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1. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

2. Deity – A deity is a concept conceived in diverse ways in various cultures, typically as a natural or supernatural being considered divine or sacred. A male deity is a god, while a female deity is a goddess, the Oxford reference defines deity as a god or goddess, or anything revered as divine. Various cultures have conceptualized a deity differently than a monotheistic God, a plain deity need not be omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent, or eternal, however an almighty monotheistic God generally does have these attributes. Monotheistic religions typically refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine, androgynous, some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities have been envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living beings body, as sensory organs, but in Indian religions, all deities are also subject to death when their merit runs out. The English language word deity derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or divine nature, deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European language origin to *deiwos. Deva is masculine, and the feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Latin dea and Greek thea, in Old Persian, daiva- means demon, evil god, while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the heavenly, divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones. The closely linked term god refers to supreme being, deity, which states Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, guth in the Irish language means voice. The term *ghut- is also the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu- An alternate etymology for the term god traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, the term *gheu- is also the source of the Greek khein to pour. Originally the German root was a noun, but the gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities, the term deity often connotes the concept of sacred or divine, as a god or goddess, in a polytheistic religion. However, there is no accepted consensus concept of deity across religions and cultures. Huw Owen states that the deity or god or its equivalent in other languages has a bewildering range of meanings. Some engravings or sketches show animals, hunters or rituals, the Venus of Willendorf, a female figurine found in Europe and dated to about 25,000 BCE has been interpreted as an exemplar of a prehistoric divine feminine. In Buddhist mythology, devas are beings inhabiting certain happily placed worlds of Buddhist cosmology and these beings are mortal and numerous. It is also common for iṣṭadevatās to be called deities, although the nature of Yidams is distinct from what is meant by the term. Buddhism does not believe in a creator deity, however, deities are an essential part of Buddhist cosmology, rebirth and Saṃsāra doctrines

4. Kerala – Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this also happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil, Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land

5. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

6. Sabarimala – Sabarimala is a Hindu pilgrimage centre located at the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Western Ghat mountain ranges of Pathanamthitta District, Perunad grama panchayat in Kerala. It is one of the largest annual pilgrimages in the world, Ayyappans temple is situated amidst 18 hills. The temple is situated on a hilltop at an altitude of 1260 m above sea level. The dense forest, around the temple is known as poongavanam, temples exist in each of the hills surrounding Sabarimala. While functional and intact temples exist at places in the surrounding areas like Nilakkal Kalaketty. The shrine at Sabarimala is an ancient temple of Ayyappan also known as sasta and Dharmasasta, in the 12th century, Manikandan, a prince of Pandalam dynasty, meditated at Sabarimala temple and became one with the divine. Manikandan was an avatar of Ayyappan, Sabarimala is linked to pilgrimage predominantly undertaken by Hindus. Sabarimala pilgrims can be identified easily, as they wear black or blue dress and they do not shave until the completion of the pilgrimage, and smear Vibhuti or sandal paste on their forehead. In 1991, the Kerala High Court restricted entry of women above the age of 10, presently, the Supreme Court of India has taken a petition to review the judgment of High Court and allow entry of women. The Supreme Court hearings are in progress and no decision has yet been made, the temple is open for worship only during the days of Mandalapooja, Makaravilakku or Makara Sankranti and Maha Vishuva Sankranti, and the first five days of each Malayalam month. The devotees are expected to follow a Vratham prior to the pilgrimage and this begins with wearing of a special Mala. They must try their maximum to help others, and see everything around them as lord Ayyappa and they are expected to bath twice in a day and visit the local temples regularly and only wear plain black or blue colored traditional clothing. Saffron colored dresses are worn by Sannyasi who have renunciated material life, but, many devotees still continue to wear saffron colored clothes which becomes a part of Vedic culture which connects the whole Hindus worldwide. Hundreds of devotees still follow the traditional mountainous forest path from Erumely,12.8 km from Vandiperiyar and 8 km from Chalakayam, the Erumely route starts from Erumely to Aludha river, then crosses the Aludha mountain to reach Karivilam thodu. Now comes the sacred Karimala crossing, from there to Cheriyanavattom, Valliyanavattom, then they have to climb Neelimala and enter into the Ganesha-Bettam, Shreerama-Betta Padam. Then comes the Aranmula kottaram, which is one of the stops of holy journey Thiruvabharana Ghoshayatra and these days people use vehicles to reach the Pamba River by an alternate route. From Pamba, all the pilgrims begin trekking the steep path of Neeli Mala till Sabari Mala. The elderly pilgrims are lifted by men on bamboo chairs till the top, women in large numbers did not visit the temple, due to the hardship in reaching the temple

7. Alappuzha district – Alappuzha is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India. It was formed as Alleppey District on August 17,1957, the name of the district was officially changed to Alappuzha in 1990. The district is a known tourist destination and is well known for its Coir factories. Most of Keralas coir industries are situated in and around Alappuzha, the district is also known for its communist traditions. It is home to the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising against the British and also the revolt against the Feudal raj, Alappuzha is strongly connected by waterways to various other parts of Kerala, including the famous tourist destination, Kumarakom. The present town owes its existence to Raja Kesavadas in the half of the 18th century. Kuttanad, the bowl of Kerala, was well known from early in the Sangam period. History says Alappuzha had trade relations with ancient Greece and Rome in B. C. early members of the Chera dynasty had their home in Kuttanad and were called Kuttuvans. There is archaeological evidence of the period of the district, such as stone inscriptions and monuments, in temples and caves. The famous literary work of this period was Ascharya Choodamani a Sanskrit drama written by Sakthibhadra who was a scholar of Chengannur grammar and it is said that Sreekrishna Swami temple, at Ambalappuzha was constructed and the idol of Lord Krishna installed during that time. It is believed that Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, Neelakanta Deekshithar, in the 17th century the Portuguese power declined and the Dutch had a predominant position in the principalities of this district. The church located at Kokkamangalam or Kokkothamangalam was one of the seven churches founded by St. Thomas the Apostle, the picturesque CSI Christ Church in Alappuzha town was built in 1818 by the first CMS missionary to India, Rev. Thomas Norton. It was the first Anglican Church to be established in the state of Travancore. It was at that time Maharaja Marthandavarma, the ‘Maker of modern Travancore’ interfered in the affairs of those principalities. Marthandavarma Maharaja had a role in the internal progress of the district. The Krishnapuram Palace, which is now a monument of the State Archaeology Department, was constructed during that period. It was at time that the great and talented poet Kunjan Nambiar was installed in the court. He was known as the ‘Maker of modern Alleppey’ and played a key role in making Alappuzha a premier port town of Travancore, during the reign of Balaramavarma Maharaja, Velu Thampi Dalava took keen interest in the development of the town and port

9. Manakkattu Devi Temple – Manakkattu Devi Temple is one of the most renowned temples in Kerala. The temple is located at Pallippad in Karthikappalli taluk of Alappuzha district in the south Indian state Kerala, the temple is situated about 4 km east of Harippad on Nangiarkulangara Mavelikkara road. Thekkummuri, Kottakkakam, Naduvattom and Thekkekkara kizhakku There are many Upadevathas adjacent to the temple, the main Upadevathas in the temple premises are, Yakshi Nagarajav Muhurthi Rekshas Vallyachan The Temple has a number of festivals. The important ones are In the numerous temples of Onattukara, the Parayeduppu period is the festival season and it all begins when the deity of Manakkattu Devi temple is taken out in procession for Parayeduppu on the Bharani star of the Malayalam month Makaram. The main part of Parayeduppu is the Jeevathaconstructed in the model of the structure itself. The rhythms used during Jeevatha Ezunnallathu are quite noteworthy, starting with very slow beats, it builds up a crescendo and ends in fast beats. The ensemble consists of Veekkan chenda, Uruttu chenda, Elathaalam, Kombu, Temple Website Facebook Page YouTube Videos

11. Evoor Major Sri krishnaswamy temple – Evoor Major Srikrishnaswamy temple is a Krishna temple in Evoor near Kayamkulam, Alappuzha, Kerala. It is said to have originated five millennium ago following Khandava Dahanam, temple in its current form is built by Moolam Thirunal. Agni, after devouring clarified butter uninterrupted for twelve years from Swetakis Yagja, Lord Brahma advised him to consume the Khandava forest. The forest was abode to Takshaka, the Naga leader and friend of Indra, whenever Agni tried to consume the forest Indra, with his thundershowers, stopped him. Agni turned to Arjuna and Krishna for assistance, Agni armed Arjuna with the mighty bow Gandiva which rivalled Pinaka, the bow of Lord Shiva himself. When Arjuna and Krishna arrived at Khandava forest Kanva Maharishi approached them with a request to spare his Arca moorthy Krishna granted the request, Arjuna constructed a Sarakoodam to shelter Agni. Under the Sarakoodam Agni consumed the forest and was cured of the ailment, grateful, Agni, expressed his wish to install Arca moorthy in a new temple there to facilitate worship. As instructed by Sri Krishna, Arjuna fired an arrow to determine a location for the proposed temple. The place where the arrow landed was used to construct the new temple, Evoor is a corrupt form of Eythoor. Krishna performed Prana-Pratishta and Arjuna performed the first pooja, bhoothanathaswamy and Yakshi Amma were consecrated as the Sub Deities. The remains of burned trees in the locality and names of places, Karippuzha, Pathiyoor, Pandavarkavu, Mannarasala. About one and a century ago the temple burnt when the sanctum santorum caught fire. The idol was recovered from the burning temple, the then King Moolam Thirunal who was visiting Kashi had a vision in his dream asking him to reconstruct the temple. He returned right away and constructed a new temple, Evoor Bhagavan’s Deity is the unique Prayoga Chakra Prathishta. The idol of Sri Krishna is in the four armed Vishu form with Panchajanya Shankha, Sudarshana Chakra, the deity is furious form and Raktha-pushpanjali is a special offering here which is unavailable in Vishnu temples elsewhere. Ulsava in Evoor temple starts on first day of makara and continues for ten days, the Ultsava begins with the hosting of Garuda printed flag. The ulsava of days 6,7,8 are sponsored by three karas on at a time, on the ninth day there is Kala-kettu. The ulsava culminates with Aaraattu after that the flag is lowered and the deity proceeds to Pallikkuruppu

12. Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple – The Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple in Haripad is one of the oldest temples in Kerala. This temple dedicated to Subrahmanya Swamy is known as Dakshina Palani and it is believed that the temple was established even before the advent of Kaliyuga. It is believed that the idol has been used by Parasurama for Poojas and was left in Kandanalloor in Govindamuttom Backwaters from which it was recovered. It is said all the landlords of Eakachakra had vision regarding the idol in the sametime which led them to find the idol in Kayamkulam lake. The idol was brought ashore at Nelpurakadavu. In commemoration of retrieval of the idol Vigraha Labdhi Jalolsavam is conducted in Payippad river for three days, after Thiruvonam, legend has it that the idol was kept for public viewing for Ara Nazhika under a banyan tree that belonged to a Christian family, Tharakanmar. There still exist a small temple where the idol was kept known as “Ara Nazhika Ambalam”, the temple was consecrated on the Pushya star of Makara Masa. This day is celebrated as the day of the temple every year. It is believed that Lord Vishnu appeared as a saint to consecrate the temple, in Malayalam year 1096 the temple caught fire but the golden flag mast and the Koothambalam was saved from the fire. The temple was rebuilt during the reign of King Sree Chithira Thirunal Rama Varma. the presiding deity of the temple is Murugan in four armed form with Vel in one hand, Vajrayudha in another hand one hand bestowing blessing and the other toughing its thighs. The idol is about eight feet in height, the idol is believed to have presence of Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. The idol faces East Beside the main deity there are other deities which include Dakshina Moorthy, Lord Ganesh, Thiruvambadi Kannan, Nāga, Shasta. It has golden flag mast on eastern side, the temples Sanctum sanctorum is round in shape. The temple compound also hosts a Koothambalam, peacocks, Murugans vahana, are protected and housed in the temple premises. Kerala with Lakshadweep Outlook traveller getaways

14. Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple – Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple is one of the Bhadrakali temples in Cherthala, Alappuzha district, Kerala. It is about 1 kilometer west of the Arthungal bypass of NH47 at Cherthala, Kunguma Khalasam is conducted on the first Sunday of every month, as per Malayalam calendar. This special Vazipadu is for people who wish to have children, wealth and prosperity, rahukala Naranga Vilakku is another major offering for settling marriage. It has been conducted every Friday, providing food for temple attendees on special days is regarded as quite benevolent. Prasadam Oottu is available on Prathishta days, day of Kunguma Kalasam, Bhagavatha Sapthaham days and these are sponsored by the Devaswom. Devotees can contribute through remittance at the temple counter, now there is a Prasadam Oottu on all Fridays. The temple is a centre of pilgrimage for devotees of serpent gods, the Sarpam Pattu is most pleasing of all poojas to the serpents. This holy ceremony has been conducted every year. Sarppam Pattu requires huge spending and manpower for many months, separate poojas are offered to the nine Nagas, Nagaraja, Sarppa Yakshi, Naga Yakshi, Naga Chamundi, Angu Thala Mani Nagam, Kuzhi Nagam, Kari Nagam, Mani Nagam and Para Nagam during these days. On the eastern side of the temple, songs are recited to please the serpents, the Pulluvan song is accompanied by the sounds from the little Veenas and the music of the Pulluva women playing on Kudam are a familiar sight at Kutti kkattu Devi Temple. Pulluva is a community of the Hindu religion, and they follow this form as their vocation. People with expertise in handling these instruments are even among the Pulluva community

15. Mannarasala Temple – Mannarasala Sree Nagaraja Temple is a very ancient and internationally known centre of pilgrimage for the devotees of serpent gods. The famous Nagaraja temple Mannarasala is nestled in a forest glade, the Mannarasala Temple has over 30,000 images of snakes along the paths and among the trees, and is the largest such temple in Kerala. The temple is located three kilometers to the north-east of the bus station in N. H.47 at Haripad. This history of Mannarasala has been mentioned in the Mandara Salodyam, Narayanan Namboodiri of the sacred family based on the accounts and legends handed down and old scriptures and books available with the temple. Lord Parashurama in order to release himself from the sin of killing Kshatriyas approached the holy Rishis and they suggested that he should make a gift of a land of his own to the Brahmins. Parashurama, the son of Bhrigu, propitiated Varuna to get land for himself. He threw into sea the Axe which Lord Shiva had given him with his blessings, thus he reclaimed the land from the sea and gave it as a gift to the Brahmins according to the rites. This land came to be known as Kerala and this piece of land, however was not habitable because of the salinity of the soil and as a result people began to leave the place. Parashurama set out with his disciples in search of a jungle in order to please Nagaraja. He found a place near the seashore in the southern part of Kerala. Satisfied with having found a place for the realization of his cherished dream. A pleased Nagaraja, appeared before Parashurama, willing to grant him his desire, according to the poem by Mannarasala M. G. Narayanan Namboodiri, the Nagaraja made his appearance as if, The unspeakable splendor of millions of moons. The bright magnificence of emeralds stuck to the hoods, golden jewels made attractive by miraculous embroidery. Lotus feet worshipped by crowds of Gods, brilliant beauty of form, full of youthfulness. Parasurama prostrated at the feet of Nagaraja and prayed to realize his objective. Nagaraja granted his request with great pleasure, ferocious serpents arrived at the spot at once to spread the flaming Kalakuda poison. Because of the percolation of poison, the land of Kerala was desalinated, parasurama then requested the Lord to bless the land forever with his eternal presence which was also accepted by the kindly-disposed Nagaraja. Parashurama installed, according to Vedic rites, Nagaraja, who is Brahma, Vishnu and Siva in one in the Thirthasthala filled with Mandara trees, (The installed deity here represents Anantha and Vasuki

16. Mullakkal Temple – Mullakkal Temple, Alleppey Mullakkal Temple in the south Indian city of Alappuzha, Kerala is a multi-faith place of worship. The temple is known as Mullakkal Rajarajeswari Temple, and Mullakkal Bhagwati Temple. The temple is accessible for devotes from all castes and religions, positioned on one of the main streets of Alleppey, “Mullakkal theruvu”, Mullakkal Rajarajeswari Temple is structured in old Kerala architectural style. Being surrounded by well-maintained wall and a pond inside, the premises has plenty of trees. There are several related to the origin of the temple. The idol placed on the shrine is of Durga Maa with four arms, the temple is run by Travancore Devaswom boards in Kerala. The shrine of the temple is called “Sanctum sanctorum” and it is an open roof shrine, at the entrance point of the temple, around 20 feet area is kept under roofing. According to convention and old custom this roofed place is used for keeping large elephants that bring the “thidambu” of the goddess on special occasions. There are other deities in the temple, they are Hanuman Swami, Lord Ganesha, Subramanya Swami, Nagaraja, Navagraha, Sree Krishna, there is banyan tree inside the premises where the lingam of Lord Shiva is also placed for darshana. The temple is estimated as almost 500 years old, plenty of stories are found allied to the origin of the temple. According to one story the idol of Mullakkal Devi” was brought here by a group of exiled soldiers from Thekkumkur territory, primarily they placed the idol in a jasmine garden. Later a temple was constructed in the garden by the patronage of King Devanarayana of Chembagasery. There is another story popularly known related to the foundation of the temple, later on the temple was established. Prior to 1961, the placed on the main shrine was of Mata Annapurneswari. As her temple was placed in a Jasmine Garden she was given the name Mullakkal Bhagawthy, the idol of Maa was found in the standing pose facing West digestion in the temple. In 1961 some incredible events took place, believers have reported that a mentally unbalanced person entered the sanctum sanctorum and all on a sudden embraced the idol. Afterward it was observed that some cracks had settled on the idol’s body, an astrologer predicted that the Goddess had instructed to create a fresh idol to be placed on the shrine instead of the old one. Accordingly, on 16 July 1962 a 4-feet tall Rajarajeswari idol was placed on the shrine replacing the old, later on the idol of Lord Krishna and serpent gods were included and placed on different shrines

18. Valiyakulangara Devi Temple – Valiyakulangara Devi Temple is located about 5 km from Haripad and 4 km from Thrikkunnappuzha. It is located 3 km from the National Waterway-3 as well as from the National Highway-47, the major festival is the Aswathi festival in Feb-March, famous for the Fireworks show and the Kettukaazcha. Kettukazhcha displays deftly sculpted and decorated forms of six temple cars known as Kuthiras, five Therus and icons of Bhima and Hanuman

19. Ernakulam district – Ernakulam is a district of Kerala, India situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,068 km2, Ernakulam district is home to over 12% of Kerala’s population and its headquarters is located at Kakkanad, a suburb of Kochi city. Ernakulam is known as the capital of Kerala. The district is famous for its ancient temples, churches, the district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state, Greater Cochin. Ernakulam district is the highest revenue yielding district in the state and it is the third most populous district in Kerala, after Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram. Ernakulam district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state, the language spoken in Ernakulam is Malayalam which is the mother-tongue of Kerala. English is widely used, especially in business circles, Ernakulam became Indias first district having 100 percent banking or full meaningful financial inclusion in 2012. The name Ernakulam is derived from Erayanarkulam which means the abode of Lord Shiva, Ernakulam was also known as Rishinagakulam in ancient days. From ancient times Ernakulam district has played a part in the history of south India. The Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to Kingdom of Cochin, in 1896, the Maharaja of Cochin initiated local administration by forming a town council in Ernakulam. Initially Ernakulam districts headquarters was at Ernakulam, which gave the district its name, according to the 2011 census Ernakulam district has a population of 3,282,388, roughly equal to the nation of Mauritania or the US state of Iowa. This gives it a ranking of 104th in India, the district has a population density of 1,069 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5. 6%, Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1028 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 95. 68%. This district is listed as the most advanced district in Kerala and it had a resident population of 3,105,798 as of 2001, excluding the huge commuter traffic from neighbouring districts. Hindus accounts for the largest community followed by Christians and Muslims, a small population of Jains, Jews and Sikhs are also residing in Kochi. Also, Ernakulam district has the highest number of Christian population in India, in addition to the major communities the Buddhists, the Jains, the Sikhs, and the Jews also form part of the cosmopolitan population. The ancestors of the Jews migrated from Jerusalem in 70 A. D. to India, now there are very few Jewish families in Cochin as most of them were converted to Syrian Christians, and the rest migrated to Israel in the 20th century. The 15. 7% of the population are Malayalam speaking Sunni Shafii Muslims, Ernakulam district covers an area of 3,068 km2 located on the Western Coastal Plains of India

20. Dakshina Mookambika Temple, North Paravur – The Dakshina Mookambika Temple is a famous Saraswati temple in the town of North Paravur in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. The presiding deity in temple is Saraswati and sub-deities are Ganapathy, Subrahmanyan, Mahavishnu, Yakshi. A shrine devoted to Yakshi is at the southwest corner, the sanctum sanctorum is in the midst of a lotus pool. According to legends, Thampuran of Paravur was a devotee of Goddess Mookambika. He used to visit the Kollur temple in Mangalore every year to pay homage to the goddess, when he became old, his health worsened and he could no longer undertake the long journey to Kollur. The goddess appeared to the sad devotee in a dream and ordered him to build her idol near his palace so that he can have darshan of her. Thampuran followed her instructions, built a temple at Paravur and installed the Goddess, the famous Navratri festival is celebrated here with great fervor. Thousands of people participate in the Navaratri music festival, thousands of little children are initiated into the world of letters by making them write the word harisree on rice, their tongues or sand with a golden ring. Apart from the Navratri festival, the annual festival is celebrated in the month of Makaram. The music festival and Vidyāraṃbhaṃ ceremony are the features of this festival

21. Chottanikkara Temple – The Chottanikkara Devi Temple is a famous temple of mother goddess Shakthi devi or Rajarajeshwari known as Sree Bhagavathi. Maha lakshmi is supposed to be residing in Chottanikkara along with Lord Vishnu, Sree Mahamaya Bhagawati, the goddess of power, is one of the most popular deities in Kerala and the supreme mother goddess in Hinduism. Supreme lord Shiva, Ganesh & Lord Dharmasastha is also worshiped at the temple, people suffering from mental illnesses & commonly visit the temple, as Chottanikkara devi is thought to cure her devotees. One should not miss the Guruthi Pooja in the Keezhkkaavu temple at Chottanikkara, Goddess keezhkkaavu devi is believed to be Bhadrakali, in her fierce form or ugra form. Bhadrakali, is a form of mother Kali, supposed to be born from the eye of lord Shiva. Guruthi pooja is a ritual done at late evening to invoke goddess Mahakali, earlier Guruthi Pooja was done only on Fridays. But nowadays, it is performed every day, mental diseases are believed to be totally cured by Keezhkkaavu Kali. Chottanikara Makam thozhal is the religious festival temple. The area in which the temple is situated was once a dense forest that was believed to be infested by yakshis, a tribesman named Kannappan used to live in this forest. He was a worshipper of Kali, and would ritually sacrifice a cow to her every Friday. One day, he found a black calf near the forest. He kidnapped the calf and took her to his altar, just before he sacrificed the calf, tribesmans daughter Manimanga stepped in and pleaded to him to stop the sacrifice. The man loved his daughter and thus let her keep the calf as a pet, unfortunately, Manimanga died some days later, possibly due to a snake bite. Kannappan broke into tears and decided to cremate her body, to his surprise, his daughters corpse disappeared. A nearby priest told him the reason for such an occurrence, Kannappan used to take young calves from their mothers. As punishment, he met the same fate when his daughter died, however, when the tribes man looked for the calf, he found two divine stones in its place. Since Kannappans death, the stones were forgotten, one day, a grass-cutter came to the forest to cut some wild grass. Since her knife was blunt, she sharpened it on what she thought was a big stone, only it was a stone, but then it started bleeding

22. Kurumbakkavu Bhagavathy Temple Edathala – Edathalas Sree Kurumbakkavu Bhagavathy Temple is in a village that is 8 km from Aluva Railway station and 20 km from Cochin international Airport. The Divine Mother known as Kurumbakavilamma is worshiped here as the main deity, apart from the main deity, the temple complex consists of a temple for Sastha, peedam for Nagas, Khandakarnan, Rakshas and Kshetrapalakan. Meena Bharani, the birthday of Kurumbakavilamma, is the most important festival of the temple and is celebrated on Bharani Nakshatram in the month of Meenam, the exact place of the temple is Kunjattukara. Temples of Kerala Edathala Sree Kurumbakkavu Bhagavathy Temple

23. Sree Bhavaneeswara Temple – Sree Bhavaneeswara Temple in Palluruthy, Kochi established by the great saint, sage and social reformer of India, Sree Narayana Guru on 8 March 1916. The temple is managed by Sree Dharma Paripalana Yogam which was founded in 1903 with the guidance, the main celebration at the temple is the Mahotsavam, for 11 days during February–March, every year. Sri Narayana Jayanthi and Sree Narayana Guru Samadhi day are two important days at the temple, swarna Dwaja Pratista Day is being observed every year on the day immediately preceding the Mahotsavam celebrations. Nava Graha Homam is being performed on all Sundays, annadhanam and Sampoorna Niramala is being sponsored by devotees on all Saturdays. Sree Narayana Guru Sree Narayana Dharma Sangham Sivagiri, Kerala Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam Sree Dharma Paripalana Yogam Sree Dharma Paripalana Yogam Website

24. Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple – Sree Poornathrayesa temple is situated in Tripunithura, Kochi, the capital of the former Kingdom of Cochin. The temple is considered among the greatest temples in Kerala and was first among 8 royal temples of erstwhile Kochi Kingdom, the deity was also considered as National deity of Cochin and protector guardian of the town of Tripunithura. The temple is famous for its yearly Utsavams or festivals, the main one is the Vrishchikoltsawam, which is conducted every year in the month of Vrishchikam, kicking off the Ulsava Season in Kerala. And this Vrishchikolsavam is the biggest temple festival of Ernakulam District, the deity in this temple is Lord Vishnu who is in the form of Santhanagopala Murthy. It is well believed that childless couples will be blessed with children on praying Poornathrayesan, the ten children and the sacred idol were taken by Arjuna in his chariot and he handed over the children to the Brahmin. In memory of this event, a temple was built with a sanctum-sanctorum in the form of a chariot, Lord Ganesh was sent by Arjuna to search a holy place for the installation of Lord Vishnu. Earlier, the idol was kept in a palace which is situated at the west of the main temple, Lord Ganesh, who was attracted by the holiness of the ancient Vedic Village, Poornavedapuram, tried to occupy the place for himself. However, Arjuna pushed him away to the side of the sanctum. This is different from the custom, where Lord Ganesh has a separate shrine at the south-western side of the inner prakaram. As the place was bounded by fields, Arjuna used some mustard seeds to get oil for lighting lamp. You can see a Valia Vilakku situated in front of the idol, folks say that the burnt oil of this traditional lamp contains medicinal value. Legends reveal that Sree Poornathrayeesa is the brother of the Goddesses of Chottanikkara. It is also believed that the Lord was married to a Namboothiri girl, Nangema, during the annual temple festival occasions, deities from Perumthrikovil and Pishari kovil visit here for a combined procession. This is locally called as Sankara Narayana Vilakku and Laksmi Narayana Vilakku, the Aarattu of Sree Poornathrayeesa takes place at the temple pond of Chakkamkulangara Shiva Temple, which is situated north-east of the Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple. The temple is designed in accordance of Kerala temple architecture, a major fire occurred in 1920, which destroyed much of the original structure particularly the sanctum sanctorium which was built extensively in wood. This led to redesigning the temple with concrete structure, for the first time in Kerala, the first floor of the two-storied gopuram consists of a mandapam, and eight beautifully carved wooden pillars support the Mandapam. This festival usually starts in the November–December time frame every year, the festival lasts for 8 days, with events running 24/7. Events feature traditional folk art such as Ottanthullal, Kathakali, Thayambaka, Chenda melam

25. Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha Temple – Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha temple is one of the most prominent temple in the royal city of Tripunithura, Kerala, India. It is dedicated to Lord Ayyappa worshiped as Dharmasastha, according to anecdotes Lord Dharma Sastha of Chamravattom followed one of his priests from Morakkala Mana who had shifted to Tripunithura. Lord Dharma Sastha assumed the form of a lizard and came with the priest comfortably by sitting on his traditional umbrella made up of palm leaves, since then Lord Ayyappa is worshiped here bringing prosperity to the place. The temple was owned by Morakkala Mana, but the prosperity of family was challenged. The high priest finally approached the Maharajah of Cochin and handed the temple over to him in the 1930s, the King ordered the renovation of the temple and the Nithya Nidhanam was funded by Nadumittom Devasom. This state of affairs continued with minor changes until the Fall of the Kingdoms when India got Independence, again the temple affairs was in disarray. In 1953 the youth in and around the temple came together for the betterment of the temple, precincts and this movement strengthened up with time, involving in many activities. These people in 1963 formed the Thamaramkulangara Ayyapa Seva Samithy, TASS spearheaded a development campaign which drove a dramatic rise of the temple from obscurity to center stage of temple landscape in Ernakulam. In 1984 with others, the temple was transferred to Kerala Uranma Devaswom Board, besides Dharmasastha devotees also worship Lord Ganesha and Bhadrakali along with Nagaraja and Brahmasrakshas. Separate rituals and pooja is performed as required to these Upadevathas also, though the temple is owned by Uranma Devaswom Board, virtually all the affairs are managed by Thamaramkulangara Ayyappa Seva Samithy, a voluntary organization led by local people. TASS is involved in activities and celebrations like blood donation camps, awarding bright students. Makaravilakku, the festival of this temple, bears a unique status. As per the Malayalam era, the first day of the Makaram Month is celebrated as the Makaravilakku in the temple, Thamaramkulangara Ayyappa Seva Samithy organises the events of Makaravilakku in a way to keep the holiness of the temple precincts. The six days of celebrations begins with the Holy Flag hoisting by chief priest five days before the Makaravilakku day, Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharmasastha temple celebrates many festivals apart from Makaravilakku. Some of them are, Dwaja Prathishta Dinam is the anniversary of the erection of the Holy Flag Post in the temple and it is celebrated every year on Meenam 14th as per Malayalam calendar. Painguni Uthram is the birthday of Lord Sree Dharmasastha, Uthram star in the month of Meenam, as per Malayalam era is celebrated as Painguni Uthram. Vishu is celebrated on the first day of Medam as per Malayalam Calendar and this year it will be celebrated on Friday,14 April by conducting Maha Ganapathy Homam. The temple is decorated with flowers and traditional oil lamps in the last day of the Karkidakam month of the Malayalam calendar and this day is celebrated as the Karkidaka Niramala

26. Thrikkakara Temple – Thrikkakara Temple is one of the few temples in India dedicated to Lord Vamana. It is situated in Thrikkakara, a village panchayat near Kochi in the state of Kerala and it is located 10 km north east of Ernakulam between Thrissur-Ernakulam highway, Seaport-Airport Road, Cochin University of Science and Technology and Model Engineering College. The temple houses lithic records of historic significance, and it mention in many of the hymns sung by the Tamil Vaishnavite Alwars. It is the center of celebrations and place of origin for the popular Onam festival of Kerala, the temple is around two millennia old. It is also listed as one of the 108 Divya Desams, the main temple festival is during the Onam season, which falls on the month of August or September. The most important event of the calendar here is Onam. The Onasadya or the Onam feast is held in a manner in the temple with a large number of people cutting across religious barriers participating in it. In earlier times the Onam festival was organized by the 61 Naduvazhis under the leadership of the Maharaja of Travancore. Apart from Onam, the temple also observes important festivals in the Hindu calendar such as Vishu, Diwali, Makar Sankranti, Navrathri, the temple complex, which is enclosed in a large area in picturesque surroundings, holds the main sanctum dedicated to Lord Vamana. The sanctum sanctorum of the shrine houses the idol of Maha Vishnu. The idol is in the form of Lord Vamana preparing to place his foot on the Asura King Mahabali, Lord Parashurama is said to have established the temple. The temple also houses records containing the earliest mention of the celebration of the Onam festival dating to 861 A. D, the temple is under the administration of the Travancore Devaswom Board. The sub-deities of Vamana temple are Bhagavati, Sasthavu, Gopalakrishna, Nāga, Brahmarakshasa, the Brahmarakshasa shrine is located in the outer complex, along with a Banyan-tree god and the Sarpa Kavu. Surrounding the inner walls is a series of thousands of lamps called Chuttuvilakku which translates to surrounding lamps. There are two associated with the temple. One is the Kapilatheertham located closer to the temple on the Northern side of the sanctum sanctorum, the other pond is located on the Northern side outside the temple walls, and is used regularly during the Aaraattu ceremonial bath of the idol during Onam celebrations. There is also a Shiva temple beside the main Vamanamoorthy temple and it houses idols of the deities Shiva, Ganesha, Karthikeya and Durga. Not much is known about the age and origin of the Shiva temple except that it underwent renovation around a hundred years ago

27. Idukki district – Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, India, created on 26 January 1972. At that time, the headquarters was at Kottayam. In June 1976 it was moved to Painavu, Idukki which lies in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Idukki is the second largest district in area but has the lowest population density, Idukki has a vast forest reserve area, more than a half of the district is covered by forests. The urban areas are densely populated villages are sparsely populated. The name of the district is derived from the Malayalam word Idukku, Idukki has an area of 4,358 km2 and is the second largest District of Kerala. Rugged mountains and forests cover about 97 percent of the area of the District. The district is only by road. Rail and airlink is not available, National Highway NH49 and State highways 13 and 33 passes through the district. Anamudi, the highest peak in India south of the Himalayas, is in the Kuttampuzha Panchayat of Adimali Block, thirteen other peaks in the district exceed a height of 2,000 m. The Periyar, Thodupuzhayar and Thalayar are the important rivers of the district, Idukki Dam, Asias largest Arch Dam is located at Idukki Township of Idukki Taluk. The point where the Periyar flows through the gorge formed between two massive rocks known as Kuravan and Kurathi is the site of the Idukki arch dam. The Idukki Hydroelectic project caters for more than 60% of the requirements of the state of Kerala. According to the 2011 census Idukki district has a population of 1,107,453 and this ranks it as 416th among the 640 districts of India. The district has a density of 254 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was −1. 93%, Idukki has a sex ratio of 1006 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 92.2 per cent. According to the 2011 census, Hindus make up 48, 86% of the population, Christians 43. 42%, Muslims 7. 41%. Idukki district is the first district in India to get connected with super-fast broad band system as a part of Digital India Munnar was the resort of the British Government in the south

28. Kannur district – Kannur District is one of the 14 districts along the west coast in the state of Kerala, India. The town of Kannur is the headquarters and gives the district its name. The old name, Cannanore is the form of the Malayalam name Kannur. Kannur district is bounded by Kasaragod District to the north, Kozhikode district to the south, to the east the district is bounded by the Western Ghats, which forms the border with the state of Karnataka. The Arabian Sea lies to the west, the district was established in 1957. Kannur is the sixth-most urbanized district in Kerala, with more than 50% of its residents living in urban areas, Kannur has an urban population of 1,212,898, which is the second largest in Kerala after Ernakulam district. Kannur District is known as the land of looms and lores, because of the loom industries, the district is a major centre of Theyyam, a ritual dance of northern Kerala. Small shrines known as kavus, associated with the Theyyam, dot the district, the proposed Kannur International Airport will be the fourth international airport in Kerala and is situated in Mattannur, 26-km away from Kannur. There are many myths and legends associated with the name Kannur and it is said to be a portmanteau derived from two Malayalam words, ‘Kannan’, and ‘Ur’, making it the place of Lord Krishna. One theory supporting this theory is that the deity of the Kadalayi Srikrishna Temple was originally installed in a shrine at Kadalayi Kotta in the part of the present Kannur town. During the British Raj, the city was known as Cannanore, Kannur was an important trading center in the 12th century with active business connections with Persia and Arabia. It served as the British military headquarters on Indias west coast until 1887, in conjunction with her sister city, Tellicherry, it was the third largest city on the western coast of British India in the 18th century after Bombay and Karachi. St. Angelo Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida and they modernised the fort and built the bastions Hollandia, Zeelandia and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure. The original Portuguese fort was pulled down later, a painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. The Dutch sold the fort to king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772, the British conquered it in 1790 and used it as one of their major military stations on the Malabar Coast. During the 17th century, Kannur was the city of the only Muslim Sultanate in the malabar region. During the British Raj, Kannur was part of the Madras province in the North Malabar District, the guerrilla war by Pazhassi Raja, the ruler of Kottayam province, against the British had a huge impact in the history of Kannur. Changes in the socio-economic and political sectors in Kerala during the decades of 20th century created conditions congenial for the growth of the Communist Party

29. Aroli – Aroli is a village of Pappinisseri Panchayat in Kannur district in the Indian state of Kerala. This village is located completely on hilltop towards Northeast of Kalliasseri, Aroli village borders the villages of Pappinisseri, Kalliasseri and Anthoor, the Valapattanam River and NH-17 in Kannur District of North Malabar region in Kerala. Aroli is located at 11. 98°N75. 39°E﻿ /11.98,75.39 and it has an average elevation of 1 metres. According to the 2001 India census, Aroli had a population of 5,537, in ancient days, the area of Aroli was full of Arali flowers. The name Aroli is believed to have gained by this place due to the thick growth of this flower. During Kolathiri, Aroli was under reign of Nayanars of Kalliasseri, along with others, Tippu Sultan, during his invasion to North Malabar destroyed monuments and temples of Aroli too. During the rule of British this place was under Chirakkal Taluk of Malabar District in Madras Presidency, presently this is a village of Pappinisseri Panchayat in Kannur District of Kerala. This temple have a speciality that this is the temple in Kerala having Ashtadhala Sreekovil. The temple is built on top of hill which looks like a mountain. The temple is under Chirakkal Devaswom Board, Mankkadavu Juma Masjid is a very famous Mosque among North Malabar Muslim society. The Mosque is at Mankkadavu on Aroli-Parassinikkadavu road, around 16 km from Kannur,12 km, Pappinisseri is the nearest rail head. Kozhikode Airport is the nearest airport, Kannur Airport is under construction near Mattannur. Keecheri Paalottu Kavuis a very famous Temple of Aroli, thousands of people from neighbouring villages also participates in the Annual Vishu Vilakkulsam of this Temple. This Temple is situated near Keecheri on NH-17, around 13 km from Kannur,11 km, kozhakkat Chuzhali Bhagawathy kshethram is a very famous Temple of Aroli. It is taken care by the members of kozhakkat tharavad, mahanavami is the main festival in this temple with poojaas on all the 9 days. Pappinisseri is the nearest rail head, kozhikode Airport is the nearest airport. Kannur Airport is under construction near Mattannur, the national highway passes through Dharmashala junction. Mangalore and Mumbai can be accessed on the side and Cochin

30. Azhikode and Azhikkal – Azhikode is a coastal village situated in Kannur district of Kerala, south India. The northern end of the village is called Azhikkal, the place is the birthplace of Sukumar Azhikode, an influential thinker and literary critic. It is about 5 km from Kannur, villages like Alavil, Manal, Chirakkal, Puthiyatheru and Valapattanam are connected to Azhikode. Vankulathvayal is one of largest commercial centre in azhikode, pin code of Azhikode is 670009 It is also the birthplace of famous personalities like Sukumar Azhikode and Shihabbuddin Poythumkadavu. Azhikode has large number of temples and mosques and is connected with roads. Valapattanam Railway Station is the nearest railway station, azhicode assembly constituency is part of Kannur. Azhikkal estuary is the end of Azhikod village. The place has a port and a fishing harbour. It is the site for an expanded cargo port. The Valapattanam River empties into the Arabian Sea at Azhikkal, the Indian Coast Guard Academy is under construction at Irinave, near to Azhikkal

31. Chenankavu – The Chenankavu temple is a famous Bhagavathi temple in Kerala, located in Korom village, Payyanur, in north Kerala. This temple is renowned for its two annual festivals, Vishu Maholsavam and Saptaham Vayana, both held concurrently in the first half of April each year, temples of Kerala Navaratri aghosham is held every year. Valiya guruthi is the important vazhipadu of Chenankavu Temple, Perunthanniyuur temple, dedicated to Sri Subramanya, is only one mile away to the south-west of this temple. Perunthaniiyuur, meaning a place with abundance, is to the east of temple town of Payyanur. The famous Payyanur Sri Subramanya Swami temple idol was brought from Perunthanniyuur temple and it was established by a Tamil saint. According to Deava Prashna conducted by the authority, with the help of renowned astrologer of nearby Payyanur. Chithrabhanu K Poduval, there existed a worship spot for Naga, the Naga Prathishta was destroyed by time

Deity [videos]
A deity ((listen) or (listen)) is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of
Image: Sri Mariamman Temple Singapore 2 amk
Kobayashi Eitaku painting showing the god Izanagi (right) and Izanami, a goddess of creation and death in Japanese mythology.
A Yoruba deity from Nigeria.
The zoomorphic feathered serpent deity (Kukulkan, Quetzalcoatl).
Kerala [videos]
Kerala , historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1
Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna (the Hindu God of water) to part the seas and reveal Kerala
A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur
Tharisapalli plates granted to Saint Thomas Christians testify that merchant guilds and trade corporations played a very significant role in the economy and social life during the Kulasekhara period.
India [videos]
India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 6th century
The granite tower of Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur was completed in 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola I.
Writing the will and testament of the Mughal king court in Persian, 1590–1595
The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.
Sabarimala [videos]
Sabarimala is a Hindu pilgrimage centre located at the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Western Ghat mountain ranges of
Sabarimala Shreekovil
A sign-board that indicates the direction to Sabarimala. The multilingual board is written in Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and English (in that order, from top to bottom)
Crowd management of pilgrims
Aiyyanar with Poorna and Pushkala. From Historical Museum of Rajendra Chola, Gangaikondacholapuram, Peramablloor District, Tamil Nadu, India.
Alappuzha district [videos]
Alappuzha (pronunciation ) is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India. It was formed as Alleppey
Backwaters in Alappuzha
Alappuzha District Court
Alleppey Bar Association
Kamapuram Sri Sankaranarayana moorthi temple
Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple [videos]
Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple (Malayalam: അമ്പലപ്പുഴ ശ്രീകൃഷ്ണ ക്ഷേത്രം) is a Hindu temple in Ambalappuzha, Alapuzha
A panoramic view of Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple.
panoramic view of Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple and pool
Image: Entrance of Ambalapuzha Sri Krishna Temple
Image: Ambalapuzha Sri Krishna Temple 7
Manakkattu Devi Temple [videos]
Manakkattu Devi Temple is one of the most renowned temples in Kerala. The temple is located at Pallippad in
Manakkattu Devi
The main building.
Shaastha Temple
Bhagavathippara
Chettikulangara Devi Temple [videos]
Chettikulangara Sree Bhagavathi temple is one of the most renowned Hindu temples in Kerala. Main deity Sree Bhadrakali,
Image: Chettikulangara Temple
2017 Chettikulangara Kettukazcha panorama
Kettukazhcha
Theru
Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple [videos]
Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple is one of the Bhadrakali temples in Cherthala, Alappuzha district, Kerala. It
Devi saranam
Sarppakkalam
Sarpam Pattu (Serpent song)
Image: Artwork at the Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple, Kerala
Padanilam Parabrahma Temple (പടനിലം പരബ്രഹ്മ ക്ഷേത്രം ) is situated at Padanilam in Alappuzha district of Kerala,
Image: Omkaram
Nandikeshan from Edappon kara
Lakshadeepam at the temple during mandala chirapp
Ernakulam district [videos]
Ernakulam is a district of Kerala, India situated in the central part of that state. Spanning an area of about 3,068
Inchathotty Bridge near Kothamangalam
Cheena vala (Chinese fishing net)
Kochi Marine Drive Day View
The beauty in the night, Marine Drive, Kochi
Iringole Kavu [videos]
Iringole Kavu is a famous Hindu In forest temple dedicated to Goddess Durga, situated in Kunnathunad Taluk of Ernakulam
Inside
Image: Iringol Kavu Perumbavur Kerala India DSC 5392
Image: Iringol Kavu Perumbavur Kerala India DSC 5394
Image: Iringol Kavu Perumbavur Kerala India DSC 5397
Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple [videos]
Sree Poornathrayesa temple (in Malayalam:ശ്രീ പൂര്‍ണ്ണത്രയീശ ക്ഷേത്രം) is situated in Tripunithura, Kochi, the capital
Panchari Melam performance
Back of the temple
The last day of the festival
'Vrischikotsavam' which starts the festival season
Thrikkakara Temple [videos]
Thrikkakara Temple is one of the few temples in India dedicated to Lord Vamana. It is situated in Thrikkakara, Kochi in
Thrikkakara Temple Entrance
The Chuttu-Vilakku (surrounding lamps) lit up during Onam at Thrikkakara temple
Vamanamoorthy idol in the Aarattu procession at Thrikkakara temple
Seeveli at Thrikkakara temple
Idukki district [videos]
Idukki is one of the 14 districts of Kerala state, India, created on 26 January 1972. At that time, the district
the highest peak in south India
Idukki arch Dam
GEC Idukki and other government offices
Tea plantations in Munnar
Kannur district [videos]
Kannur District is one of the 14 districts along the west coast in the state of Kerala, India. The town of Kannur is
People in Kannur
Image: Payyambalam 2
Image: Thiruvappana and Muthappan
Image: Kottiyoor temple festival
Azhikode and Azhikkal [videos]
Azhikode is a coastal village situated in Kannur district of Kerala, south India. The northern end of the village is
Gulikan Theyyam at Puthiya Mundayat
Image: Alavil Temple (4326022783)
Cherukunnu [videos]
Cherukunnu is a census town in the Kannur district of North Malabar region in the Indian state of Kerala. — Demographics...
Annapoorneshwari Temple, Cherukunnu
Annapoorneshwari Temple
Thavam Church
Thalassery [videos]
Thalassery (IPA: [θʌlʌsserɪ]) formerly Tellicherry is a commercial city on the Malabar Coast in Kannur district, in the
Thalassery Jagannath Temple, Kerala
Veera Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja Painting by Raja Ravi Varma
"Mukathezhuthu"-The face painting of Theyyam, the religious ritual art form in Thalassery
Pappinisseri [videos]
Pappinisseri is a census town in Kannur district in the Indian state of Kerala. Pappinisseri Panchayat comprises two
Mangroves Park
The National Highway at Pappinisseri
Image: Mangrove park
Image: Mangroves park pappinisseri 10
Iritty [videos]
Iritty is a Municipality and a taluk in the district of Kannur in the state of Kerala, India. The town is the main
View of Iritty Bridge built in 1933
A heliCam view of Iritty
Iritty Bridge Built in 1933
A view of Iritty Bridge
Kottiyoor Temple [videos]
Kottiyoor Temple is a prominent Shiva temple in Kerala. Vadakkeshwaram Temple is the common name of the temple from
Festival time
Ikkare Kottiyoor
Bubble vendor
Temple tree
Kalarivathukkal Temple [videos]
Kalarivathukkal Bhagavathy Temple, Bhadrakali Shrine located near Valapattanam river, is the family shrine of Chirakkal
Kalarivathukkal Bhagavathy Kshetram
Image: Adjusting the ornaments of Kalarivathukkal Bhagavathi
Image: Theyyam blessing the devotees
Muthappan Temple [videos]
Muthappan Temple, also called Parassinikadavu Muthappan temple is a Hindu temple, located at Anthoor Municipality on
Image: Parassini
A view of the Muthappan temple
Image: Muthappan 2
Image: Mutthapan 2
Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple [videos]
The Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple in Haripad is one of the oldest temples in Kerala. This temple dedicated to
Main entrance to the temple
Koothambalam in Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy temple
Thiruvarkadu Bhagavathi Temple (a.k.a. Madayi Kavu) is the mother temple of all Bhadrakali shrines of North Kerala. The
The Arayal Thara in front of Tiruvarkad Bhagavathy Temple (Madayi Kavu). Arayal in Malayalam is synonymous to Bodhi Tree or Pippallam
Saraswathi Mandapam
Irikkur [videos]
Irikkur is a town in Kannur District of Kerala state, south India. — History — Irikkur has historic and commercial
Irikkur Juma Masjidh is riverside prayer facility
Onam Celebration at Blathur
Irikkur
Punnakkulangara [videos]
Punnakkulangara is a significant part as well as a Municipal Ward of Anthoor Municipality in Kannur district of Kerala
Image: Punnakkulangara
Neeliyar Kottam Pond
Image: Punnakkulangara 1
Kottayam district [videos]
Kottayam is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India. Though the district is 157 km south to Kunnamkulam,
Mural at Kottayam
House boat in Kumarakam
Image: India Kerala Kottayam district
Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha Temple [videos]
Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha temple (Malayalam: താമരംകുളങ്ങര ശ്രി ധര്‍മശാസ്താ ക്ഷേത്രം) is one of the most
Swami Saranam
Morning Sheeveli
Thottada Beach is situated on Kannur-Tellichery highway 8 km away from Kannur Railway station in Kannur District
Kalliasseri [videos]
Kalliasseri (Malayalam: കല്ല്യാശ്ശേരി) is a census town in Kannur district in the Indian state of Kerala. Kalliaseri
Kalliasseri
Keecheri Kunnu
Oorpazhachi Kavu [videos]
Sree Oorpazhachi Kavu is a prominent Hindu temple in the Edakkad grama panchayat, a grama panchayats in Kannur District
Vellattom ritual being performed by the Peruvannan near the Thondachan shrine at Melekottam within the temple
Karthyayani Devi Temple, Cherthala [videos]
Karthyayani Devi Temple, Cherthala is a famous Hindu temple located at Cherthala. Iratti and Thadi are the famous
Image: Cherthala Devi temple 1
Evoor Major Sri krishnaswamy temple [videos]
Evoor Major Srikrishnaswamy temple is a Krishna temple in Evoor near Kayamkulam, Alappuzha, Kerala. It is said to have
Image: Evoor temple
Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva Temple is an ancient Shiva temple situated in Kandiyoor near Mavelikkara on the banks of
Image: Kandiyur Siva Temple Tower
Mannarasala Temple [videos]
Mannarasala Sree Nagaraja Temple(Malayalam: മണണാറശ്ശാല ശ്രീ നാഗരാജാക്ഷേത്രം) is a very ancient and internationally
Image: Mannarasala temple
Mullakkal Temple [videos]
Mullakkal Temple, Alleppey Mullakkal Temple in the south Indian city of Alappuzha, Kerala is a multi-faith place of
Mullakkal Temple Alappuzha
Valiyakulangara Devi Temple [videos]
Valiyakulangara Devi Temple is located about 5 km from Haripad and 4 km from Thrikkunnappuzha. It is located 3 km from
One of the kettukazhcha's at Aswathi festival
Dakshina Mookambika Temple, North Paravur [videos]
The Dakshina Mookambika Temple is a famous Saraswati temple in the town of North Paravur in the Ernakulam district of
Lotus pool inside the temple
Chottanikkara Temple [videos]
The Chottanikkara (correction of Jyotiannakkara) Devi Temple (Malayalam: ചോറ്റാനിക്കര ഭഗവതി ക്ഷേത്രം) is a famous
Chottanikkara Temple
Kurumbakkavu Bhagavathy Temple Edathala [videos]
Edathala's Sree Kurumbakkavu Bhagavathy Temple is in a village that is 8 km from Aluva Railway station and 20 km from
Sree Kurumbakkavu Bhagavathi Temple side view
Sree Bhavaneeswara Temple [videos]
Sree Bhavaneeswara Temple in Palluruthy, Kochi established by the great saint, sage and social reformer of India, Sree
Sri Narayana Guru : Spiritual Guru, One of the greatest Social reformers in India
Thiru Nayathode Siva Narayana Temple [videos]
Thiru Nayathode Siva Narayana Temple is located at Nayathod, a small village in Ernakulam District, Kerala, India. The
Image: Thirunayathod Shivanarayana Temple DSC 1558
Chenankavu [videos]
The Chenankavu temple (ശ്രീ ചേനാങ്കാവ് ഭഗവതി ക്ഷേത്രം) is a famous Bhagavathi temple in Kerala, located in Korom
Image: Korom
Morazha [videos]
Morazha is a village of Anthoor Municipality in Kannur district in the Indian state of Kerala. Before formation of
Mangroves at Vellikkeel
Cheruthazham [videos]
Cheruthazham is a census town in Kannur district in the state of Kerala, India. It is the location of the famous
Kunhimathilakam Temple