In heraldry, purpure, is a tincture, equivalent to the colour "purple", is one of the five main or most used colours. It may be portrayed in engravings by a series of parallel lines at a 45-degree angle running from upper right to lower left from the point of view of an observer, or else indicated by the abbreviation purp. Purpure has existed since the earliest periods, for example in the purpure lion of the arms of León. However, it has never been as common as the other colours, this has led to some controversy as to whether it should be counted among the common colours. In French heraldry, the colour is excluded from the common colours as well as considered "ambiguous", Finnish heraldry restricts its use to certain additaments. There is at least one instance of it being blazoned as "Imperial Purple". One of the most expensive colors to acquire in ancient times, Tyrian purple was used in the war banner of Byzantine Emperor Komnenos: Purpur a double-headed eagle displayed Or. Sometimes, the different tinctures are said to be connected with special meanings or virtues, represent certain elements and precious stones.

If this is an idea disregarded by serious heraldists throughout the centuries, it may be of anecdotal interest to see what they are, since the information is so sought after. Many sources give different meanings, but purpure is said to represent the following: Of jewels, the amethyst Of heavenly bodies, Mercury The planet Mercury is further associated with the element mercury or "quicksilver" in traditional alchemical/occultistic lore Born in the purple Tyrian purple Purple Purpure, discussion based on Michel Pastoureau, Traité d'Héraldique. Red vs. Purple Lions

Dorothea Greenbaum

Dorothea Schwarcz Greenbaum was an American painter and sculptor. She was born Dorothea Schwarcz to parents Emma and Maximilian Schwarcz in New York city on June 17, 1893, she studied at both the Art Students League. In 1915, when Dorothea was 22, her father Maximilain drowned during the Sinking of the RMS Lusitania, she was included in the 1914 exhibition of the National Academy of Design. She was first painter, began working in sculpture at the age of 34. In 1941 she received the George D. Widener Memorial Medal from the Pennsylvania Academy, in 1953 she was given a medal of honor by the National Association of Women Artists, she was a member of the Sculptors Guild and was a founding member of New York Artists Equity Association in 1947. She died in 1986 in New Jersey. In 1972, a 45 year retrospective exhibition of her work was presented at the SculptureCenter, New York, her work is included in the collections of: the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Princeton Art Museum, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and the Smithsonian American Art Museum

Daniel 8

Daniel 8 tells of Daniel's vision of a two-horned ram destroyed by a one-horned goat, followed by the history of the "little horn", Daniel's code-word for the Greek king Antiochus Epiphanes. The subject of the vision is Antiochus' oppression of the Jews–he outlawed Jewish customs such as circumcision, Jewish monthly/Lunar calendar, dietary restrictions, Sabbath observance, made ownership of the Torah scroll a capital offense, built an altar to Zeus in the Temple, his program sparked a popular uprising which led to the retaking of Jerusalem and the Temple by Judas Maccabeus. In the third year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon, Daniel in a vision sees himself in Susa, in Elam. In his vision he sees a ram with one greater than the other. Daniel sees a male goat with a single horn come from the west without touching the ground and strike the ram and destroys it. At the height of his power the goat's horn is broken and in its place four horns grow. One of the horns is small but grows great and prospers in everything it does, throwing stars down to the earth, stopping the daily sacrifice, destroying the sanctuary and throwing truth to the ground.

Daniel is told the vision will be fulfilled in 2,300 evenings and mornings, when the sanctuary will be cleansed. The angel Gabriel tells Daniel that this is a vision about the time of the end; the Book of Daniel originated as a collection of folktales among the Jewish community in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods, was expanded by the visions of chapters 7-12 in the Maccabean era. Daniel is a legendary figure and his name was chosen for the hero of the book because of his reputation as a wise seer in Hebrew tradition; the structure of the chapter can be described as follows: I. Introduction: date and place. Vision report: ram, angelic conversation. Epiphany of interpreter: circumstances and desire for interpretation, epiphany. Interpretation: circumstances, interpretation of images, concluding statement by the angel. Concluding statement of visionary's reaction, v.27. The Book of Daniel is an apocalypse, a literary genre in which a heavenly reality is revealed to a human recipient.

Apocalypses were common from 300 BCE to 100 CE, not only among Jews and Christians, but Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. Daniel, the book's hero, is a representative apocalyptic seer, the recipient of the divine revelation: has learned the wisdom of the Babylonian magicians and surpassed them, because his God is the true source of knowledge; the book is an eschatology, meaning a divine revelation concerning the end of the present age, a moment in which God will intervene in history to usher in the final kingdom. Daniel 8 conforms to the type of the "symbolic dream vision" and the "regnal" or "dynastic" prophecy, analogous to a work called the "Babylonian Dynastic Prophecy"–a more extensive example appears in Daniel 11. For its sources it draws on Daniel 7, which supplies the symbolism of the "little horn" and the "holy ones", as well as on the Book of Ezekiel, which provides the location by a river and the epiphany of the angel, on the Book of Habakkuk with its concern with the "end of time."

The "little horn" which casts some of the stars to the ground recalls Isaiah 14:12 and Lucifer, which in turn presupposes the Ugaritic myth of Attar's attempt to take the throne of Baal. Chapter 8 is about the actions of the world-powers at the "end-time"; the course of history is pre-determined, Antiochus is playing a role in the unwinding of God's plan. Daniel 8 is thus a reinterpretation and expansion of Daniel 7: where chapter 7 spoke only cryptically of the change-over from the Medo-Persian empire to the age of the Greek kings, chapter 8 makes this explicit. Daniel 8 is an interpretation of the author's own time, 167-164 BCE, with a claim that God will bring to an end the oppression of the Jewish people, it begins with the Greek conquest of the Persian empire, touches on the rise of the four Greek successor-kingdoms, focuses on the career of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who took the throne of Seleucid Syria in 175 BCE. While the details which led to Antiochus' conflict with the Jews are obscure, it appears that there was a revolt in Jerusalem, he sent troops to suppress it, as a result the daily Jewish sacrifice was stopped and the Temple polluted.

The date for this is given as 167 BCE. The attempt to wipe out traditional religion and culture provoked a reaction, the Jews, led by Judas Maccabee and his brothers, won sufficient military victories over the Seleucids to take back and purify the temple three years later; the symbols of the ram and he-goat, explained in the text of Daniel 8 as representing the kings of Persia and Greece, are drawn from the constellations that preside over Persia and Syria in Hellenistic astrology. Scholars are agreed that the goat's first horn is Alexander the Great, the four horns which arise are the four generals who divided his em