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Svetlana Bakhmina

Svetlana Petrovna Bakhmina was a middle-ranking legal executive for Yukos, the Russian oil company, arrested and tried on charges of tax evasion and embezzlement. On April 21, 2009 she was released from jail. Svetlana Bakhima was arrested on 8 December 2004 and tried on charges of tax evasion and embezzlement. On 19 April 2006 she was sentenced to two years imprisonment for tax evasion and six and a half years imprisonment for embezzlement, which the Simonovsky district court combined into a seven-year prison term in a high-security penal colony. Svetlana Bakhmina 36, was the mother of two little boys, 2 and 6 years of age, she was not permitted to see her children once in the sixteen months from the time of her arrest to the passing down of the sentence of imprisonment. In 2005 she went on hunger strike after her custodians in the pre-trial detention centre refused to allow her to make paid telephone calls to her sons. Following an appeal, the conviction for tax evasion was overturned in the Moscow City Court on 24 August 2006, her sentence was accordingly reduced to six and a half years.

At the same hearing, Svetlana Bakhmina was given leave to appeal for a postponement of the prison term because she had small children. On 19 September 2006 Svetlana Bakhmina appealed to the court for a deferral of her sentence for nine years; the decision of the court was to refuse her appeal. On 27 May 2008 Bakhmina appealed to the Zubovo-Polyansky court of Mordovia for an early conditional discharge; the appeal was refused. On 10 September 2008 Bakhmina once again appealed to the Zubovo-Polyansky court of Mordovia for an early conditional discharge, as she had served half of her term; the appeal was refused despite the fact. On November 28, 2008 Bakhmina gave birth to a girl. There was no response to Bakhmina's appeal for clemency. On April 21, 2009 she was released from jail. Commentators claimed that Svetlana Bakhmina was not guilty of any offence, but she was in effect a political prisoner due to political vendetta by the authorities against Yukos and its executive officers; the allegation claimed that the prosecuting authorities were not able to lay hands on the Yukos legal executive general counsel Dmitry Gololobov, thus chose to prosecute Svetlana Bakhmina because she was the only legal officer they could find.

The lawyer for the imprisoned Yukos chief executive Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Robert Amsterdam, a Canadian claimed after being expelled from Russia, prior to the verdict on Ms. Bakhmina, that "the prosecution has admitted that she was a hostage of the Kremlin, they want the former general counsel back and they are using her as a pawn to get him back." It was claimed that the "victim" company – the Tomskneft oil company – has not filed any complaint and says, on the contrary, that it has suffered no such fraud. An article A Vicious Sentence by Mikhail Fishman, in Kommersant-Vlast in 2006 claimed: "This concerns the assets of Tomskneft-VNK, taken over by YUKOS; the management of VNK resisted the takeover. All the same, YUKOS succeeded in acquiring the controlling interest, it refused to pay the fictitious debt, transferred the assets of VNK enterprises to offshore zones. When the state, a minority shareholder in VNK, called on YUKOS to account for the transfer, YUKOS explained that it was a safeguard against attacks on the company by the fictitious creditors.

All the enterprises in question were returned to VNK ownership a year before the auction at which YUKOS bought out the state's remaining stake in the company - at a fair market price, as the state acknowledged."Nevertheless, Tomskneft has been declared a victim, the temporary transfer of assets has been defined as theft, the lawyer who carried out the orders of the company's real owners has been identified as the mastermind of the operation." When President George W. Bush visited St Petersburg in July 2006, he was told about the case of Svetlana Bakhmina when he met with "embattled activists" in Saint Petersburg. Irina Yasina, head of the NGO Open Russia, "appealed to Bush to raise with Putin the case of Svetlana Bakhmina, 36, a former attorney at Khodorkovsky’s oil company…. Yasina called the allegations bogus". "Bush said that he promised the activists he would convey their concerns to Putin", whom he called his friend. However it is not known whether President Bush did subsequently raise the case of Svetlana Bakhmina in his discussions with President Vladimir Putin.

"Помочь Светлане Бахминой". Izbrannoe.ru. October 8, 2008. "British Lawyers Ask Putin to Release Yukos Law Counsel". MosNews. November 2, 2005. "Court Turns Down an Appeal of YUKOS Ex-Lawyer". Kommersant. August 25, 2005

Musical temperament

In musical tuning, a temperament is a tuning system that compromises the pure intervals of just intonation to meet other requirements. Most modern Western musical instruments are tuned in the equal temperament system. Tempering is the process of altering the size of an interval by making it narrower or wider than pure. A temperament is any plan that describes the adjustments to the sizes of some or all of the twelve fifth intervals in the circle of fifths so that they accommodate pure octaves and produce certain sizes of major thirds." Temperament is important for keyboard instruments, which allow a player to play only the pitches assigned to the various keys, lack any way to alter pitch of a note in performance. The use of just intonation, Pythagorean tuning and meantone temperament meant that such instruments could sound "in tune" in one key, or some keys, but would have more dissonance in other keys. A A chord containing an interval, made sharp of flat in tempering the scale for instruments of fixed pitches.

The development of well temperament allowed fixed-pitch instruments to play reasonably well in all of the keys. The famous Well-Tempered Clavier by Johann Sebastian Bach takes full advantage of this breakthrough, with pieces written in all 24 major and minor keys. However, while unpleasant intervals were avoided, the sizes of intervals were still not consistent between keys, so each key still had its own character; this variation led in the 18th century to an increase in the use of equal temperament, in which the frequency ratio between each pair of adjacent notes on the keyboard was made equal, allowing music to be transposed between keys without changing the relationship between notes. Temperament, in music, the accommodation or adjustment of the imperfect sounds by transferring a part of their defects to the more perfect ones, in order to remedy, in some degree, the false intervals of those instruments, the sounds of which are fixed. Temperament is what the Italians call participatione, or system temperato, because it is founded on temperature.

"Temperament refers to the various tuning systems for the subdivision of the octave," the four principal tuning systems being Pythagorean tuning, just intonation, mean-tone temperament, equal temperament. In just intonation, every interval between two pitches corresponds to a whole number ratio between their frequencies, allowing intervals varying from the highest consonance to dissonant. For instance, 660 Hz / 440 Hz constitutes a fifth, 880 Hz / 440 Hz an octave; such intervals have a purity to their sound, when played simultaneously. If one of those pitches is adjusted to deviate from the just interval, a trained ear can detect this change by the presence of beats, which are periodical oscillations in the note's intensity. If, for example, two sound signals with frequencies that vary just by 0.5 Hz are played both signals are out of phase by a small margin, creating the periodical oscillations in the intensity of the final sound with a repetition period of 2 seconds, because the amplitude of the signals is only in phase, therefore has a maximum superposition value, once every period of repetition.

When a musical instrument with harmonic overtones is played, the ear hears a composite waveform that includes a fundamental frequency and those overtones —a series of just intervals. The waveform of such a tone is characterized by a shape, complex compared to a simple waveform, but remains periodic; when two tones depart from exact integer ratios, the shape waveform becomes erratic—a phenomenon that may be described as destabilization. As the composite waveform becomes more erratic, the consonance of the interval changes. Tempering an interval involves the deliberate use of such minor adjustments to enable musical possibilities that are impractical using just intonation; the most known example of this is the use of equal temperament to address problems of older temperaments, allowing for consistent tuning of keyboard and fretted instruments and enabling musical composition in, modulation among, the various keys. Before Meantone temperament became used in the Renaissance, the most used tuning system was Pythagorean tuning.

Pythagorean tuning was a system of just intonation that tuned every note in a scale from a progression of pure perfect fifths. This was quite suitable for much of the harmonic practice until but in the Renaissance, musicians wished to make much more use of Tertian harmony; the major third of Pythagorean tuning differed from a just major third by an amount known as syntonic comma, which musicians of the time found annoying. Their solution, laid out by Pietro Aron in the early 16th century, referred to as meantone temperament, was to temper the interval of a perfect fifth narrower than in just intonation, proceed much like Pythagorean tuning, but using this tempered fifth instead of the just one. With the correct amount of tempering, the syntonic comma is removed from its major thirds, making them just; this compromise, lea

Andreas Andersson (ice hockey)

Andreas Andersson is a Swedish former professional ice hockey goaltender. Andersson was a long-time backup goaltender in HV71 and was never been able to established himself as a starting goalie for any team in Sweden, he soon joined HV71's youth team. From 1996 to 2000 he played in five games for the youth team. During the time he was selected for the Swedish nation youth team and played in five games in the World Junior Championships. From season 2000–01 to 2004–05 he played with IF Troja/Ljungby in the Swedish second tier division, HockeyAllsvenskan, he continued with two seasons with Rögle BK and in 2007 signed a two-year deal with HV71. In season 2007–08, on February 12, Andersson scored an empty net goal making him the sixth goaltender to score a goal in Elitserien. Elitserien playoff winner with HV71 in 2008. Elitserien playoff silver medal with HV71 in 2009. Statistics as of end of Elitserien season 2009–10 Statistics as of end of Elitserien season 2008–09 Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or Eurohockey.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Fran├žoise Meunier

Françoise Meunier is a Belgian medical doctor and director general of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. She graduated as a medical doctor at the Université Libre de Bruxelles in 1974 and obtained a Master of Medical Oncology at the ULB in 1976. In 1977 she certified before the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates in the United States, she obtained a Fulbright Prize in 1977 and in 1977 and 1978 worked as a research fellow at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. She obtained a Master in Internal Medicine at the ULB in 1979 and a PhD and Venia legendi in 1985. In 1990 she obtained a Certificate in Hospital Hygiene at the ULB. In 1994 she became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in the United Kingdom and in 1995 a Fellow of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine. In 2001 she became a member of the Belgian College of Pharmaceutical Medicine and in 2003 graduated as Specialist in Health Database Management; as of 2006, she is a member of the Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique.

Fulbright Prize Research Fellow of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians – Great Britain Fellow of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine – Great Britain Membre of the Collège belge de Médecine Pharmaceutique Belgian Laureate Prix Femmes d'Europe 2004-2005. Member of the Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique Pezcoller-ECCO Prize for her contributions to Oncology She was raised to the rank of baroness by Albert II in 2007. Belgian Cancer Registry Foundation Françoise Meunier Speech of Dr. Françoise Meunier, laureate of the prize Women of Europe Brussels, 13 July 2005 Because clinical research is fundamental

Jonatan Johansson (footballer)

Jonatan Lillebror Johansson is a Finnish former football player and coach. His main position was a striker, playing most notably for Charlton Athletic. Johansson was a regular in the Finnish national team, earning a total of 106 caps. Johansson was born in Stockholm and started his career in Finland in his hometown club Pargas IF. In 1995, he moved on to the Veikkausliiga club TPS Turku, he went on to score six goals in 32 league appearances in his first season and was chosen to play in the Finland Under-21 team. In 1997, he transferred to FC Flora Tallinn, becoming the first Finnish player to move to an Estonian club. During this time he broke into the senior Finland team – his blond, curly locks earned him the nickname'Tintti' with national team supporters. In 1997 he moved to Scotland to join Rangers for a transfer fee of £500,000. Under manager Walter Smith he was selected to play. In 1998 Dick Advocaat became the manager of the club and Johansson became a regular to appear for the team, he scored 17 goals in the 1998-1999 season in the squad that won the domestic treble, including eight goals in the Scottish Premier League and five in the UEFA Cup.

In the following season Rangers won the domestic double, with Jonatan Johansson scoring seven goals. His overall tally at the club was 38 appearances as a substitute. Johansson signed for English Premier League club Charlton in the summer of 2000 as Alan Curbishley sought to strengthen his forward-line for the club's return to the Premier League. Charlton paid £3.25 million for the striker with a further £250,000 owed if Johansson made 25 appearances and Charlton avoided relegation. Johansson enjoyed six excellent seasons at Charlton playing most games for the Addicks although he never scored as many goals as in his first season when he notched 14 with an injury toward the end of the season. Johansson moved to Norwich on loan for the rest of the season in the January 2006 transfer window wanting more chances for first team football and was released by Charlton at the end of the season, he started his tenure at Norwich promisingly, netting against Ipswich and Stoke. In July 2006 he signed with Swedish club Malmö FF for a transfer fee of €1.1 million, where he played alongside fellow Finn Jari Litmanen.

He proved to be an instant success at the Swedish club. During his first season he scored 11 goals in 14 matches, creating a dangerous offensive line with teammate Júnior. On 13 November 2008, Johansson signed a pre-contract agreement with Scottish Premier League side Hibernian, he agreed an 18-month contract with Hibs, after his contract with Malmö FF expired at the end of the 2008 summer season in Sweden. Johansson was unable to sign for Hibs until 1 January due to the transfer window rules, but he began training with the Hibs squad in December 2008, he made his debut on 3 January 2009 against Hearts in the Edinburgh derby. Johansson scored his first goal for Hibs seven months after signing at East End Park against Dunfermline in a 4–0 friendly win, but he was expected to leave Hibernian due to the increased competition for places, his departure was confirmed on 1 September 2009. It only became apparent that Johansson had signed for St Johnstone on 27 October 2009 when he was named in the starting line-up for their Scottish League Cup quarter-final tie at home to Dundee United.

He had been training with the club to maintain his fitness ahead of Finland's international matches earlier in the month. Johansson signed a short-term contract which runs until January 2010. Johansson scored a winning goal for St Johnstone against Hearts on 21 November 2009, his first competitive goal in Scotland for ten years, when he was with Rangers. St Johnstone did not renew his short-term contract and Johansson left the club. Greenock Morton and an unnamed German club made Johansson contract offers, but Johansson rejected Morton's offer, it was announced on 8 February 2010 that Johansson would return to his former club after spending 14 years abroad. He scored his first goal for TPS in a Veikkausliga game against VPS Vaasa on 7 May, he scored twice in the next match, against Inter, in the local derby of Turku. He won the 2010 Finnish Cup, as TPS won 2–0 against HJK in the final, he finished the season with 10 goals, being the club's second best goalscorer, only two goals behind Roope Riski.

Johansson announced his retirement from professional football on 23 March 2011. Johansson made his debut for the Finnish national team on 16 March 1996 against Kuwait, scoring the game's only goal, he was a regular member of the Finland squad and earned his 100th cap in October 2009. Johansson scored 22 goals. Only Jari Litmanen has made more appearances for Finland than Johansson. Johansson is third in goals scored for Finland, after Mikael Forssell. After scoring the opening goal in a 2010 FIFA World Cup Qualifying match against Wales, Johansson was the subject of verbal criticism by Craig Bellamy. Johansson worked for Greenock Morton as their reserve team coach in 2012, he moved to Motherwell in August 2012 to coach their under-20 team. Johansson was replaced by Stephen Craigan. In December 2016, he was appointed as an assistant coach to Markku Kanerva for the Finland national team. On 9 April 2017, he was announced as an assistant coach to Rangers manager Pedro Caixinha. After starting work with Rangers, Johansson left his position with the Finland national team.

Johansson was appointed on a two-year contract as manager of Scottish Championship club Greenock Morton on 6 September 2018. His first match in charge ended in a 1–1 draw at Tannadice Park against Dundee United. Johansson left Morton at the end of the 2018–1