, 353, 656 Metro Express: 501 Bob Hope Airport Shuttle Burbank Bus: NoHo-Airport, NoHo-Media District City of Santa Clarita Transit: 757 LADOT Commuter Express: 549 Metro Orange Line bicycle path - begins adjacent to station and proceeds west. NoHo Arts District, Los Angeles Millennium Dance Complex North Hollywood Station: connections overview LA Metro - countywide: official website LA Metro: Orange Line Timetable - schedules LA Metro: Orange Line map and stations - route map and station addresses and features
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is generated in large and efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains; some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway provides its own distribution lines and transformers. Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track that takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems use the running rails as the return conductor but some systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, more responsive and reliable than diesels. They have an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas; some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid. While diesel locomotives burn petroleum, electricity can be generated from diverse sources including renewable energy. Disadvantages of electric traction include high capital costs that may be uneconomic on trafficked routes. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service and requiring greater complexity of locomotive power; the limited clearances available under overhead lines may preclude efficient double-stack container service. Railway electrification has increased in the past decades, as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally. Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Voltage Current Direct current Alternating current Frequency Contact system Third rail Fourth rail Overhead lines Overhead lines plus linear motor Four rail system Five rail systemSelection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
Different systems are used for intercity areas. Six of the most used voltages have been selected for European and international standardisation; some of these are independent of the contact system used, so that, for example, 750 V DC may be used with either third rail or overhead lines. There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems; the permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850. These take into account the number of trains drawing their distance from the substation. Increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. 1,500 V DC is used in Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, France, New Zealand, the United States. In Slovakia, there are two narrow-gauge lines in the High Tatras.
In the Netherlands it is used on the main system, alongside 25 kV on the HSL-Zuid and Betuwelijn, 3000 V south of Maastricht. In Portugal, it is used in Denmark on the suburban S-train system. In the United Kingdom, 1,500 V DC was used in 1954 for the Woodhead trans-Pennine route; the system was used for suburban electrification in East London and Manchester, now converted to 25 kV AC. It is now only used for the Wear Metro. In India, 1,500 V DC was the first electrification system launched in 1925 in Mumbai area. Between 2012-2016, the electrification was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC, the countrywide system. 3 kV DC is used in Belgium, Spain, the northern Czech Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, former Soviet Union countries and the Netherlands. It was used by the Milwaukee Road from Harlowton, Montana to Seattle-Tacoma, across the Continental Divide and including extensive branch and loop lines in Montana, by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in the United States, the Kolkata suburban railway in India, before it was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. DC volt