Wonder Woman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is a founding member of the Justice League; the character first appeared in All Star Comics #8 in October 1941 with her first feature in Sensation Comics #1, January 1942. The Wonder Woman title has been published by DC Comics continuously except for a brief hiatus in 1986. In her homeland, the island nation of Themyscira, her official title is Princess Diana of Themyscira, Daughter of Hippolyta; when blending into the society outside of her homeland, she adopts her civilian identity Diana Prince. Wonder Woman was created by the American psychologist and writer William Moulton Marston, artist Harry G. Peter. Marston's wife and their life partner, Olive Byrne, are credited as being his inspiration for the character's appearance. Marston's comics featured his ideas on DISC theory, the character drew a great deal of inspiration from early feminists, from birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger.
Wonder Woman's origin story relates that she was sculpted from clay by her mother Queen Hippolyta and was given a life to live as an Amazon, along with superhuman powers as gifts by the Greek gods. In recent years, DC changed her background with the revelation that she is the daughter of Zeus and Hippolyta, jointly raised by her mother and her aunts Antiope and Menalippe; the character has changed in depiction over the decades, including losing her powers in the 1970s. She possesses an arsenal of advanced technology, including the Lasso of Truth, a pair of indestructible bracelets, a tiara which serves as a projectile, and, in older stories, a range of devices based on Amazon technology. Wonder Woman's character was created during World War II. Many stories depicted Wonder Woman rescuing herself from bondage, which defeated the "damsels in distress" trope, common in comics during the 1940s. In the decades since her debut, Wonder Woman has gained a cast of enemies bent on eliminating the Amazon, including classic villains such as Ares, Doctor Poison, Doctor Psycho, Giganta, along with more recent adversaries such as Veronica Cale and the First Born.
Wonder Woman has regularly appeared in comic books featuring the superhero teams Justice Society and Justice League. The character is a well-known figure in popular culture, adapted to various media. June 3 is Wonder Woman Day. Wonder Woman is part of the DC Comics trinity of flagship characters alongside Superman. Modern historians divide 20th century history of American superhero comics into "ages," The Golden Age being the first. In an October 25, 1940, interview with the Family Circle magazine, William Moulton Marston discussed the unfulfilled potential of the comic book medium; this article caught the attention of comics publisher Max Gaines, who hired Marston as an educational consultant for National Periodicals and All-American Publications, two of the companies that would merge to form DC Comics. At that time, Marston wanted to create his own new superhero. "Fine," said Elizabeth. "But make her a woman." Marston introduced the idea to Gaines. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman, whom he believed to be a model of that era's unconventional, liberated woman.
Marston drew inspiration from the bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, who lived with the couple in a polyamorous relationship. Wonder Woman debuted in All Star Comics #8, scripted by Marston. Marston was the creator of a systolic-blood-pressure-measuring apparatus, crucial to the development of the polygraph. Marston's experience with polygraphs convinced him that women were more honest than men in certain situations and could work more efficiently. Marston designed Wonder Woman to be an allegory for the ideal love leader. "Wonder Woman is psychological propaganda for the new type of woman who should, I believe, rule the world", Marston wrote. In a 1943 issue of The American Scholar, Marston wrote: Not girls want to be girls so long as our feminine archetype lacks force and power. Not wanting to be girls, they don't want to be tender, peace-loving as good women are. Women's strong qualities have become despised because of their weakness; the obvious remedy is to create a feminine character with all the strength of Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman.
Marston was an outspoken feminist and firm believer in the superiority of women. He described bondage and submission as a "respectable and noble practice". Marston wrote in a weakness for Wonder Woman, attached to a fictional stipulation that he dubbed "Aphrodite's Law", that made the chaining of her "Bracelets of Submission" together by a man take away her Amazonian super strength. Wonder Woman ended up in chains before breaking free; this not only represented Marston's affinity for bondage, but women's subjugation, which he roundly rejected. However, not everything a
Zero Hour: Crisis in Time!
"Zero Hour: Crisis in Time!" is a comic book crossover storyline published by DC Comics in 1994, consisting of an eponymous five-issue central miniseries and a number of tie-in books. In it, the former hero Hal Jordan, who had until been a member of the intergalactic police force known as the Green Lantern Corps, mad with grief after the destruction of his home town of Coast City and having obtained immense power as Parallax, attempted to destroy, remake, the DC Universe; the crossover involved every DC Universe monthly series published at the time. The issues of the series itself were numbered in reverse order, beginning with issue #4 and ending with #0; the series was penciled by Dan Jurgens, with inks by Jerry Ordway. This series is noted for its motif of the DC Universe "fading out" as events reached their climax. Zero Hour: Crisis in Time! was intended by DC as a belated follow-up to their landmark limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, was indeed subtitled " Crisis in Time!". It promised to do for the inconsistent future timelines of the DC Universe what Crisis had done for its parallel worlds: unify them into a new one.
This event served as an opportunity to reconcile some of the problems left unaddressed by Crisis and other problems, unintentionally caused by it. In particular, the revised characters of the post-Crisis universe had been rolled out with DC continuing to feature the old versions until the new versions were launched, some of them a year or several after the first wave of revised characters were published; the character of Hawkman was one of the most problematic, since the revised version did not first appear until 1989. This raised the question of what version of Hawkman had been seen since 1986; the Legion of Super-Heroes faced similar problems with the eliminations of Superboy and Supergirl from DC continuity. These and other retcons were not always well received by readers and introduced new problems; the story begins when characters from alternate realities such as Alpha Centurion, an alternate version of Batgirl, Triumph started appearing in the main DC Universe, to everybody's confusion.
A wave of "nothingness" is seen moving from the end of time to its beginning, erasing entire historical ages in the process. The apparent villain of the story presented in the miniseries was a character named Extant Hawk of the duo Hawk and Dove. Extant had acquired temporal powers. In a confrontation with members of the Justice Society of America, Extant aged several of them, leaving them either feeble or dead. However, the true power behind the destruction of the universe — caused by temporal rifts of entropy — turned out to be Hal Jordan, regarded as the most distinguished Green Lantern in history. Calling himself Parallax, Jordan had gone insane, was now trying to remake the universe, undoing the events which had caused his breakdown and his own murderous actions following it; the collective efforts of the other superheroes managed to stop Jordan/Parallax from imposing his vision of a new universe, the timeline was recreated anew, albeit with subtle differences compared to the previous one, after the young hero Damage, with help from the other heroes, triggered a new Big Bang.
Although Jordan was weakened from using so much energy he managed to survive when Green Arrow shot an arrow into his heart. This "blanking out/recreation" of the DC Universe was reflected in many of the tie-in issues. DC published a fold-out timeline inside the back cover of Zero Hour #0 which identified various events and key stories which were part of its newly singular timeline and when they occurred. Although fixed dates were given for the debut of historical characters such as the JSA, the debut of the Post-Crisis Superman was presented as "10 years ago" and subsequent dates were expressed the same way, suggesting that the calendar years of these events were fluid and relative to the present rather than fixed, as a way to keep the characters at their present ages; the Legion of Super-Heroes continuity was rebooted following Zero Hour, the various Hawkman characters were merged into one. Each ongoing series at the time was given an opportunity to retell the origin of its hero to establish the official version in this revised continuity, in a "#0" issue published in the subsequent weeks after Zero Hour.
They went on to # 1, for new series, the following month. Several series took new directions following Zero Hour. A major part of Batman's origin was retconned after the events in Zero Hour. In this version, Batman never caught or confr
A violet ray is an antique medical appliance used during the early 20th century to discharge in electrotherapy. Their construction featured a disruptive discharge coil with an interrupter to apply a high voltage, high frequency, low current to the human body for therapeutic purposes, their basic construction was invented prior to 1900 by Nikola Tesla, who introduced his first prototypes at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. Most of the antique violet rays in the US were produced before the Depression era, some of the larger US manufacturers of violet rays were Renulife and Fisher. Companies who manufactured violet ray devices made many other types of electrical appliances as well, e.g. Star Electric, which manufactured stock ticker machines. Many of the companies who were able to continue manufacturing violet rays after the Depression stopped making them due to World War II, when they began manufacturing radio coils and other electrical components for the war instead. A typical violet ray device consisted of an ungrounded, electrical control box that controlled the interrupter and housed the magneto coil, an attached bakelite or other handle housing which contained the high voltage coil and an insertion port for attachments.
Glass, evacuated tubes of varying shapes and for different therapeutic uses could be inserted into the bakelite handle to apply the resulting current to different parts of the body. Violet ray treatments were said to cure everything from lumbago to carbuncles. From an antique Master Violet Ray manual c. 1920 comes this treatment advice: Brain Fog - Use Applicator No. I over eyes. Treat the back of head and neck with strong current in direct contact with the skin. Treat the spine and hold the electrode in the hand. Ozone inhalations for about four minutes are of importance. For catarrh, this treatment was directed: Catarrh, Nasal - In this condition the Nasal Tube is used within the nose with a mild current within the nasal passage, two to five minutes on each side, followed by an application with the Surface Electrode externally over the area of the nose. Use Ozone Generator. During the 1940s and 1950s, makers of violet ray devices were subjected to numerous lawsuits and multiple actions by the US government including recalls, seizures and orders to have them destroyed.
The last manufacturer of violet ray electrotherapy devices in the US was Master Electric. The company was subjected to a 1951 lawsuit in Marion and the devices were seized by the FDA. While their manufacture was prohibited in the US by case law, violet ray electrotherapy devices are still manufactured by companies outside of the US. Jon Burge of the Chicago Police Department, dismissed in 1992 following allegations of torture of suspects by Burge and detectives working under him in the 1970s and 1980s, may have used a violet ray; the violet ray was suggested independently by two museum curators after they were given victims' descriptions of one of the several electrical devices used by Burge. American clairvoyant Edgar Cayce advocated use of the violet ray in 900 of his readings. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation Electrotherapy Museum: Violet Ray related antique devices Electrotherapy Museum: Violet Ray Misconceptions
The Teen Titans known as the New Teen Titans or the Titans, are a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in an eponymous monthly series. As the group's name suggests, its members are teenage superheroes, many of whom have acted as sidekicks to DC's premiere superheroes in the Justice League. First appearing in 1964 in The Brave and the Bold #54, the team was founded by Kid Flash and Aqualad, with the team adopting the name Teen Titans in issue 60 following the addition of Wonder Girl to its ranks. Over the decades, DC has cancelled and relaunched Teen Titans many times, a variety of characters have been featured heroes in its pages. Significant early additions to the initial quartet of Titans were Green Arrow's sidekick, Aquagirl, Bumblebee and Dove, three heroes who did not wear costumes: boxer Mal Duncan, psychic Lilith, caveman Gnarrk; the series became a genuine hit for the first time however during its 1980s revival as The New Teen Titans under writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez.
This run depicted the original Titans now as young adults and introduced new characters Cyborg and Raven, as well as the former Doom Patrol member Beast Boy, who would all become enduring fan-favorites. A high point for the series both critically and commercially was its famous "The Judas Contract" storyline, in which the team is betrayed by its member Terra to its archenemy Deathstroke. Stories in the 2000s introduced a radically different Teen Titans team made up of newer DC Comics sidekicks such as the new Robin, Wonder Girl, Kid Flash, as well as Superboy, some of whom had featured in the similar title Young Justice. Prominent additions from this era included Miss Martian, Ravager and Blue Beetle. Concurrently, DC published Titans, which featured some of the original and 1980s members now as adults, led by Dick Grayson in his adult persona of Nightwing. A new run following DC's The New 52 reboot in 2011 introduced new characters to the founding roster, including Solstice and Skitter, although this new volume proved commercially and critically disappointing for DC.
In 2016, DC used the Titans Hunt and DC Rebirth storylines to re-establish the group's original founding members and history, reuniting these classic heroes as the Titans, while introducing a new generation of Teen Titans led by new Robin featuring the new Aqualad and Kid Flash. The Teen Titans have been adapted to other media numerous times, have enjoyed a higher profile since Cartoon Network's light-hearted Teen Titans animated television series in the early-mid 2000s, as well as its DC Nation spin-off Teen Titans Go!. A live-action Teen Titans series was in development for the network TNT before moving production to DC's in-house web television service DC Universe, its characters and stories were adapted into the 2010s animated series Young Justice. Within DC Comics, the Teen Titans have been an influential group of characters taking prominent roles in all of the publisher's major company-wide crossover stories. Many villains who face the Titans have since taken on a larger role within the publisher's fictional universe, such as Deathstroke, the demon Trigon, the evil organization H.
I. V. E. Robin, Kid Flash and Aqualad team up to defeat a weather-controlling villain known as Mister Twister in The Brave and the Bold #54 by writer Bob Haney and artist Bruno Premiani, they appeared under the name "Teen Titans" in The Brave and the Bold #60, joined by Wonder Woman's younger sister Wonder Girl. After being featured in Showcase #59, the Teen Titans were spun off into their own series with Teen Titans #1 by Haney and artist Nick Cardy; the series' original premise had the Teen Titans helping teenagers and answering calls. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that Haney "took some ribbing for the writing style that described the Teen Titans as'the Cool Quartet' or'the Fab Foursome'; the attempt to reach the youth culture embracing performers like the Beatles and Bob Dylan impressed some observers." Green Arrow's sidekick Speedy makes guest appearances before joining the team in Teen Titans #19. Aqualad takes a leave of absence from the group in the same issue, but makes several guest appearances, sometimes with girlfriend Aquagirl.
Neal Adams was called upon to rewrite and redraw a Teen Titans story, written by Len Wein and Marv Wolfman. The story, titled "Titans Fit the Battle of Jericho!", would have introduced DC's first African American superhero but was rejected by publisher Carmine Infantino. The revised story appeared in Teen Titans #20. Wolfman and Gil Kane created an origin for Wonder Girl in Teen Titans #22 and introduced her new costume. Psychic Lilith Clay and Mal Duncan join the group. Beast Boy of the Doom Patrol makes a guest appearance seeking membership, but was rejected as too young at the time; the series explored events such as protests against the Vietnam War. One storyline beginning in issue #25 saw the Titans deal with the accidental death of a peace activist, leading them to reconsider their methods; as a result, the Teen Titans abandoned their identities to work as ordinary civilians, but the effort was a
Hippolyta (DC Comics)
Queen Hippolyta is a fictional DC Comics superhero, based on the Amazon queen Hippolyta from Greek mythology. Introduced in 1941 during the Golden Age of Comic Books, she is the queen of the Amazons of Themyscira, the mother of Wonder Woman, in some continuities, the adopted mother of Donna Troy. Hippolyta made her cinematic debut in the 2017 film Wonder Woman, she appeared in the 2017 film Justice League. The character Hippolyta first appeared in All Star Comics #8 in the same story that introduced her daughter, Princess Diana, known as Wonder Woman. Created by writer William Moulton Marston and artist Harry G. Peter, this original version of the character is a brunette like Diana. In the story and the Amazons once resided in "Amazonia" in the days of ancient Greece, until they were beguiled and bested by the demi-god Hercules, inspired by the God of War Mars, to go after her, she was able to beat him thanks to the magic girdle, but he seduced her, tricked her into removing the girdle, allowing him to steal it.
This caused the Amazons to lose their super strength and the favor of their patron goddess, Aphrodite. She and the other Amazons were forgiven, but had to wear bracelets to remind them of the folly of submitting to men. To regain their status, the Amazons were decreed to leave the mortal world and relocate to Paradise Island. There they established their own society, free from the evils of man's world. So long as they remained there and Hippolyte retained possession of her magic girdle, the Amazons would be immortal. Much of this history was adapted and expanded upon in the modern version of the Wonder Woman comics. For the most part, Hippolyte remained on Paradise Island during the Golden Age era interacting with the modern world to which her daughter had journeyed, her role was mentor to Wonder Woman. She was devoted to the Olympian goddesses the Amazons' patron Aphrodite, was adamant that man never be allowed to set foot on Paradise Island. Although she remained on the island, in one story from Sensation Comics #26, Hippolyte travels to Man's World and assumes the role of Wonder Woman.
In the first appearance of Villany inc she is kidnapped to lure Wonder Woman into a trap. In the late 1950s, DC Comics introduced the concept of the Multiverse, the Golden Age Hippolyte was established as existing on the world known as Earth-Two; the last appearance of this incarnation of Hippolyte was in Wonder Woman #97 in April 1958, after which the focus shifted from Earth-Two to the more modern versions of the characters on Earth-One. As of Wonder Woman #98, the Amazon Queen's name was spelled "Hippolyta", she was depicted with blonde hair and a triple pointed tiara; the backstory of this Silver Age Hippolyta was identical to the Golden Age version, with some exceptions. For example, it was established in a 1973 storyline that Hippolyta had crafted a second daughter from clay, a dark-skinned Amazon named Nubia, to be Wonder Woman's sister before she was spirited away by the god Mars. Hippolyta was the adoptive mother of Donna Troy, rescued from a fire and brought to Paradise Island; as before, Hippolyta's role in the Silver Age era was that of Paradise Island's queen and mentor to Wonder Woman.
She was shown interacting with her daughter as well as supporting characters of the era such as Wonder Girl and Wonder Tot. According to the DC Comics 1976 calendar, Hippolyta was born on January 8. Hippolyta was instrumental in several of the continuity shake-ups for the Earth-One Wonder Woman. Enraged that her daughter, recovering from amnesia, had submitted to trials by the Justice League to prove her worth to rejoin, she created her own test which involved resurrecting Steve Trevor to lead an assault on Paradise Island; the goddess Aphrodite granted Diana's wish to allow the resurrected Trevor to continue living. After Trevor had again been killed and a grief-stricken Diana returned home, Hippolyta erased Diana's memories of him. In 1985, the Crisis on Infinite Earths miniseries revised DC Comics continuity and combined the multiple Earths into one world; the modern version of Hippolyta would combine elements of her earlier incarnations and take on greater importance in the series. Hippolyta's origins underwent a revision after writer George Pérez' revamp of Wonder Woman in 1987.
In that continuity and the rest of the Themyscirian Amazons were created by a select group of the Olympian gods, which included Artemis, Hestia and Aphrodite. These goddesses reincarnated the souls of women gathered by the earth-goddess Gaea, they sent these souls to the bottom of the Aegean Sea. The souls began to merge with the clay on the sea bed; the first reincarnated Amazon to break the surface was Hippolyta, thus she was titled as Queen of the new race. The second Amazon to break the surface was her sister Antiope and she ruled at Hippolyta's side; each of the goddesses blessed the Amazon nation with gifts: hunting skills, warm homes, plentiful harvests (Dem
The Batcave is a fictional subterranean location appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. It is the headquarters of the superhero Batman, whose secret identity is Bruce Wayne, consisting of caves beneath his personal residence, Wayne Manor. There was only a secret tunnel that ran underground between Wayne Manor and a dusty old barn where the Batmobile was kept. In Batman #12, Bill Finger mentioned "secret underground hangars." In 1943, the writers of the first Batman movie serial, titled Batman, gave Batman a complete underground crime lab and introduced it in the second chapter entitled "The Bat's Cave". The entrance included bats flying around. Bob Kane, on the movie set, mentioned this to Bill Finger, going to be the initial scripter on the Batman daily newspaper strip. Finger included with his script a clipping from Popular Mechanics that featured a detailed cross section of underground hangars. Kane used this clipping as a guide, adding a study, crime lab, workshop and garage.
This illustration appeared in the Batman "dailies" on October 29, 1943 in a strip entitled "The Bat Cave!" In this early version the cave itself was described as Batman's underground study and, like the other rooms, was just a small alcove with a desk and filing cabinets. Like in the movie serial, the Batman's symbol was carved into the rock behind the desk and had a candle in the middle of it; the entrance was via a bookcase. The Batcave made its comic book debut in Detective Comics #83 in January 1944. Over the decades, the cave has expanded along with its owner's popularity to include a vast trophy room and forensics lab. There has been little consistency as to the floor plan of its contents; the design has varied from artist to artist and it is not unusual for the same artist to draw the cave layout differently in various issues. The cave was discovered and used long before by Bruce Wayne's ancestors as a storehouse as well as a means of transporting escaped slaves during the Civil War era.
The 18th century frontier hero Tomahawk once discovered a gargantuan bat inside what can be assumed would become the Batcave. Wayne himself rediscovered the caves as a boy when he fell through a dilapidated well on his estate, but he did not consider the cave as a potential base of operations until he rediscovered it yet again when he returned to Gotham to become Batman. In addition to a base, the Batcave serves as a place of privacy and tranquility, much like Superman's Fortress of Solitude. In earlier versions of the story, Bruce Wayne discovered the cave as an adult. In "The Origin of the Batcave" in Detective Comics #205, Batman tells Robin he had no idea the cave existed when he purchased the house they live in, he discovered the cave by accident when testing the floor of an old barn on the rear of the property, the floor gave way. This story established that a frontiersman named Jeremy Coe used the cave as a headquarters 300 years earlier. Bruce Wayne discovering the cave as an adult remained the case at least through Who's Who #2 in 1985.
Upon his initial foray into crime-fighting, Wayne used the caves as a sanctum and to store his then-minimal equipment. As time went on, Wayne found the place ideal to create a stronghold for his war against crime, has incorporated a plethora of equipment as well as expanding the cave for specific uses; the cave is accessible in several ways. It can be reached through a secret door in Wayne Manor itself, always depicted as in the main study behind a grandfather clock which unlocks the secret door when the hands are set to the time that Bruce Wayne's parents were murdered, 10:48 pm. In the 1960s Batman TV show, the cave entrance is behind a bookcase, opened when Bruce Wayne activated a control switch hidden in a bust of William Shakespeare. An entrance under Bruce Wayne's chair in his office in Wayne Enterprises, as shown in Batman Forever, connects to a miles-long tunnel which Bruce travels through in a high-speed personal transportation capsule. In Batman Begins and The Dark Knight Rises, the cave is accessible through a secret door disguised as part of a large display case and is unlocked by pressing a sequence of keys on the nearby grand piano.
Another secret entrance, covered by a waterfall, hologram, or a camouflaged door, allows access to a service road for the Batmobile. Another alternate entrance is the dry well where Bruce discovered the Batcave, highlighted during the Knightfall comic book storyline. At one point, Tim Drake and Dick Grayson use the dry well to get into the cave, which they had been locked out of by Jean Paul Valley during his time as Batman, Bruce Wayne used it to infiltrate the cave and confront the insane Valley in the final battle between the two men for the title of the Batman. Lured into the narrow tunnel, Valley was forced to remove the massive Bat-armor he had developed, thus allowing Wayne to force Vally to remit his claim to the title; the location of the cave is known not only to several of his allies. In addition to the so-called "Batman Family", members of the Justice League and the original Outsiders are aware of the cave's location. Anyone, aware of Batman's secret identity knows the location of the Batcave, much like how people who have knowledge of Robin's identity have knowledge of Batman's.
Themyscira (DC Comics)
Themyscira is a fictional unitary sovereign city-state and archipelagic island nation appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Known Paradise Island and the Amazon Isles, it first appeared in All Star Comics #8. Themyscira was created by William Moulton Marston to allegorize the safety and security of the home where women thrived apart from the hostile, male-dominated work place. Regarded as a utopia, it is governed by Aphrodite's Law, which declared that the Amazons would be immortal as long as no man set foot on their island. Themyscira is the theocracy and capital city that serves as the Amazonians' government and place of origin for Wonder Woman; the name for the entire archipelago became "The Paradise Islands", when the city was renamed "Themyscira" with the character's February 1987 relaunch in Wonder Woman #1. Both the island and city are named after the mythological city of Themiscyra, the capital of the Amazons in Greek mythology; when Wonder Woman's homeland is first introduced in 1941, it is referred to as Paradise Island, a secret and hidden island on Earth inhabited by the Amazons of myth.
The Amazons were given a break from the hostilities and temptations of Man's World, so were decreed to start a new life improving themselves by sequestering themselves to this island away from ancient Greece, after being enslaved by Hercules. With the island blessed by the Olympian Gods, no man was allowed to physically set foot on it; when United States Army intelligence officer Steve Trevor's plane crashes there during World War II, he is nursed back to health just outside of the capital city by Princess Diana, daughter of the island's Queen Hippolyta. Diana competes against other Amazons to become Wonder Woman, the emissary from Paradise Island who will accompany Steve back to "Man's World" and aid in the fight against the Axis powers, it was established that all Amazons are adept at a discipline called "bullets and bracelets" in which they are able to deflect bullets fired at them using the chain bands on their wrists. It was implied, but not yet confirmed, that Paradise Island was located somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
In the 1970s television incarnation, Paradise Island's location was set in the Bermuda Triangle. And the 2009 animated movie version had set it in the Aegean Sea. There were three generations of Amazons living on the island, with Princess Diana being from the second; this basic back-story remains intact throughout the Golden Age and Silver Age of Comic Books, until the 1985–1986 Crisis on Infinite Earths storyline. Upon the conclusion of this limited series, most characters in the DC Comics universe underwent some revamp or retcon in their storyline history, Wonder Woman was one of several characters whose entire continuity was rebooted; the 1987 relaunch of Wonder Woman establishes that the Amazons are the reincarnated souls of women slain throughout pre-history by men. Shaped from clay over 3,000 years previous and given new lives by five Olympian goddesses — Artemis, Demeter and Aphrodite — the Amazons are granted immortality, great physical strength acute senses, beauty and love for one another.
They are tasked to teach the merits of virtue and equality to the men of "Patriarch’s World". They have founded the city-state of Themyscira in ancient Greece – Modern day Turkey, ruled by sisters Hippolyta and Antiope. Ares, the God of War and a chief opponent of the Amazons, manipulates his half brother Heracles to gather forces and attack Themyscira. Heracles subdues and ravages Hippolyta, his forces succeed in ransacking Themyscira and making the Amazons their slaves. Hippolyta pleads with the goddesses for help. Athena agrees to aid the Amazons, but only if they do not go against their purpose of creation by seeking revenge; when they agree to her terms, Athena frees the Amazons from their chains. Once freed, the Amazons proceed to slaughter most of their captors. Antiope leads a force of Amazons off into Greece; as decreed by the goddesses, Hippolyta leads the remaining Amazons to a remote island where, as penance for their failures as teachers, they become guardians of Doom’s Doorway, preventing the escape of the monsters beneath.
Renaming the island paradise Themyscira after their fallen capital, the Amazons began their new lives, erecting buildings and monuments and perfecting their skills as artisans and warriors. For centuries, the Amazons of Themyscira live in a perfect state of harmony with their surroundings, under a theocracy, they know no racism, although many consider Antiope's Lost Tribe of Amazons as little more than savages. They do not think in terms of male gender. Homosexuality is natural to them — while some Amazons are chaste, others have loving consorts, their city is composed of Greco-Roman architecture from 1200 BCE, they wear Greek garb, togas and period armor. The Amazons all wear the Bracelets of Submission as constant reminders of their Enslavement and obedience to their patrons, although only Diana is able to deflect bullets with them, they are fervently religious. Artemis is their primary goddess, they worship her with a sacrifice of a deer; the Amazons celebrate their creation each year in a Feast of Five, remembering the goddesses who brought them to life.
The Nereides bring to the shores of Themyscira young infants who would have otherwise drowned in accidents. Called "sending forth", these infants are tutored spiritually in Amazonian ideals, they are sent back mystically to the place of their disappearance. Julia Kapate