Semarang is the capital and largest city of Central Java province in Indonesia. It has an area of 373.78 square kilometres and a population of 1.8 million people, making it Indonesia's seventh most populous city after Jakarta, Bandung, Bekasi and Tangerang. The built-up area had 3,183,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census spread on 26 districts. Greater Semarang has a population of close to 6 million, is located at 6°58′S 110°25′E. A major port during the Dutch colonial era, still an important regional center and port today, the city has a dominant Javanese population. In 1678, Sunan Amangkurat II promised to give control of Semarang to the Dutch East India Company as a part of a debt payment. In 1682, the Semarang state was founded by the Dutch colonial power. On 5 October 1705 after years of occupations, Semarang became a VOC city when Susuhunan Pakubuwono I made a deal to give extensive trade rights to the VOC in exchange of wiping out Mataram's debt; the VOC, the Dutch East Indies government, established tobacco plantations in the region and built roads and railroads, making Semarang an important colonial trading centre.
The historic presence of a large Indo community in the area of Semarang is reflected by the fact a creole mix language called Javindo existed there. Semarang was handed by the Sultan of Mataram to the Dutch East Indies in 1678; the city was pictured as a small settlement with a pious Muslim area called Kauman, a Chinese quarter, a Dutch fortress. The fortress has a pentagonal form with only one gate in the south and five monitoring towers to protect the Dutch settlement from rebellion actions, segregating the spaces between Dutch settlement and other areas. In fact, the city of Semarang was only referred to the Dutch quarter while the other ethnic settlement were considered as villages outside the city boundary; the city, known as de Europeesche Buurt, was built in classical European style with church located in the centre, wide boulevards and streets skirted by beautiful villas. According to Purwanto, the urban and architectural form of this settlement is similar to the design principles applied in many Dutch cities, which begun to concern on the urban beautification.
Due to the long and costly Java War, there was not much funding from the Dutch East Indies government, which affected Semarang's development. The majority of land was used for rice fields and the only small improvement was the development of a surrounding fortress. Although less developed, Semarang has a arranged city system, in which urban activities were concentrated along the river and the settlement was linked to a market where different ethnic groups met to trade; the existence of the market, in the years, become a primary element and a generator of urban economic growth. An important influence on urban growth was the Great Mail Road project in the 1847, which connected all the cities in the northern coast of Central and East Java and positioned Semarang as the trade centre of agricultural production; the project was soon followed by the development of the Netherlands Indies railway and the connecting roads into the inner city of Semarang at the end of 19th century. Colombijn marked the development as the shift of urban functions, from the former river orientation to all services facing the roads.
Improved communication, the result of the Mail and Railway projects, brought an economic boom to the city in the 1870s. There were hospitals, churches and large houses built along new main roads. Urban growth densified the urban kampong, reaching 1,000 inhabitants per hectare and degrading the quality of living conditions. In the early 20th century, mortality rate were high due to the overcrowding and lack of hygiene that triggered cholera and tuberculosis outbreaks. Cobban noted the ethical movement of kampongverbetering led by Henry Tillema in 1913 and the concern of the Advisor for Decentralisation for kampong improvement through the betterment of public toilets and the planning of public housing. In 1917, a healthy housing project was implemented in the Southern part of Semarang called Candi Baru. Thomas Karsten, the advisor for city planning, transformed the concept of ethnic segregation that divided previous urban settlements into a new housing district plan based on economic classes. Although the three ethnic groups were divided into three economic classes where the Dutch and rich Chinese occupied the largest lots in the housing district, Karsten had emerged the developed district by integrating the road network, introducing newly improved public washing and bathing and sporting facilities that could be used communally.
Following the Candi Baru, there were three other housing plans between 1916–1919 to accommodate a 55% population increase in Semarang. Karsten marked a new approach to town planning with emphasis on the aesthetic and social requirements, articulated not in terms of race but economic zones. Driven by economic growth and spatial city planning, the city had doubled in size and expanded to the south by the 1920s, creating a nucleus of a metropolis where multi-ethnic groups lived and traded in the city; the villages in the suburbs such as Jomblang and Jatingaleh became the satellite towns of Semarang, more populated with a bigger market area. Before the invasion of Japan in 1942, Semarang had become the capital of Central Java Province, as the result of trade and industrial success and spatial planning; the Japa
The soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes; the beans contain significant amounts of dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste and tempeh. "Soy" originated as a corruption of the Japanese names for soy sauce. The etymology of the genus, comes from Linnaeus; when naming the genus, Linnaeus observed that one of the species within the species had a sweet root. Based on the sweetness, the Greek word for sweet, glykós, was Latinized; the genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera and Soja. The subgenus Soja F. J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan and Russia; the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perennial soybean is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty, it is a cultural variety with a large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into mature plants; the first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges. This is the first stage of root growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions.
The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the soil. These cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days; the first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades. Subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad. Under ideal conditions, stem growth continues. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day. If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time. Nodulation continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes; the final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, climate affecting its form. Flowering is triggered by day length beginning once days become shorter than 12.8 hours. This trait is variable however, with different varieties reacting differently to changing day length.
Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease. Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer growing seasons. Soybeans drop their leaves before the seeds are mature; the fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long and contains two to four seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Soybean seeds come in a wide variety sizes and hull colors such as black, brown and green. Variegated and bicolored seed coats are common; the hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate; the scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
Some seeds such as soybeans containing high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s, he found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting biological membranes and proteins in the dry state. Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thanks to symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. Together and soybean oil content account for 56% of dry soybeans by weight; the remainder consists of 9 % water and 5 % ash. Soybeans comprise 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. 100 grams of raw soybeans supply 446 calories and are 9% water, 30% carbohydrates, 20% total fat and 36% p
Teak is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. Some forms of teak are known as Burmese teak, Central Province teak, as well as Nagpur teak. T. grandis is a deciduous tree that occurs in mixed hardwood forests. It has fragrant white flowers arranged in dense clusters at the end of the branches; these flowers contain both types of reproductive organs. The large, papery leaves of teak trees are hairy on the lower surface. Teak wood has a leather-like smell when it is freshly milled and is valued for its durability and water resistance; the wood is used for boat building, exterior construction, furniture, carving and other small wood projects. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand and Bangladesh but is naturalised and cultivated in many countries in Africa and the Caribbean. Myanmar's teak forests account for nearly half of the world's occurring teak. Molecular studies show that there are two centres of genetic origin of teak: one in India and the other in Myanmar and Laos.
The English word teak comes from Tamil tekku, Telugu teku, Malayalam thekku, Sinhala thekka, Kannada tega via the Portuguese teca. In Bangladesh and West Bengal, the species is known as segun. Central Province teak and Nagpur teak are named for those regions of India. Teak is a large, deciduous tree up to 40 m tall with gray to grayish brown branches; these are known for their finest quality wood. Leaves are ovate-elliptic to ovate, 15–45 cm long by 8–23 cm wide, are held on robust petioles which are 2–4 cm long. Leaf margins are entire. Fragrant white flowers are borne on 25–40 cm long by 30 cm wide panicles from June to August; the corolla tube is 2.5–3 mm long with 2 mm wide obtuse lobes. Tectona grandis sets fruit from September to December. Flowers are weakly protandrous in that the anthers precede the stigma in maturity and pollen is shed within a few hours of the flower opening; the flowers are entomophilous, but can be anemophilous. A 1996 study found that in its native range in Thailand, the major pollinator were species in the bee genus Ceratina.
Heartwood is yellowish in colour. It darkens. Sometimes there are dark patches on it. There is a leather-like scent in newly cut wood. Sapwood is whitish to pale yellowish brown in colour, it can separate from heartwood. Wood texture ring porous. Density varies according to moisture content: at 15% mc it is 660 kg/m3. Tectona grandis was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus the Younger in his 1782 work Supplementum Plantarum. In 1975, Harold Norman Moldenke published new descriptions of four forms of this species in the journal Phytologia. Moldenke described each form as varying from the type specimen: T. grandis f. canescens is distinguished from the type material by being densely canescent, or covered in hairs, on the underside of the leaf, T. grandis f. pilosula is distinct from the type material in the varying morphology of the leaf veins, T. grandis f. punctata is only hairy on the larger veins on the underside of the leaf, T. grandis f. tomentella is noted for its dense yellowish tomentose hairs on the lower surface of the leaf.
Tectona grandis is one of three species in the genus Tectona. The other two species, T. hamiltoniana and T. philippinensis, are endemics with small native distributions in Myanmar and the Philippines, respectively. Tectona grandis is native to India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, northern Thailand, northwestern Laos. Tectona grandis is found in a variety of habitats and climatic conditions from arid areas with only 500 mm of rain per year to moist forests with up to 5,000 mm of rain per year. Though, the annual rainfall in areas where teak grows averages 1,250-1,650 mm with a 3-5 month dry season. Teak's natural oils make it useful in exposed locations, make the timber termite and pest resistant. Teak is durable when not treated with oil or varnish. Timber cut from old teak trees was once believed to be more durable and harder than plantation grown teak. Studies have shown that plantation teak performs on par with old-growth teak in erosion rate, dimensional stability and surface checking, but is more susceptible to color change from UV exposure.
The vast majority of commercially harvested teak is grown on teak plantations found in Indonesia and controlled by Perum Perhutani that manages the country's forests. The primary use of teak harvested in Indonesia is in the production of outdoor teak furniture for export. Nilambur in Kerala, India, is a major producer of teak of fine quality, holds the world's oldest teak plantation. Teak consumption raises a number of environmental concerns, such as the disappearance of rare old-growth teak. However, its popularity has led to growth in sustainable plantation teak production throughout the seasonally dry tropics in forestry plantations; the Forest Stewardship Council offers certification of sustainably grown and harvested teak products. Propagation of teak via tissue culture for plantation purposes is commercially viable. Teak plantations were established in Equatorial Africa during the Colonial era; these timber resources, as well as the oil reserves, are at the heart of the current South Sudanese conflict.
Much of the world's teak is exported by Myanmar. There is a growing plantation grown market in Central America and South America
Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the Americas and part of the pantropical chinaberry family, Meliaceae. The three species are: Honduran or big-leaf mahogany, with a range from Mexico to southern Amazonia in Brazil, the most widespread species of mahogany and the only true mahogany species commercially grown today. Illegal logging of S. macrophylla, its destructive environmental effects, led to the species' placement in 2003 on Appendix II of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, the first time that a high-volume, high-value tree was listed on Appendix II. West Indian or Cuban mahogany, native to southern Florida and the Caribbean dominant in the mahogany trade, but not in widespread commercial use since World War II. Swietenia humilis, a small and twisted mahogany tree limited to seasonally dry forests in Pacific Central America, of limited commercial utility; some botanists believe.
While the three Swietenia species are classified as "genuine mahogany", other Meliaceae species with timber uses are classified as "true mahogany." Some may not have the word mahogany in their trade or common name. Some of these true mahoganies include the African genera Entandrophragma; some members of the genus Shorea of the family Dipterocarpaceae are sometimes sold as Philippine mahogany, although the name is more properly applied to another species of Toona, Toona calantas. Mahogany is a commercially important lumber prized for its beauty and color, used for paneling and to make furniture, musical instruments and other items; the leading importer of mahogany is the United States, followed by Britain. It is estimated that some 80 or 90 percent of Peruvian mahogany exported to the United States is illegally harvested, with the economic cost of illegal logging in Peru placed conservatively at $40–70 million USD annually, it was estimated that in 2000, some 57,000 mahogany trees were harvested to supply the U.
S. furniture trade alone. Mahogany is the national tree of Belize. A mahogany tree with two woodcutters bearing an axe and a paddle appears on the Belizean national coat of arms, under the national motto, Sub umbra floreo, Latin for "under the shade I flourish."Specific gravity of mahogany is 0.55. The natural distribution of these species within the Americas is geographically distinct. S. mahagoni grows on the West Indian islands as far north as the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and parts of Florida. In the 20th century various botanists attempted to further define S. macrophylla in South America as a new species, such as S. candollei Pittier and S. tessmannii Harms. But many authorities consider these spurious. According to Record and Hess, all of the mahogany of continental North and South America can be considered as one botanical species, Swietenia macrophylla King; the name mahogany was associated only with those islands in the West Indies under British control. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it could be a corruption of'm'oganwo', the name used by the Yoruba and Ibo people of West Africa to describe trees of the genus Khaya, related to Swietenia.
When transported to Jamaica as slaves, they gave the same name to the similar trees. Though this interpretation has been disputed, no one has suggested a more plausible origin; the indigenous Arawak name for the tree is not known. In 1671 the word mahogany appeared in print in John Ogilby's America. Among botanists and naturalists, the tree was considered a type of cedar, in 1759 was classified by Carl Linnaeus as Cedrela mahagoni; the following year it was assigned to a new genus by Nicholas Joseph Jacquin, named Swietenia mahagoni. Until the 19th century all of the mahogany was regarded as one species, although varying in quality and character according to soil and climate. In 1836 the German botanist Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini identified a second species while working on specimens collected on the Pacific coast of Mexico, named it Swietenia humilis. In 1886 a third species, Swietenia macrophylla, was named by Sir George King after studying specimens of Honduras mahogany planted in the Botanic Gardens in Calcutta, India.
Today, all species of Swietenia grown in their native locations are listed by CITES, are therefore protected. Both Swietenia mahagoni, Swietenia macrophylla were introduced into several Asian countries at the time of the restrictions imposed on American mahogany in the late 1990s and both are now grown and harvested in plantations in those countries. A small percentage of global supply of genuine mahogany comes from these Asian plantati
"Grobogan" redirects here. For subdistrict with same name, see Grobogan Grobogan is a regency located in northeastern part of the Central Java province in Indonesia, its capital is Purwodadi. Created on 4 March 1726, the Grobogan Regency has an area of 1.975,86 km², is the second largest regency in the Central Java Province. It had a population of 1,413,328 at the 2010 Census. Grobogan is divided into nineteen districts: Brati Gabus Geyer Godong Grobogan Gubug Karangrayung Kedungjati Klambu Kradenan Ngaringan Penawangan Pulokulon Purwodadi Tanggungharjo Tawangharjo Tegowanu Toroh WirosariThe regency includes a total of 280 villages. Bordering Grobogan Regency to the north are the Demak and Kudus Regencies, to the east is Blora Regency, to the south are the Ngawi and Boyolali Regencies and to the west is Semarang Regency. Based on history, Grobogan Regency has been known since the Hindu Mataram kingdom; this area became the center of the Mataram kingdom with its capital in Medhang Kamulan or Sumedang Purwocarito or Purwodadi.
The capital was moved to around town Prambanan as Medang i Bhumi Mataram or Medang Mat i Watu or Medang i Poh Pitu or Medang ri Mamratipura. During the time of Medang and Kahuripan, Grobogan region was important to those country. Meanwhile, in the time of Majapahit and Pajang, Grobogan was always associated with folklore of Ki Ageng Sela, Ki Ageng Tarub, Bondan Kejawan and the story of Aji Saka. During the Islamic Mataram kingdom, Grobogan region were included as Mancanegara and had become the coordinative area of Regent Nayoko Ponorogo: Adipati Surodiningrat. In the times of War Prangwadanan and War Mangkubumen, the region was a power base of Prince Prangwedana and Prince Mangkubumi. Grobogan region covers Sukowati area north of Bengawan Solo, Sela, Teras Karas, Cengkal Sewu to the northern Kedu. Sukowati area is partially included to Sragen regency, i.e.: Bumi Kejawen, Sukodono, Tlawah, Pinggir and others. Areas such as Repaking, Gubug, South Kedungjati, are included to Boyolali Regency. Meanwhile, the areas which included to Grobogan Regency are: Purwodadi, Kuwu, Teras Karas, Medang Kamulan, Wirasaba, Tarub and more.
The provision of the Giyanti Agreement stated, as a Mancanegara region, Grobogan were included as Sultanate, with Madiun, half of Pacitan, Caruban, Teras Karas, Warung.. An based on the agreement between the GG Daendels with PAA Amangkunegara in Yogyakarta, dated January 10, 1811, It was stipulated that the money-shore that should be paid by the Dutch Government is deleted. Second, a part of Kedu, some areas in Semarang, Jepara, Grobogan districts, Sesela, daerah-daerah Jipang, dan Japan were submitted to the Dutch Government, and third, areas around Boyolali and the district Cawer Wetan were given to Yogyakarta. During the Diponegoro War, the area of Grobogan, Wirosari, Demak, lost in the fire of war against the Dutch. Grobogan is a flat valley lying between two mountains, Pegunungan Kendeng to the south and Pegunungan Kapur Utara to the north. Although the town is known to be hot during the dry season, Grobogan is one of the main rice producers in Central Java, which supported by several man-made dams, such as Bendungan Klambu, Bendungan Sedadi and Bendungan Kedung Ombo.
The construction of Bendungan Kedung Ombo was a source of national debate due to the social cost of this gigantesque project supported be the World Bank. The two main rivers are Kali Serang. During the rainy seasons, the two rivers cause floods which destroys the harvests. Similar to other regencies in Java, Islam is the dominant religion, with significant presence of Christianity - both Protestant and Catholic and Buddhism. In some places, one can still find Aliran kepercayaan and Kejawen. There are two Catholic Parishes, Paroki Purwodadi and Paroki Gubug, which are administered by Semarang Diocese. Most of the schools are public schools; the private educations are provided by the Madrassah, both are Muslim, as well as by Protestant institution and The Union of Teachers of the Republic of Indonesia. There is no higher learning institution in Purwodadi; the senior high school participation is still low in 58,13 for the junior high school participation. Agriculture and public sectors are the main providers of labor market.
There is no significant industry, while the mining sectors remain insignificant for the economy of the regions. Many male young people work as seasonal workers in bigger cities like Semarang and Jakarta as construction workers, tricycle drivers and other unskilled occupations. While for their female counterparts, they work in manufacture industries. In the recent years, the numbers of female migrant workers have increased with the main destination in Singapore, Hong Kong, Gulf Countries. There is a possibility of brain drain in Purwodadi, since those who are educated tend to find a better and more promising career outside the region or abroad; the per capita income in 2004 is Rp 611.968,49. Known as one of the poorest regencies in Central Java, Grobogan now is the 18 in the economic scale, out of
Swikee or Swike is a Chinese Indonesian frog leg dish. The dish can stir fried frog legs. A Chinese dish, this dish is popular in Indonesia; the name "Swikee" is from Hokkian dialect sui and ke, which an euphemism to refer frogs as "water chicken". It is sometimes identified as a traditional food of a city in Central Java; the main ingredient is frogs' legs with the condiments of garlic and fermented soy paste and pepper. Once it is served, fried garlic and chopped celery may be added. Swikee is served with plain white rice; the taste and texture of frog meat is between chicken and fish. They are said to taste like chicken because of their mild flavor, with a texture most similar to chicken wings. However, some may perceive a slight fishiness; the legs are the only part served in the soup, since the legs are the most meaty parts. The salted fried frogs skin has a unique taste incomparable with other types of chips. Another type of frog cooking is "pepes kodok", frog cooked in pepes method, where the frog legs and different condiments are wrapped in banana leaves and put in a fire until cooked.
The taste of the meat is enrichen with a distinct aroma of burned banana leaves. Frog-cooking is ubiquitous in Purwodadi, Grobogan Regency, Central Java, where it is the local delicacy. Frog leg cooking can be found in the town of Jatiwangi, Majalengka Regency, West Java, it can be found in the large cities of Indonesia, such as Jakarta and Bandung, Semarang or Surabaya. A restaurant will use the name "Swikee Purwodadi" or "Swikee Jatiwangi" on its restaurant sign and menu. Indonesia is the world's largest exporter of frog meat, exporting more than 5000 tonnes of frog meat each year to France and Luxembourg. In the past, the frogs could be obtained from the wild during rainy seasons. There are more and more farms that raise frogs due to increasing demand from France. Swikee can stir fried according to the applied sauce. Swikee oh or Kodok oh, frog legs in fermented soybean sauce soup. Swikee goreng mentega, stir fried frog legs in butter or margarine with Worchestershire sauce Swikee kecap, stir fried frog legs in sweet soy sauce Swikee saus tomat, stir fried frog legs in tomato sauce Swikee asam manis, fried frog legs in sweet and sour sauce Swikee goreng tepung, deep fried battered frog legs Swikee goreng mayones, deep fried battered frog legs served with mayonnaise Pepes swikee, seasoned boneless frog legs cooked in banana leaf as pepes, another variant is pepes telur kodok, the frog eggs cooked in banana leaf.
There are two main issues dealing with frog legs consumption in Indonesia. Frog meat is considered haraam according to mainstream Islamic dietary laws. Frog meat fell under non-halal category on two prepositions; the haraam status of frog legs had sparked controversy in Demak, where the official authority urged swikee restaurant owners not to associate swikee with Demak city, since it would tarnish Demak's image as the first Islamic city in Java, is opposed by its inhabitants that follow the Safii school that forbids the consumption of frog. Within Islamic dietary law, there are some debates and differences about the consumption of frog legs; the mainstream Islamic madhhab of Safii and Hanbali forbid the consumption of frog. However, according to the Maliki school certain types of frogs are allowed to be consumed. Environment activists have urged restrictions on frog consumption — frogs harvested from the wild — because frogs are an essential element of the ecosystem. Conservationists have warned that frogs could be going the same way as the cod — gastronomic demand is depleting regional populations to the point of no return.
Like most amphibians, frogs with their thin and moist skin are sensitive to environmental changes and pollution. The population of amphibians is threatened and declining globally due to habitat degradation, environmental destruction, pollution. Chinese Indonesian cuisine Peranakan cuisine
Tauco, Taotjo or Tauchu is a paste made from preserved fermented yellow soybeans in Chinese Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Tauco is made by boiling yellow soybeans, grinding them, mixing them with flour and fermenting them in order to make a soy paste; the soy paste is soaked in salt water and sun-dried for several weeks, furthering the fermentation process, until the color of the paste has turned yellow-reddish. Good tauco has a distinct aroma; the sauce is commonly used in other Indonesian cuisines traditions, such as Sundanese cuisine and Javanese cuisine. Taucu is used in cooking by Chinese Malaysian and Bruneian; the sauce is used as condiment and flavouring for stir fried dishes such as tahu tauco, kakap tahu tausi, or in soup such as swikee oh and pie oh. Today the major production centre of tauco in Indonesia is in Cianjur in West Java, Pekalongan in Central Java. While in Singapore, Indonesia and Brunei, the main commercial brands of taucu is Yeo Hiap Seng. Douchi Fermented bean paste List of fermented soy products Miso