A wishing well is a term from European folklore to describe wells where it was thought that any spoken wish would be granted. The idea that a wish would be granted came from the idea that water housed deities or had been placed there as a gift from the gods, since water was a source of life, the Germanic and Celtic peoples considered springs and wells sacred places. Sometimes the places were marked with wooden statues possibly of the god associated with the pool, Germanic peoples were known to throw the armour and weapons of defeated enemies into bogs and other pools of water as offerings to their gods. Water was seen to have healing powers and therefore became popular with many people drinking, bathing or just simply wishing over it. Some people believe that the guardians or dwellers of the well would grant them their wish if they paid a price, after uttering the wish, one would generally drop coins in the well. That wish would be granted by the guardian or dweller, if the coin landed heads up, the guardian of the well would grant the wish, but the wish of a tails up coin would be ignored.
It was thus potentially lucky to throw coins in the well, the tradition of dropping pennies in ponds and fountains stems from this. Coins would be placed there as gifts for the deity to show appreciation, odin was asked to sacrifice his right eye which he threw into the well to receive not only the wisdom of seeing the future but the understanding of why things must be. Mímir is the Nordic god of wisdom, and his well sits at the roots of Yggdrasil, another theory is people may have unknowingly discovered the biocidal properties of both copper and silver, the two metals traditionally used in coins. Throwing coins made of either of these metals could help make the water safer to drink, in November 2006 the Fountain Money Mountain reported that tourists throw just under 3 million pounds sterling per year into wishing wells
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
The Guilford Puteal is a Pentelic marble Ancient Roman sculpture. Its name derives from its use as a puteal or wellhead and its discovery in Corinth gives rise to an alternative modern name, the Corinth Puteal. The puteal—wellhead is a cylindrical drum 50 cm by 106 cm, work is ongoing to locate the likely original site of the monument from which it came, perhaps even with part of its missing moulding restored. The wellhead is decorated in bas-relief, with ten figures of deities and heroes, at the front two small processions meet, on the left is Apollo with his lyre who leads Artemis and another female figure, probably their mother Leto. Behind Leto, from left to right, is Hermes/Mercury leading three dancing women or nymphs, on the right is Athena/Minerva leading Herakles/Hercules and a veiled woman. The figures were spaced apart, and were designed in the Neo Attic style. A fragmentary base from Ephesus in western Turkey, itself recycled for use and now in the collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum.
It was used as a well-head after antiquity, either by a 19th-century Turkish owner or possibly earlier and this Turk displayed it the right way up, endangering the remains of the figures through friction of the well-rope against the marble. In the earliest years of the nineteenth century Notara presided over a guest-house for western travellers to Corinth, while there it was seen by Edward Dodwell in 1805 and drawn by his artist Simone Pomardi, and was described by Dodwell in his account of his travels in Greece. It was seen by Colonel William Leake in 1806, Dodwell perceptively recognised its close links with a relief in the collection of the Villa Albani in Rome, catalogued in the eighteenth century by Winckelmann. Otto Magnus von Stackelberg drew casts of it, which had taken to Athens. It was acquired by Frederick North in 1810 at Corinth and it was among the sixty crates of marble sculpture he shipped from Greece in 1813. It was he who moved it to Bretton Hall for display, possibly in the built in 1830 by George Basevi, better known as the architect of the Fitzwilliam Museum. A century later, its whereabouts remained unknown and the object only known through drawings.
Meanwhile, it passed with Bretton Hall to West Riding County Council, one was the Puteal, in use as a planter. By 1995, a keeper of the British Museum was able to match figures from Pomardi, on the Colleges absorption into Leeds University, the HEFCE instructed the University to put the Puteal and an altar from the same collection on the art market. By 2002 Christies had valued them and a sale had been negotiated. However, at the time the Nicopolis examples were found
In ancient Roman religion, Fontus or Fons was a god of wells and springs. A religious festival called the Fontinalia was held on October 13 in his honor, throughout the city and wellheads were adorned with garlands. Fons was the son of Juturna and Janus, numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, was supposed to have been buried near the altar of Fons on the Janiculum. William Warde Fowler observed that between 259 and 241 BC, cults were founded for Juturna and the Tempestates, as a god of pure water, Fons can be placed in opposition to Liber as a god of wine identified with Bacchus. Fons was not among the deities depicted on coinage of the Roman Republic, in the cosmological schema of Martianus Capella, Fons is located in the second of 16 celestial regions, with Jupiter, Mars, the Military Lar, Juno and the Novensiles. Water as a source of regeneration played a role in the Mithraic mysteries, in one of the scenes of the Mithraic cycle, the god strikes a rock, which gushes water. A Mithraic text explains that the stream was a source of life-giving water and immortal refreshment
The practice was common in late antiquity. Entire obsolete structures, including foundations, are known to have been demolished to enable the construction of new structures. According to Baxter, two churches in Worcester are thought to have been deconstructed so that their stone could be repurposed by St. Wulstan to construct a cathedral in 1084. And the parish churches of Atcham and Upton Magna are largely built of stone taken from the buildings of Viroconium Cornoviorum, Spolia in the medieval Islamic world include the columns in the hypostyle mosques of Kairouan and Cordoba. Interpretations of spolia generally alternate between the ideological and the pragmatic, ideological readings might describe the re-use of art and architectural elements from former empires or dynasties as triumphant or as revivalist. Pragmatic readings emphasize the utility of re-used materials, if there is a supply of old marble columns available, for example. Clive Foss has noted that in the fifth century crosses were inscribed on the stones of buildings, as at Ankara.
Clive Foss suggests that the purpose of this was to ward off the daimones that lurked in stones that had been consecrated to pagan usage and it is a way of acquiring the power of rival gods for ones own benefit, Liz James observes. Inscribing a cross works similarly, sealing the object for Christian purposes, crisis of the 3rd Century Roman Empire#Tetrarchy and Constantine the Great Dominate Palimpsest, the practice of erasing old texts from scarce old vellum to write new text. Diocletians Palace, a Roman Imperial palace in Split, re-purposed by inhabitants as a town, there is a large modern literature on spolia, and the following list makes no claim to be comprehensive. J. Alchermes, Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire, Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 48, S. Bassett, The urban image of late antique Constantinople. L. Bosman, The power of tradition, Spolia in the architecture of St. Peters in the Vatican, Spolia from Constantine to Charlemagne, Aesthetics versus Ideology, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41, 103–09.
Brenk, Sugers Spolien, Arte Medievale 1, 101–107, R. Brilliant, I piedistalli del giardino di Boboli, spolia in se, spolia in re, Prospettiva 31, 2–17. Bruzelius, Columpnas marmoreas et lapides antiquarum ecclesiarum, The Use of Spolia in the Churches of Charles II of Anjou, in Arte dOccidente, studi in onore di Angiola Maria Romanini, 187–95. F. W. Deichmann, Die Spolien in der spätantike Architektur, J. Elsner, From the Culture of Spolia to the Cult of Relics, The Arch of Constantine and the Genesis of Late Antique Forms, Papers of the British School at Rome 68, 149–84. A. Esch, Zum Wiederverwendung antike Baustücke und Skulpturen in mittelalterlichen Italien, Archiv für Kunstgeschichte 51, The Medieval Trophy as an Art Historical Trope and Byzantine Altars in Islamic Contexts, Muqarnas 18. J. M. Frey, Spolia in Fortifications and the Common Builder in Late Antiquity M. Greenhalgh, M. Greenhalgh, Spolia in fortifications, Turkey and North Africa, in Ideologie e pratiche del reimpiego nellalto medioevo. M.
Fabricius Hansen, The eloquence of appropriation, prolegomena to an understanding of spolia in early Christian Rome, Making Sense of the Spolia in the Little Metropolis in Athens, Arte medievale n. s. anno IV,2,2005, 95-114
Cult of Dionysus
The Cult of Dionysus is strongly associated with satyrs and sileni, and its characteristic symbols are the bull, the serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and the wine. The Dionysia and Lenaia festivals in Athens were dedicated to Dionysus, initiates worshipped him in the Dionysian Mysteries, which were comparable to and linked with the Orphic Mysteries, and may have influenced Gnosticism. Orpheus was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus, the Cult of Dionysus traces back to at least Mycenaean Greece, since his name is found on Mycenean Linear B tablets as
Ancient Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style. The two styles are considered one body of classical architecture. Roman architecture flourished in the Roman Republic and even more so under the Empire and it used new materials, particularly concrete, and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make buildings that were typically strong and well-engineered. Large numbers remain in some form across the empire, sometimes complete, Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. Almost no substantial examples survive from before about 100 BC, and most of the major survivals are from the empire, after about 100 AD. They moved from trabeated construction mostly based on columns and lintels to one based on walls, punctuated by arches.
The classical orders now became largely decorative rather than structural, except in colonnades, they did not feel entirely restricted by Greek aesthetic concerns, and treated the orders with considerable freedom. Innovation started in the 3rd or 2nd century BC with the development of Roman concrete as a readily available adjunct to, or substitute for, more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes. The freedom of concrete inspired the colonnade screen, a row of decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concretes strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment, factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own. The use of vaults and arches, together with a knowledge of building materials. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla and these were reproduced at a smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire.
Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. The administrative structure and wealth of the empire made possible very large even in locations remote from the main centres, as did the use of slave labour. Especially under the empire, architecture often served a function, demonstrating the power of the Roman state in general. The influence is evident in many ways, for example, in the introduction and use of the Triclinium in Roman villas as a place, Roman builders employed Greeks in many capacities, especially in the great boom in construction in the early Empire. The Roman Architectural Revolution, known as the Concrete Revolution, was the use in Roman architecture of the previously little-used architectural forms of the arch, vault. For the first time in history, their potential was fully exploited in the construction of a range of civil engineering structures, public buildings
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the marble to refer to metamorphosed limestone, however. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material and this stem is the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning marble-like. In Hungarian it is called márvány, Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the carbonate rock have typically been modified or destroyed. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure limestone or dolomite protolith, green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally magnesium-rich limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure, examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations, White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times.
This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the marble is used for any crystalline calcitic rock useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation. Ashgabat, the city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the worlds highest concentration of white marble buildings. According to the United States Geological Survey, U. S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate.
For comparison,2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate, U. S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, the largest dimension marble application is tile. In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for almost half of production of marble
A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. The primary purpose of a wellhead is to provide the suspension point, while drilling the oil well, surface pressure control is provided by a blowout preventer. If the pressure is not contained during drilling operations by the column of drilling fluid, wellhead, and BOP, when the well has been drilled, it is completed to provide an interface with the reservoir rock and a tubular conduit for the well fluids. Wellheads are typically welded onto the first string of casing, which has been cemented in place during drilling operations, in exploration wells that are abandoned, the wellhead may be recovered for refurbishment and re-use. Offshore, where a wellhead is located on the platform it is called a surface wellhead. Provides a means of tubing suspension, provides a means of pressure sealing and isolation between casing at surface when many casing strings are used.
Provides pressure monitoring and pumping access to annuli between the different casing/tubing strings, provides a means of attaching a blowout preventer during drilling. Provides a means of attaching a Christmas tree for production operations, provides a reliable means of well access. They have a temperature range of -50 to +250 degrees Fahrenheit. They are used in conjunction with ring type seal gaskets, in general the yield strength of the materials range from 36000 to 75000 psi. Puteal—Water well head Pumpjack American Petroleum Institute Drilling rig Christmas tree Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary, wellhead
The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In 2014,264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is a metropolitan area without any degree of autonomy. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the La Dominante, Queen of the Adriatic, City of Water, City of Masks, City of Bridges, The Floating City, and City of Canals.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016, the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean beloved, lovable, a connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color sea-blue, is possible.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD166 to 168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area. The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum. In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature. Carbon ranging from 1. 8–4 wt%, and silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron, Iron alloys with less carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram, cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidation, the earliest cast iron artefacts date to the 5th century BC, and were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare, during the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for artillery in Burgundy, and in England during the Reformation. The first cast iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, cast iron is used in the construction of buildings.
Cast iron is made by re-melting pig iron, often along with quantities of iron, limestone, carbon. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the iron, but this burns out the carbon. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into a furnace or ladle. Cast irons properties are changed by adding various alloying elements, or alloyants, next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant because it forces carbon out of solution. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide, a high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon and copper increase strength, and machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed.
The carbon in the form of graphite results in an iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength. Sulfur, largely a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, the problem with sulfur is that it makes molten cast iron viscous, which causes defects. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide, the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag