Newcastle, New South Wales
The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas. It is the hub of the Greater Newcastle area which includes most parts of the local government areas of City of Newcastle, City of Lake Macquarie, City of Cessnock, City of Maitland and Port Stephens Council. Located at the mouth of the Hunter River, it is the predominant city within the Hunter Region. Famous for its coal, Newcastle is the largest coal exporting harbour in the world, exporting 159.9 million tonnes of coal in 2017. Beyond the city, the Hunter Region possesses large coal deposits. Geologically, the area is located in the central-eastern part of the Sydney basin. Newcastle and the lower Hunter Region were traditionally occupied by the Awabakal and Worimi Aboriginal People, who called the area Malubimba. Based on Aboriginal language references documented in maps and geological descriptions, eight landmarks have been dual-named by the NSW Geographic Names Board with their traditional Aboriginal names.
They include Nobbys Head known as Whibayganba. In September 1797 Lieutenant John Shortland became the first European settler to explore the area, his discovery of the area was accidental. While returning, Lt. Shortland entered what he described as "a fine river", which he named after New South Wales' Governor John Hunter, he returned with the area's abundant coal. Over the next two years, coal mined from the area was the New South Wales colony's first export. Newcastle gained a reputation as a "hellhole" as it was a place where the most dangerous convicts were sent to dig in the coal mines as harsh punishment for their crimes. By the start of the 19th century the mouth of the Hunter River was being visited by diverse groups of men, including coal diggers, timber-cutters, more escaped convicts. Philip Gidley King, the Governor of New South Wales from 1800, decided on a more positive approach to exploit the now obvious natural resources of the Hunter Valley. In 1801, a convict camp called King's Town was established to mine cut timber.
In the same year, the first shipment of coal was dispatched to Sydney. This settlement closed less than a year later. A settlement was again attempted as a place of secondary punishment for unruly convicts; the settlement was named Coal River Kingstown and renamed Newcastle, after England's famous coal port. The name first appeared by the commission issued by Governor King on 15 March 1804 to Lieutenant Charles Menzies of the marine detachment on HMS Calcutta at Port Jackson, appointing him superintendent of the new settlement; the new settlement, comprising convicts and a military guard, arrived at the Hunter River on 27 March 1804 in three ships: HMS Lady Nelson, the Resource and the James. The convicts were rebels from the 1804 Castle Hill convict rebellion; the link with Newcastle upon Tyne and whence many of the 19th century coal miners came, is still obvious in some of the place-names – such as Jesmond, Wickham and Gateshead. Morpeth, New South Wales is a similar distance north of Newcastle as Morpeth, Northumberland is north of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Under Captain James Wallis, commandant from 1815 to 1818, the convicts' conditions improved, a building boom began. Captain Wallis laid out the streets of the town, built the first church of the site of the present Christ Church Anglican Cathedral, erected the old gaol on the seashore, began work on the breakwater which now joins Nobbys Head to the mainland; the quality of these first buildings was poor, only breakwater survives. During this period, in 1816, the oldest public school in Australia was built in East Newcastle. Newcastle remained a penal settlement until 1822; as a penal colony, the military rule was harsh at Limeburners' Bay, on the inner side of Stockton peninsula. There, convicts were sent to burn oyster shells for making lime. Military rule in Newcastle ended in 1823. Prisoner numbers were reduced to 100, the remaining 900 were sent to Port Macquarie. After removal of the last convicts in 1823, the town was freed from the infamous influence of the penal law, it began to acquire the aspect of a typical Australian pioneer settlement, a steady flow of free settlers poured into the hinterland.
The formation during the nineteenth century of the Newcastle and Hunter River Steamship Company saw the establishment of regular steamship services from Morpeth and Newcastle with Sydney. The company had a fleet of freighters as well as several fast passenger vessels, including the PS Newcastle and the PS Namoi; the Namoi had first-class cabins with the latest facilities. Because of the coal supply, small ships plied between Newcastle and Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide, carrying coal to gas works and bunkers for shipping, railways; these were known as "sixty-milers", referring to the nautical journey between Newcastle and Sydney. These ships continued in service until recent times. During World War II, Newcastle was an important industrial centre for the Australian war effort. In the early hours of 8 June 1942, the Japanese
Wolfmother are an Australian hard rock band from Sydney, New South Wales. Formed in 2004, the group is centred around vocalist and guitarist Andrew Stockdale, the only constant member of the lineup; the band have been through many personnel changes since their formation, with the current incarnation including drummer Hamish Rosser and bassist Brad Heald, both of whom are former members of The Vines. The original – and most commercially successful – lineup included bassist and keyboardist Chris Ross and drummer Myles Heskett. Both Ross and Heskett left Wolfmother after four years in 2008. Stockdale and Heskett formed Wolfmother in 2004 after several years of informal jamming. Signing with independent label Modular Recordings, the band released their self-titled debut album in Australia in 2005, which reached number 3 on the domestic albums chart, it was released internationally by Interscope and Island Records the following year, to date has sold in excess of 1.5 million copies worldwide. After Ross and Heskett departed, Stockdale rebuilt the band with the addition of bassist and keyboardist Ian Peres, rhythm guitarist Aidan Nemeth and drummer Dave Atkins, who released Cosmic Egg in 2009.
In recent years, the lineup of Wolfmother has continued to change with their commercial popularity fluctuating. The band's planned third album Keep Moving was released as Stockdale's solo debut in 2013, with a new lineup including drummer Vin Steele issuing New Crown independently the following year. In 2016, the group released Victorious as their first album on a major label since Cosmic Egg, subsequently toured with Alex Carapetis on drums. Wolfmother's personnel have continued to change, with Stockdale subsequently releasing and touring in promotion of his second solo album Slipstream in 2018; the genesis of Wolfmother began in 2000, when founding members Andrew Stockdale, Chris Ross, Myles Heskett started jamming together, before forming the band in 2004. Prior to this, Stockdale was a photographer, Ross worked in digital media and Heskett worked as a graphic designer. Ross came up with the name of the band; the first live performance of the newly-christened Wolfmother took place on 14 April 2004 at Vic in the Park, a pub in Sydney.
The group were signed by Australian independent label Modular Recordings in August 2004, with whom they released their self-titled debut extended play Wolfmother the following month. The EP reached number 35 on the ARIA Australian Singles Chart; the band toured in promotion of the release for six months, during which time they signed an international recording deal with the Universal Music Group. After producing a demo for Universal US imprint Interscope Records in Sydney, Wolfmother began recording their full-length debut studio album in California with producer Dave Sardy in May 2005; the band rehearsed for six weeks at Cherokee Studios, before recording at Sound City and Sunset Sound Studios. Sardy took a minimalist approach to production, aiming to capture the "raw, emotive" nature of the band's live shows and prioritising "the perfect feeling" over a "faultless performance". Additional contributors to the record included Dan Higgins and Sardy himself. "Mind's Eye" was released as the first single from the upcoming album on 16 October 2005, which reached number 29 on the Australian Singles Chart.
Wolfmother was released in Australia by Modular on 31 October 2005. The album reached number 3 on the ARIA Australian Albums Chart and remained on the chart for a total of 78 weeks. By the end of 2007, it had been certified five times platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association, indicating domestic sales in excess of 350,000 units. Wolfmother was recognised by a number of local critics and bodies – radio station Triple J awarded it the inaugural J Award for Australian Album of the Year, it was nominated for the ARIA Award for Album of the Year in 2006, eight songs were included on the Triple J Hottest 100 list in 2004, 2005 and 2006. In promotion of the album, the band toured throughout Australia in October and November 2005, they performed at the Big Day Out festival in January and February 2006. After its success in Australia, Wolfmother was released internationally in early 2006 – on 24 April in the UK, where it reached number 25 on the UK Albums Chart, on 2 May in the US, where it reached number 22 on the Billboard 200.
A number of singles were released from the album, including "Woman" which reached number 34 in Australia, number 31 on the UK Singles Chart, number 7 on the US Billboard Mainstream Rock chart. The song won the Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance at the 49th Annual Grammy Awards, the nomination for which Heskett had described as "an honour"; the final single from the album, "Joker & the Thief" reached the top ten in Australia. The subsequent worldwide tour included appearances at festivals such as Fuji Rock in Tokyo, the inaugural Virgin Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals in the UK. On 14 November 2006, the band performed a cover version of "Communication Breakdown" by English hard rock band Led Zeppelin as a tribute to the band for their induction into the UK Music Hall of Fame. Stockdale and Heskett commenced work on the follow-up to Wolfmother in 2007, although Stockdale had revealed that he had been planning ideas for the band's second album as early as 2006. One of the new tracks revealed as in the works was "Love Attacker", which the frontman explained was about "people who use love as a weapon to manipulate and get their way through desire".
This song was released as "Pleased to Meet You" on the Spider-Man 3 soundtrack in March 2007. St
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was used interchangeably with alternative rock; as grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term. Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels; some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock, math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream; the commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill"; the term indie rock, which comes from "independent," describes the small and low-budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are struck with major corporate companies, these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.
The influences and styles of the artists have been diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. The terms "alternative rock" and "indie rock" were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s, "indie rock" began to be used to describe those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success. Aesthetically speaking, indie rock is characterized as having a careful balance of pop accessibility with noise, experimentation with pop music formulae, sensitive lyrics masked by ironic posturing, a concern with "authenticity," and the depiction of a simple guy or girl. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of "varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes". Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.
In fact, there is an everlasting list of subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but unknown elsewhere. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, but attract an international audience. Indie rock is noted for having a high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels; the BBC documentary Music for Misfits: The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks. Although Buzzcocks are classified as a punk band, it has been argued by the BBC and others that the publication of Spiral Scratch independently of a major label led to the coining of the name "indie".
"Indie pop" and "indie" were synonymous. In the mid-1980s, "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves; the indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists, which included key bands like R. E. M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These two bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr. and The Replacements. In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME compilation featuring Primal Scream, The Pastels, The Wedding Present and other bands, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, it gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Postcard bands Josef K and Orange Juice, significant labels included Creation and Glass.
The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet
Review with Myles Barlow
Review with Myles Barlow is an Australian satirical black comedy television series which screened on Thursday nights on ABC2 and Friday nights on ABC 1. The series began screening on 16 October 2008, it is co-written and directed by Trent O'Donnell and co-written by Phil Lloyd. It is produced by Starchild Productions; the first series comprised six half-hour episodes and the second series a further six half-hour episodes. Episodes were made available for download on the ABC website. Series 1 episodes have been available to watch on-demand on YouTube. Series 2 began airing on ABC2 on 22 July 2010 and finished on 26 August 2010. A Christmas special was broadcast on ABC1 on 22 December 2010. Series 1 and 2 are available for viewing in the US via Hulu Plus. Myles Barlow is a critic. Barlow reviews real-life experiences such as being a murderer and a drug-mule, the rush of pleasure as he pays for sex and the bleakness of living on the streets. Regular segments include "Letter of the Week" along with a summary of the show at the beginning and highlights of the next episode which do not reflect the actual episode contents.
Myles uses unnecessarily complex metaphors to conclude each segment, choosing an abstract notion or object and comparing his experience to it. For example. And, like a staircase leading to the top of a never-ending lighthouse, it can spiral out of control; the higher I climbed, the more giddy I became. And once I'd stolen the light bulb itself, I stumbled about in an orgy of kleptomania as ships of moral decency came to grief on the rocks below. Embracing anarchy and ignoring morality became frighteningly normal, causing me to chuckle callously at the poor shipwrecked sailors trying to clamber up the cliffs of consequence while I soared to freedom high above them on a hang-glider of corruption. Luckily for me, I was able to evade punishment, but Krystal, if you do give in to this spine-tingling thrill ride and steal Renee's boyfriend, be warned that the pilfering may not stop there. Stealing is an iniquity of unexpected excitement, why I'm giving it three stars; each episode ends with a faux-"Next Time" segment.
Note: Bolded reviews are primary review segments, unbolded reviews are short "breaker" reviews. Stealing: Running out your partner: Dickheads: Bushranging: Risk: Murder: Fishing without bait: Self Belief: Lying: Divorce: Voyeurism: Budget Airlines: Vanity: Being a rock star: Heroism: Criticism: Open heart surgery: Inter-generational Romance: Losing one's train of thought: Betrayal: Paying for Sex: Sex with a Male Prostitute: Regret: Freeloading: Meeting Your Ex-Wife's New Partner: Destitution: Stress: Disappointing Others: Testing Loyalty: Bare-knuckle Boxing: Reconciliation: Unable to be reviewed Logies: Presented as a segment as part of the telecast of the Logies. Wanderlust: The Pill: Addiction: Saint Bernard Rescue Dogs: Starting Your Own Cult: B-Grade Celebrity: Cockblocking: Bucks Parties: 9/11 Jokes: Loss: Dancing with the Stars: Killing Kyle Sandilands: Abbey Road Re-enactments: Fear: Meeting Your Doppleganger: Racism: Imitation: Being Molested by a professional rugby league footballer: Hatred: Pet Llamas: Justice: Treechange: Throwing a Pair of Shoes over a Power Line: Art: French Restaurant Runners: Sympathy: Happiness: Office Cricket: Escapism: Road Kill Sandwich: Acceptance: Summer Hosts: Giving: Competitive Christmas Lights: Indulgence: Re-gifting: Christmas Spirit: Margot Robbie as Jo Catherine Jermanus as Kelly Amanda Bishop as Catherine Barlow David Stratton as himself George Negus as himself Emma Leonard as Ivy Josh Lawson as himself Steven O'Donnell as Judge 1 Barry Crocker as himself Chas Licciardello as himself Tony Jones as himself Andrew O'Keefe as himself Heath Franklin as himself/chopper On 6 August 2010, the sketch "Killing Kyle Sandilands" caused controversy after it aired.
Parts of the sketch, including stabbing a picture and burning an effigy of Kyle Sandilands, were received with negative views. A Current Affair did a story on the sketch, commenting that it was far too graphic and dangerous. Sandilands himself did not comment on the segment. A Dutch adaptation premiered in the Netherlands. An American television adaptation, titled Review, premiered in March 2014 on Comedy Central. On the series' final episode, Phil Lloyd appeared, playing a viewer asking what would be the last question of the program. Review with Myles Barlow on ABC's website Starchild Productions website Review with Myles Barlow on IMDb
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Steven Albini is an American musician, record producer, audio engineer and music journalist. He was a member of Big Black and Flour, is a member of Shellac, he is the founder and principal engineer of Electrical Audio, a recording studio complex in Chicago. In 2018, Albini estimated, he has had major influence on the development of genres such as noise rock, post-hardcore and math rock. Albini is known for his outspoken views on the music industry, having stated that it financially exploits artists and homogenizes their sound. Nearly alone among well-known producers, Albini refuses to take ongoing royalties from album sales, feeling that a producer's job is to record the music to the band's desires, that paying a producer as if they had contributed artistically to an album is unethical. Albini was born in California, to Gina and Frank Addison Albini, his father is a wildlife researcher. He has two siblings. In his youth, Albini's family moved before settling in the college town of Missoula, Montana in 1974.
Albini is Italian part of his family comes from the Piedmont region of Northern Italy. While recovering from a broken leg, Albini began playing bass guitar and participated in bass lessons in high school for one week. Albini was exposed to punk rock by a schoolmate on a field trip when he was 14 or 15, subsequently bought every Ramones recording available to him. Growing up in Montana, he became a fan of bands such as The Stooges, the Ramones, Suicide, The Fall, The Velvet Underground, Throbbing Gristle, The Birthday Party, Pere Ubu, Public Image Ltd, Rudimentary Peni, Killing Joke. After graduating from Hellgate High School, Albini moved to Evanston, Illinois, to attend college at the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University, where he attained a degree in Journalism. Albini said he studied painting in college with the late Ed Paschke, someone he calls a brilliant educator and "one of the only people in college who taught me anything."In the Chicago area, Albini was active as a writer in local zines such as Matter and Forced Exposure, covering the then-nascent punk rock scene, gained a reputation for the iconoclastic nature of his articles.
Around the same time, he began recording musicians and engineered his first album in 1981. He co-managed Ruthless Records with John Kezdy of The Effigies and Jon Babbin. According to Albini, he maintained a "straight job" for five years until 1987, working in a photography studio as a photograph retouch artist. During his teenage years, Albini played in bands such as the Montana punk band "Just Ducky", a Chicago band called "Small Irregular Pieces of Aluminum", "Stations", another band that record label Touch and Go/Quarterstick Records explained "he is paying us not to mention."Albini played for Flour c. 1988. In 1981, Albini formed Big Black while he was a student at NU, recorded Lungs, the band's debut EP, on Ruthless Records, a label he co-managed with Jon Babbin and John Kezdy. Albini played all of the instruments on Lungs except the saxophone, played by friend John Bohnen; the Bulldozer EP was released on both Ruthless and Fever Records. Jeff Pezzati and Santiago Durango, of Chicago band Naked Raygun, live drummer Pat Byrne joined shortly thereafter, the band—along with a drum machine credited as "Roland"—released the EP Racer-X in 1984, after touring and signing a new contract with the Homestead Records business.
Pezzati commenced recording the "Il Duce" 7-inch single with the band, but returned to his original band before it was completed. Pezzati was replaced on bass by Dave Riley, with whom the group recorded their debut full-length album, Atomizer; the "Il Duce" recording was finished with Riley as bassist. Big Black left the Homestead label for Touch and Go Records in late 1985/early 1986, recorded the Headache EP and the 7-inch single, Heartbeat between June and August 1986—both were released the following year. In 1986, a live album titled Sound of Impact was released on the Not/Blast First label; the accompanying booklet provides insight into the band's influences. S. Chaos, Gang Green, Tommi Stumpff and Bad Brains. In 1987, the band released their second studio album Songs About Fucking as well as the He's a Whore / The Model 7-inch single, both on Touch and Go. Big Black disbanded shortly after a period of extensive touring that year in support of Songs About Fucking. Durango was successful in becoming a practicing lawyer.
Touch and Go released a Big Black live album and video, Pigpile, in 1992. Pigpile was released in Japan and Germany. Touch and Go stated on its website in May 2014: "Someday, we might release the video on DVD; until please don't ask us about it." Albini went on to form the controversially named Rapeman in 1987—the band consisted of Albini, Rey Washam, David Wm. Sims; the band was named after a popular Japanese comic book that garnered Washam's interests. They broke up after the release of two 7-inch singles—"Hated Chinee b/w Marmoset" and "Inki's Butt Crack b/w Song Number One", one EP titled Budd and the Tw