Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the elk, the Western roe deer. Female reindeer, and male deer of all species, grow, in this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are in the same order, Artiodactyla. The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families and Tragulidae, respectively. Deer appear in art from Palaeolithic cave paintings onwards, and they have played a role in mythology and their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, and their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a sport since at least the Middle Ages. Deer live in a variety of biomes, ranging from tundra to the tropical rainforest, while often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna.
The majority of deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to grow, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. There are species of deer that are highly specialized, and live almost exclusively in mountains, swamps. Some deer have a distribution in both North America and Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga, huemul deer of South Americas Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry forests with alpine meadows higher up. The foothills and river valleys between the mountain provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands.
The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at altitudes in the subalpine meadows. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region, elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, and pronghorn antelope
Quercus douglasii, known as blue oak, is a species of oak endemic to California, common in the Coast Ranges and foothills of the Sierra Nevada. It is occasionally known as oak and iron oak. Quercus douglasii is a tree, generally 6–20 m tall. The tallest recorded specimen was found in Alameda County, at 28.7 m, the bark is light gray with many medium-sized dark cracks, from a distance, it can appear almost white. The name blue oak derives from the dark blue-green tint of its leaves, which are deciduous, 4–10 cm long, the acorns are 2–3 cm long, with a moderately sweet kernel, and mature in 6–7 months from pollination. Quercus douglasii prefers dry soil and plenty of sunlight and it is the most drought tolerant of Californias deciduous oaks. Quercus douglasii often co-habitates with gray pine, and is found with interior live oak, valley oak, Oregon white oak, canyon live oak. Natural hybrids between Q. douglasii and the related shrub live oak, Q. lobata, and Q. garryana often occur where the species grow together in the same area, individual trees over 500 years old have been recorded, although most are less than 300 years old.
Recent research has found several unlogged stands of oak woodlands. Quercus douglasii is not susceptible to the disease known as sudden oak death. Ancient Blue Oak Woodlands of California
The California towhee is a bird of the family Emberizidae, native to the coastal regions of western Oregon and California in the United States and Baja California Sur in Mexico. The taxonomy of species has been debated. At the higher level, some place the towhees in the family Fringillidae. Within the group, there has been debate whether the distinction between this species and the similar canyon towhee should be at the specific or subspecific level. The two populations are isolated from each other, and molecular genetics seems to have settled the matter in favour of two distinct species for the present. On the other hand seems to be little distinction between the northern and Baja Californian populations within M. crissalis. The California towhees coloring is brown overall with light rust undertail coverts. It is around 20–25 cm in length, and has a long tail of 8.2 to 11.6 cm. Its appearance suggests a large, plain sparrow, males weigh from 48. 6–61.2 g, with an average of 53.9 g, while females weigh from 46. 3–61.2 g, with an average of 51.8 g.
Among standard measurements, the chord is 7.9 to 10.4 cm, the bill is 1.3 to 1.6 cm. This birds natural habitat is brush or chaparral, but it adapts well to urban parks, its skulking habits combined with its nondescript appearance mean that it is not one of the better known garden birds even though it is regularly drawn to feeding stations. Nests are typically found in low branches or shrubs about 0.5 to 4 m above ground, the nest is a bulky cup made of twigs, stems and hair. The California towhee feeds on the ground or in low scrub where it prefers a variety of seeds and it is most often seen traveling or feeding singly or in pairs. The call consists of a sound that different people hear as seet, cheenk or peenk. The female incubates the nest of 2 to 4 eggs alone for 11 days, eggs are laid from March through September with shells that are slightly glossy and pale bluish white with some brownish flecks concentrated mostly on the larger end. Young leave the nest after 8 days, zink, R. M. & Dittmann, D. L.
Evolution of brown towhees - mitochondrial-DNA evidence. Kunzmann, M. R. K. Ellison, K. L. Purcell, R. R. Johnson, in The Birds of North America, No.632. The Birds of North America, California towhee Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology California towhee - Pipilo crissalis - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter California towhee media
Solano County, California
Solano County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 413,344, Solano County comprises the Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Solano County is the county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. A portion of the South Campus at the University of California, Solano County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Chief Solano at one time led the tribes between the Petaluma River and the Sacramento River, the chief was called Sem-Yeto, which signifies brave or fierce hand. The Chief was given the Spanish name Francisco Solano during baptism at the Catholic Mission, Solano is a common surname in the north of Spain, especially in Navarra, Zaragoza and La Rioja. Travis Air Force Base is located just east of Fairfield, Solano County is the easternmost county of the North Bay. As such, it is reported by news agencies as being in the East Bay.
Additionally, a portion of the county extends into the Sacramento Valley, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles, of which 822 square miles is land and 84 square miles is water. Service connects with BART stations in Contra Costa County, transit links are provided to Napa and Sacramento counties as well. Greyhound and Amtrak provide long-distance intercity service, general aviation airports in Solano County which are open to the public are the Nut Tree Airport and Rio Vista Municipal Airport. The following table includes the number of reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Solano County had a population of 413,344. The racial makeup of Solano County was 210,751 White,60,750 African American,3,212 Native American,60,473 Asian,3,564 Pacific Islander,43,236 from other races, and 31,358 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,356 persons, at 52,641 Filipinos in the County making up 12% of the population, Solano County has the largest percentage Filipino population of any County in all of the United States.
As of the census of 2000, there were 394,542 people,130,403 households, the population density was 476 people per square mile. There were 134,513 housing units at a density of 162 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 56. 4% White,14. 9% Black or African American,0. 8% Native American,12. 8% Asian,0. 8% Pacific Islander,8. 0% from other races, and 6. 4% from two or more races
Lake Berryessa is the largest lake in Napa County, California. This reservoir in the Vaca Mountains is formed by the Monticello Dam, the reservoir was named for the first European settlers in the Berryessa Valley, José Jesús and Sexto Sisto Berrelleza, who were granted Rancho Las Putas in 1843. The lake is over 20,000 acres when full and it is approximately 15.5 miles long but only 3 miles wide. It has approximately 165 miles of shoreline, near the dam on the southeast side of the reservoir is an open bell-mouth spillway,72 feet in diameter, which is known as the Glory Hole. The pipe has a drop of 200 feet, and the diameter shrinks down to about 28 feet. The spillway has a capacity of 48,000 cfs. The spillway operates when there is water in the reservoir, in 2017 after heavy rains it started flowing. In 1997 a woman was killed after being pulled inside the spillway, the active Green Valley Fault runs parallel to the Lake in the hills to the west. Prior to its inundation, the valley was an agricultural region, the main town in the valley, was abandoned in order to construct the reservoir.
This abandonment was chronicled by the photographers Dorothea Lange and Pirkle Jones in their book Death of a Valley. Construction of Monticello Dam began in 1953, completed in 1958, Monticello residents opposed the government and the Solano Project but were unsuccessful. Residents abandoned their homes, the Monticello cemetery had to be relocated, Monticello ranchers were evicted as equipment was auctioned away and the fertile land destroyed and flooded. The discovery of gold in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada caused an influx of people to the central valley, communities in Solano County grew quickly in the gold rush. Monticello Dam and Lake Berryessa were the result, interest in damming Putah Creek started around the early 1900s. In 1907, a few cities in the Bay Area were interested enough to hire three engineers, including Arthur Powell Davis and George Washington Goethals and their interest quickly evaporated in favor of larger projects, but the place continued to attract interest. Small irrigation projects had developed in the areas but had little success.
In the end the Solano Water Council agreed to focus on Monticello Dam, some predicted the dam would be unsuccessful and the valley would never fill. Monticello, a farming town was founded by Ezra Peacock in 1867
Stebbins Cold Canyon Reserve
Stebbins Cold Canyon Reserve is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System and is administered by the University of California, Davis. It is within the Blue Ridge Berryessa Natural Area, in the Northern Inner California Coast Ranges and it is located in Solano County and Napa County 10 km west of Winters, California and 0.8 km east of Monticello Dam on the south side of Putah Creek. The reserve is 258 hectares in size with elevations ranging from 300–2,500 feet, underlying the reserve are sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and shales. The reserve provides habitat for wildlife species including 108 bird species, eight amphibian species, eighteen reptile species,43 mammal species. The reserve is used for types of research projects, educational outreach programs. Chaparral Natural history of the California Coast Ranges List of California native plants Plant communities of California Flora of California Official Stebbins Cold Canyon Reserve website
Putah Creek is a major stream in Northern California, a tributary of the Yolo Bypass. The 85-mile-long creek has its headwaters in the Mayacamas Mountains, a part of the Coast Range, the true meaning of Putah in Putah Creek has been the subject of discussion and speculation. The true meaning of Putah in Putah Creek has been the subject of discussion and speculation, according to Erwin Gudde, the resemblance is purely accidental, the revised fourth edition of Guddes California Place Names has the following entry, Putah Creek. From Lake Miwok puṭa wuwwe grassy creek, the similarity to Spanish puta prostitute is purely accidental. In the records of Mission San Francisco Solano of 1824, the natives of the place are mentioned with various spellings from Putto to Puttato, in the baptismal records of Mission Dolores an adulto de Putü is mentioned in 1817, and the wife of Pedro Putay in 1821. In 1842 the stream was known by its name, I know that the Rio was called Putos. It is well-known by the name which has been given it.
The name was fixed by William Wolfskill, who named his grant Rio de los Putos on May 24,1842. In 1843 the name was used in the titles of three land grants, in one of which the spelling Putas occurs. In the Statutes of the early 1850s, in the Indian Reports, R. R. Reports, the spelling of the name is in complete confusion. The present version was applied to a town in 1853, was used in the Statutes of 1854, was popular by the Bancroft maps. The creek originates from springs on the east side of Cobb Mountain south of the town of Cobb in southwestern Lake County and it descends eastward to the town of Whispering Pines, where it turns southeast, parallelling State Route 175. It passes the town of Anderson Springs, where it joins Bear Canyon Creek, north of Middletown, it curves counterclockwise around Harbin Mountain, merging in close succession with Dry Creek, Helena Creek, Crazy Creek, Harbin Creek, and Big Canyon Creek. From Harbin Mountain, it flows east again, joining Bucksnort Creek, in Napa County, the creek flows southeast, merging with Butts Creek just before it empties into Lake Berryessa.
Downstream of Monticello Dam, on the corner of the lake, Putah Creek leaves Napa County. In this section it offers excellent fishing opportunities year round, California Department of Fish and Wildlife regulations require catch and release in this section of the stream, as well as the use of artificial lures with barbless hooks. Below Lake Solano, Putah Creek receives McCune Creek, its last tributary, Dry Creek, after the Dry Creek confluence it passes through the town of Winters to reach Interstate 505. From there Putah Creek channel continues eastward, parallelling Putah Creek Road to Stevenson Bridge Road, Monticello Dam, a concrete arch dam, is the only major storage dam on the creek. It forms Lake Berryessa, which has a capacity of 1,602,000 acre feet, the dam and lake are part of the United States Bureau of Reclamations Solano Project and was completed in 1957
The Bullocks oriole is a small New World blackbird. At one time, this species and the Baltimore oriole were considered to be a single species and this bird was named after William Bullock, an English amateur naturalist. Bullocks orioles are sexually dimorphic, with males being brightly colored than females. In addition, adult males tend to be larger and heavier than females. In general, adults range in mass from 29 to 43 g, adults have a pointed bill with a straight culmen. In adult males, the tail is long, all exposed skin is black, as are the claws and bill, though the base of the lower mandible lightens to bluish-gray. Adult males are characterized by strongly contrasting orange and black plumage, a black throat patch, the underparts and face are orange or yellow, by contrast, the back and tail are black. A black line extends from eye to the black crown. The wing coverts are fringed white, forming a wing patch, although the tail is mostly black, the outermost three or four retrices are tipped orange, forming a T shape.
Adult females, by contrast, have gray-brown upperparts, duller yellow on the breast and underparts, some females may have a dark throat patch, similar to the one found in adult males, in all cases females lack the black eye-line present in adult males. It is hypothesized that females with throat patches are older individuals, following the general pattern observed among icterids, the overall plumage pattern seen in immature male Bullocks orioles closely resembles that seen in adult females. Juveniles resemble adult females but have darker wings, fresh wing coverts, sexual dimorphism is not obvious in juveniles. The breeding season lasts from May until July. The exact timing of the beginning of the season tends to vary geographically, in general. Mated pairs of Bullocks orioles cooperate to weave deep, pendant baskets in which are deposited between three and six eggs, though tend to do much of the work. The nest is woven of plant fibers, primarily bark and fine grass fiber, the nest is lined with down and moss.
Both males and females rear the young and defend the nest from predators, Bullocks orioles and Baltimore orioles typically hybridize in the Midwest where their geographic ranges overlap. While males have a voice, females tend to be more prolific singers
Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes. Old World quail are placed in the family Phasianidae, and New World quail are placed in the family Odontophoridae, the species of buttonquail are named for their superficial resemblance to quail, and form the family Turnicidae in the order Charadriiformes. The king quail, an Old World quail, often is sold in the pet trade, in 2007,40 million quail were produced in the U. S. The collective noun for a group of quail is a flock, covey or bevy
The black-headed grosbeak is a medium-size seed-eating bird in the same family as the northern cardinal, the Cardinalidae. It is sometimes considered conspecific with the rose-breasted grosbeak with which it hybridises on the American Great Plains. The 19 cm long,47 g black-headed grosbeak is a bird, with nesting grounds from southwestern British Columbia, through the western half of the United States. It occurs as an vagrant further south in Central America, the black-headed grosbeaks approximate length is 18–19 cm, it is similar in size to a common starling. As per its name, the male has a black head and its breast is dark to tawny orange in color, and its belly is yellow. The female has a head and back with sparrow-like black streaks. She has white streaks down the middle of her head, over her eyes and her breast is white and wings and tail are grayish-brown with two white wing bars and yellowish wing edges. The black-headed grosbeak prefers to live in deciduous and mixed wooded areas, females build nests among the dense foliage on an outer branch of tall broadleaved trees or shrubs, 3–35 ft above ground.
They will occasionally build in dense shrubs such as blackberry, the nest is in the shape of an open saucer, made of fine grass, rootlets twigs and conifer needles. It is often lined with rootlets and fine plant material, the female lays two to five pale green, blue or gray eggs that are spotted with reddish and dark brown. The eggs are incubated by the male and female for 12–14 days, after the eggs have hatched the fledglings leave the nest in about 11 or 12 days, however they are unable to fly for another two weeks. The young are fed by both adults, the black-headed grosbeaks monogamy is under study, but pair bonds generally last for only one breeding season. They typically have one brood per season, though double broods have been documented in foothills of the Sacramento Valley in California, the note is a sharp ik or eek. Both the male and female sing, but have different songs, the black-headed grosbeak eats pine and other seeds and insects, spiders and fruit. During the summer months it mostly eats spiders and insects and it is one of the few birds that can safely eat the poisonous monarch butterfly.
In their wintering grounds, this grosbeak consumes many monarchs and many seeds and it will come to bird feeders for sunflower and other types of seed, and fruit. Will join northern orioles at feeders with grape jelly, Black-headed grosbeaks range from the Pacific coast to the middle of the US Great Plains and from south western Canada to the mountains of Mexico. US and Canadian birds are migratory, wintering in Mexico
Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the U. S. state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Chaparral covers 5 percent of the state of California, and associated Mediterranean shrubland an additional 3.5 percent, the name comes from the Spanish word for scrub oak, chaparro. In its natural state, chaparral is characterized by infrequent fires, mature chaparral is characterized by nearly impenetrable, dense thickets. They grow as woody shrubs with hard and small leaves, are non-leaf-dropping, after the first rains following a fire, the landscape is dominated by soft-leaved non-woody annual plants, known as fire followers, which die back with the summer dry period. According to the California Academy of Sciences, Mediterranean shrubland contains more than 20 percent of the plant diversity. The word chaparral is a word from Spanish chaparro, meaning both small and dwarf evergreen oak, which itself comes from the Basque word txapar, with exactly the same meaning.
In Central and Southern California chaparral forms a dominant habitat, the following is a short list of birds which are an integral part of the cismontane chaparral ecosystems. Transmontane chaparral features xeric desert climate, not Mediterranean climate habitats, Desert chaparral is a regional ecosystem subset of the deserts and xeric shrublands biome, with some plant species from the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. Unlike cismontane chaparral, which forms dense, impenetrable stands of plants, desert chaparral is open, individual shrubs can reach up to 10 feet in height. Transmontane chaparral or desert chaparral is found on the slopes of major mountain range systems on the western sides of the deserts of California. It is distinguished from the cismontane chaparral found on the side of the mountains. Naturally, desert chaparral experiences less rainfall than cismontane chaparral. Plants in this community are characterized by small, hard evergreen leaves, Desert chaparral grows above Californias desert cactus scrub plant community and below the pinyon-juniper woodland.
It is further distinguished from the deciduous sub-alpine scrub above the pinyon-juniper woodlands on the side of the Peninsular ranges. Transmontane chaparral typically grows on the northern slopes of the southern Transverse Ranges. It can be found in higher-elevation sky islands in the interior of the deserts, there is overlap of animals with those of the adjacent desert and pinyon-juniper communities. Canis latrans, coyotes Lynx rufus, bobcats Neotoma sp, the Chaparral area receives about 38–100 cm of precipitation a year. This makes the chaparral most vulnerable to fire in the late summer, the chaparral ecosystem as a whole is adapted to be able to recover from infrequent wildfires, chaparral regions are known culturally and historically for their impressive fires