Devil's Jumps, Churt
The Devil's Jumps are a series of three small hills near the village of Churt in the county of Surrey in southern England. In the 18th century, the hills were known as the Devil's Three Jumps; the Devil's Jumps are linked to a body of folklore relating to the surrounding area. The highest of the three Jumps is Stony Jump. Middle Devil's Jump measures 60 feet high and once supported an observatory built by 19th century British astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington; the hills are outcrops of an ironstone variety of sandstone of the Folkestone Beds of Lower Greensand set among acidic heathland. The three hills are formed of an ironstone known locally as carstone, marginally distinct from Bargate stone cemented with iron making it resistant to erosion by the elements; the first mention of the Devil's Jumps appears to be on a map by John Rocque, dating to 1765. William Cobbett mentioned the Devil's Jumps in his Rural Rides, first published in 1830. Of the hills he says: At Churt I had, upon my left, three hills out upon the common, called the Devil's Jumps...in the shape of three rather squat sugar-loaves, along in a line upon this heath... a rock-stone upon the top of one of them as big as a Church tower...
The Devil's Jumps are linked to a variety of local landmarks by folklore, including Mother Ludlam's Cave near the ruins of Waverley Abbey, the Devil's Punch Bowl at Hindhead, the village of Thursley and the parish church at Frensham. The folklore includes various tales. One states; this annoyed the god Thor who picked up a boulder and threw it at the Devil, causing him to flee and leaving the boulder at the Devil's Jumps. This same story is told of the Devil's Jumps near Treyford on the South Downs in West Sussex, but it is to have originated at the Devil's Jumps in Surrey; the inclusion of the pagan god Thor in the tale is to have taken place in the early years of the 20th century, since local historian George Clinch mentioned the Jumps and the pagan derivation of the Thursley placename without linking either when he wrote in 1895. Two divergent linked, narratives were collected in the 19th century: Mother Ludlam had her cauldron stolen by the Devil, who made off with it, with the witch following behind on her broomstick.
Every time the Devil took a great leap he kicked up a hill, these hills are the Devil's Jumps. He left the cauldron on Kettlebury Hill, from where it was recovered and put in Frensham church for safekeeping; when the Devil disappeared, he left the valley of the Devil's Punch Bowl. A great boulder was on one of these hills, where a person needing any tool a yoke for oxen by prayer and touching the boulder would receive it, provided they promised to give it back. A cauldron was requested, kept in Frensham's church beyond its use and so the mystical loan facility came to an end; the Jumps protrude 121 metres above sea level or 34 metres above the col. This places them 32nd among Surrey Hills and narrowly among the 34 Surrey Hills above 100 metres above sea level with only 36 hills in the county listed by the national hill-climbing database
The Weald is an area of South East England between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs. It crosses the counties of Sussex, Hampshire and Surrey and has three separate parts: the sandstone "High Weald" in the centre; the Weald once was covered with forest, its name, Old English in origin, signifies "woodland". The term is still used today, as scattered farms and villages sometimes refer to the Weald in their names; the name "Weald" is derived from the Old English weald, meaning "forest". This comes from a Germanic root of the same meaning, from Indo-European. Weald is a West Saxon form; the Middle English form of the word is wēld, the modern spelling is a reintroduction of the Anglo-Saxon form attributed to its use by William Lambarde in his A Perambulation of Kent of 1576. In the Anglo-Saxon period, the area had the name Andredes weald, meaning "the forest of Andred", the latter derived from Anderida, the Roman name of present-day Pevensey; the area is referred to in Anglo-Saxon texts as Andredesleage, where the second element, leage, is another Old English word for "woodland", represented by the modern leigh.
The adjective for "Weald" is "wealden". The Weald is the eroded remains of a geological structure, an anticline, a dome of layered Lower Cretaceous rocks cut through by weathering to expose the layers as sandstone ridges and clay valleys; the oldest rocks exposed at the centre of the anticline are correlated with the Purbeck Beds of the Upper Jurassic. Above these, the Cretaceous rocks, include the Wealden Group of alternating sands and clays – the Ashdown Sand Formation, Wadhurst Clay Formation, Tunbridge Wells Sand Formation and the Weald Clay; the Wealden Group is overlain by the Lower Greensand and the Gault Formation, consisting of the Gault and the Upper Greensand. The rocks of the central part of the anticline include hard sandstones, these form hills now called the High Weald; the peripheral areas are of softer sandstones and clays and form a gentler rolling landscape, the Low Weald. The Weald–Artois Anticline continues some 40 miles further south-eastwards under the Straits of Dover, includes the Boulonnais of France.
Many important fossils have been found in the sandstones and clays of the Weald, for example, Baryonyx. The famous scientific hoax of Piltdown Man was claimed to have come from a gravel pit at Piltdown near Uckfield; the first Iguanodon was identified after a Mary Mantell unearthed some fossilised teeth by a road in Sussex in 1822. Her husband, Gideon Mantell, noticed they were many times larger; the area contains significant reserves of shale oil, totalling 4.4 billion barrels of oil in the Wealden basin according to a 2014 study, which Business and Energy Minister Michael Fallon said "will bring jobs and business opportunities" and help with UK energy self-sufficiency. Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives, opposed by environmental groups; some of the following notes in the early part of this section are taken from the High Weald website. Prehistoric evidence suggests that, following the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, the Neolithic inhabitants had turned to farming, with the resultant clearance of the forest.
With the Iron Age came the first use of the Weald as an industrial area. Wealden sandstones contain ironstone, with the additional presence of large amounts of timber for making charcoal for fuel, the area was the centre of the Wealden iron industry from through the Roman times, until the last forge was closed in 1813; the index to the Ordnance Survey Map of Roman Britain lists 33 iron mines. The entire Weald was heavily forested. According to the 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Weald measured 120 miles or longer by 30 miles in the Saxon era, stretching from Lympne, near Romney Marsh in Kent, to the Forest of Bere or the New Forest in Hampshire; the area was sparsely inhabited and inhospitable, being used as a resource by people living on its fringes, much as in other places in Britain such as Dartmoor, the Fens and the Forest of Arden. The Weald was used for centuries since the Iron Age, for transhumance of animals along droveways in the summer months. Over the centuries, deforestation for the shipbuilding, forest glass, brickmaking industries has left the Low Weald with only remnants of that woodland cover.
While most of the Weald was used for transhumance by communities at the edge of the Weald, several parts of the forest on the higher ridges in the interior seem to have been used for hunting by the kings of Sussex. The pattern of droveways which occurs across the rest of the Weald is absent from these areas; these areas include Ashdown Forest and Dallington Forest. The forests of the Weald were used as a place of refuge and sanctuary; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates events during the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Sussex when the native Britons were driven from the coastal towns into the recesses of the forest for sanctuary,: A. D. 477. This year came Ælle to Britain, with his three sons and Wlenking, Cissa, in three ships. There they slew many of the Welsh; until the Late Middle Ag
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Gibbet Hill, Hindhead
Gibbet Hill, at Hindhead, Surrey, is the apex of the scarp surrounding the Devil's Punch Bowl, not far from the A3 London to Portsmouth road in England. Gibbet Hill stands 272 metres above sea level, it is the second highest hill in Surrey. Leith Hill stands 23 metres Botley Hill stands 2.4 metres lower. It commands a panoramic view to the north and east; the view to the north overlooks the Devil's Punchbowl, Hankley Common, Crooksbury Hill, the Hog's Back towards Godalming and Guildford. To the east lies the Sussex Weald. To the south, the hills of Haslemere and Blackdown can be seen, with some sections of the South Downs. On a clear day it is possible to see tallest buildings in London's skyline including The Gherkin, Tower 42 and Wembley Stadium 61 kilometres away as well as intermediate landmarks such as towers in Woking and Guildford Cathedral. Weydown common lies to the south of Gibbet Hill. From 1909 or earlier until 1939 or a white horse was carved into the hillside at Combe Head, so that it could be seen from Gibbet Hill, although the figure is now covered by heath.
The area was one of disrepute due to the activities of highwaymen and robbers, the corpses of three of whom were displayed there on a gibbet as punishment for their crimes. Another account has the cross; the general area is one of heathland and gorse, was an area of the broomsquire, who would harvest the heather and birch branches to make brooms. As such, it was thought to be a pagan or heathen area. Gibbet Hill and the nearby area were mentioned by Dickens in his 1839 novel Nicholas Nickleby, in the scene where Nickleby was walking from London to Portsmouth, they walked upon the rim of the Devil's Punch Bowl. The grass on which they stood, had once been dyed with gore. "The Devil's Bowl," thought Nicholas, as he looked into the void, "never held fitter liquor than that!" Dickens was referring to the murder on 24 September 1786 of an Unknown Sailor, met by three men in the Red Lion at Thursley as he was travelling to his ship in Portsmouth. He bought them drinks and they followed him and murdered him in the Devil's Punch Bowl.
They were apprehended at the Sun Inn in Rake and executed, their bodies hung on Gibbet Hill. The unknown sailor was buried in Thursley churchyard, a memorial stone was erected on Gibbet Hill near the scene of the crime. In 2000, Peter Moorey suggested. On 6 May 1945, a Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commando of the United States Army Air Forces was flying over Gibbet Hill in bad weather, when the aircraft struck a radar tower and crashed.
Hindhead is a village in Surrey, England. It is the highest village in Surrey, with buildings at between 253 metres above sea level, it is best known as the location of the Devil's Punch Bowl, a beauty spot and site of special scientific interest, as the site of the Hindhead crossroads, a notorious congestion spot, where the A3 between Portsmouth and London was crossed by the A287 between Hook and Haslemere. The A3 now passes under Hindhead in the Hindhead Tunnel and its route along the Punch Bowl has been removed and landscaped, but the crossroads still exists for local traffic. Hindhead is centred 10.5 miles south-west of Guildford, the county town of Surrey, on the border with the county of Hampshire. It is a ward within the district of Waverley, forms part of the civil parish of Haslemere; the ward, which includes Beacon Hill, had a population of 3,874 at the 2001 census, increasing to a population of 4,292 at the 2011 Census. The place-name "Hindhead" is first attested in 1571, means "hill frequented by hinds", or female deer.
The settled parts of the village are elevated relative to all of surrounding parishes and form a mixture of paved streets and wooded roads as well as agricultural smallholdings which are few vis-à-vis other parts of Waverley District. Hindhead has the 2nd and 13th highest hills in Surrey: Gibbet Hill and Hatch Farm Hill, at 272m and 211m above sea level; these rise from the rest of the village towards the north of the Greensand Ridge, upon which the village wholly lies. The soil is near its surface a sort of crumbly sandstone here known as greensand which breaks up forest into acidic heathland in many places, it supports endemic types of fungi, ferns and heather. The north of the village forms the Devil's Punch Bowl, a large wooded beauty spot and a site of special scientific interest. Much of the north and east of the village is rolling woodland which forms part of the Surrey Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; this area was notorious for highwaymen. In 1736, Stephen Phillips, a robber tried and convicted at the Old Bailey, admitted to the Newgate chaplain to having stolen 150 guineas in gold on the road towards London.
In 1786, three men were convicted of the murder of an unknown sailor on his way from London to rejoin his ship, a deed commemorated by several memorials in the area. The perpetrators were hung in chains to warn others on Gibbet Hill, a short walk away on top of the Devil's Punch Bowl. With an increase in traffic and opening of the London to Portsmouth railway line removing much of the road transport of freight, such incidents reduced during the 19th century. Hindhead became a substantial settlement in the late 19th century. In 1904 a temporary mission church was built to serve the new community. An architectural competition to design a permanent church, that of St Albans in Beacon Hill, was held in 1906, John Duke Coleridge was chosen as the architect; the first phase, comprising the chancel, north chapel and the lower stage of a projected bell tower, was completed by 1907, the church gained its own parish in the same year. A series of windows by the Arts and Crafts designers Karl Parsons and Christopher Whall were installed in the unfinished church between 1908 and 1912.
The three eastern bays of the nave were consecrated in 1915, but the two western bays were not built until 1929–31. There followed two additional stained-glass windows: by Christopher Webb in 1945 and by Francis Skeat in 1950. A large vestry extension was added in 1964. A fire in 1999 reredos paintings. Grant Allen, the Canadian-born novelist, lived at "Hilltop". Conan Doyle became his friend. Peter Alliss, professional golfer and commentator, lives in Hindhead. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle lived at "Undershaw" from 1897 to 1907. Here he wrote some of his best-known novels, including The Hound of the Baskervilles. Undershaw became a hotel and restaurant, but this closed in 2004 and the property is now a school. Conan Doyle was Hindhead Golf Club's first President in 1904. Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery took the title of "Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, of Hindhead in the County of Surrey" when he was raised to the peerage in 1946. Playwright George Bernard Shaw lived at "Blen Cathra" in Hindhead, now the site of St Edmund's School.
The scientist John Tyndall lived and died in the village at Hindhead House, now on "Tyndalls", named after him. He is best known for his work on the discovery of the Greenhouse Effect. For the purposes of local government, Hindhead is within the civil parish of Haslemere, the district of Waverley and the county of Surrey. Hindhead forms a ward for elections to Haslemere Town Council and Waverley Borough Council, is part of the Waverley Western Villages electoral division for Surrey County Council elections; the ward elects two district councillors and five town councillors. Hindhead is within the UK constituency of South West Surrey and the European constituency of South East England; until 2011, Hindhead village was situated on the main A3 road between Portsmouth. In that year, a £371 million bypass was completed, reducing the amount of traffic passing through the village; the bypass includes the 1.9-mile twin-bore tunnel, the longest non-estuarial road tunnel in the UK. The village is served by the A287, between Hook and Haslemere, the A333, a stretch of the former A3 that links the village south to the new bypass.
The section of the old A3 north of Hindhead and alongside the Devil's Punch Bowl has been returned to tree-interspersed heathland. The neares
Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man. SSSI/ASSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation; the acronym "SSSI" is pronounced "triple-S I". Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs. Sites may be divided into management units, with some areas including units that are noted for both biological and geological interest. Biological SSSI/ASSIs may be selected for various reasons, which for Great Britain is governed by published SSSI Selection Guidelines. Within each area, a representative series of the best examples of each significant natural habitat may be notified, for rarer habitats all examples may be included.
Sites of particular significance for various taxonomic groups may be selected —each of these groups has its own set of selection guidelines. Conservation of biological SSSI/ASSIs involves continuation of the natural and artificial processes which resulted in their development and survival, for example the continued traditional grazing of heathland or chalk grassland. In England, the designating body for SSSIs, Natural England, selects biological SSSIs from within natural areas which are areas with particular landscape and ecological characteristics, or on a county basis. In Scotland, the designating authority is Scottish Natural Heritage. In the Isle of Man the role is performed by the Department of Environment and Agriculture. Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic.
Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, so becomes a GCR site. All GCR sites are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may be of importance for stratigraphy. Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings and other landforms.
If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, conservation involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage. Following devolution, legal arrangements for SSSIs and ASSIs differ between the countries of the UK; the Isle of Man ASSI system is a separate entity. Scottish Natural Heritage publishes a summary of the SSSI arrangements for SSSI owners and occupiers which can be downloaded from the SNH website. Legal documents for all SSSIs in Scotland are available on the SSSI Register, hosted by The Registers of Scotland. Further information about SSSIs in Scotland is available on the SNH website; the decision to notify an SSSI is made by the relevant nature conservation body for that part of the United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Natural England, Scottish Natural Heritage or Natural Resources Wales. SSSIs were set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided in England and Wales by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further amended in 2000, in Scotland by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
SSSIs are covered under the Water Resources Act 1991 and related legislation. An SSSI may be made on any area of land, considered to be of special interest by virtue of its fauna, geological or physiographical / geomorphological features. SSSI notification can cover any "land" within the area of the relevant nature conservation body, including dry land, land covered by freshwater; the extent to which an SSSI/ASSI may extend seawards differs between countries. In Scotland an SSSI may include the intertidal land down to mean low water spring or to the extent of the local planning authority area, thus only limited areas of estuaries and coastal waters beyond MLWS may be included. In England, Natural England may notify an SSSI over estuarial waters and further adjacent waters in certain circumstances (section 28 of The
Gatton Park is a country estate set in parkland landscaped by Capability Brown near Gatton in Surrey, England. Now owned by The Royal Alexandra and Albert School, Gatton Park comprises 250 acres of manor and parkland; the property is Grade II is in part administered by the National Trust. The park is Grade II listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the manor's history can be traced to the Domesday Book of 1086. The manor of Gatton had the privilege granted in 1451 of sending two members to Parliament, a privilege it retained, as a "rotten borough" until the Parliamentary reform of 1832. During the medieval period the manor demesne was enclosed as a deer park. In the 17th century, the house is mentioned as being in the possession of John Weston of Sutton Place and his wife, Mary Copley until 1654. About 1748 Sir James Colebrooke acquired Gatton Park from William Newland, with the proprietorship of the borough of Gatton, his brother Sir George Colebrooke had the park landscaped by Capability Brown between 1762 and 1768.
In 1789 Thomas Kingscote went to live at Gatton Park, after his friend, Robert Ladbroke, had bought it in the same year. It was a notorious pocket borough and Thomas went there in order to manage the election of Ladbroke’s nominees. Robert Ladbroke bought it from the Graham family. In 1830, Gatton was purchased by Frederick John Monson, 5th Baron Monson, for £100,000, for the ancient privilege of sending two members to the House of Commons, a perquisite, cancelled two years "and all Lord Monson had for £100,000 was the land", he set about remaking Gatton Hall splendid: for him Thomas Hopper made alterations to Gatton, further plans that were not executed. The Marble Hall at the center of the main block was revetted in marbles to the inlaid marbles of its floor, taking as a general model the Corsini Chapel in San Giovanni in Laterano, though Lord Monson did not cap his hall with a dome; the walls were frescoed by Joseph Severn with the Four Classical Virtues, embodied by historical ladies. In 1841 the estate was inherited by the 6th Baron Monson who lived in Lincolnshire and who let Gatton, firstly to his aunt and to Hugh Cairns, 1st Earl Cairns, the Attorney General.
The estate was purchased in 1888 by Sir Jeremiah Colman whose family had established the Colman's mustard food brand in the early 19th century. After a period when the property was requisitioned during the Second World War the estate was purchased by the current owners, The Royal Alexandra and Albert School. Near the Hall stands the 13th century church of St Andrew, a Grade I listed building; the church a chapel for the Hall, reached from the house by a covered walkway, was richly improved within its simple exterior with imported woodwork in 1834: the pulpit and altar, bought from Nuremberg were attributed at the time to Albrecht Dürer. The Gothic screen at the West end came from an unidentified English church, where it had been dismantled and was about to be burnt. "Gatton, rebuilt in the 1830s, is a bijou" reported Nikolaus Pevsner "perhaps the best example in the country of the tendency for the church to become an extension of the landlord's parlour or sculpture gallery." In the Park stands a wooden small square ornamental garden temple with six Tuscan columns, a Grade II* listed building.
Known as Gatton Town Hall, it is the place where, prior to 1832, the tiny electorate of the Gatton rotten borough voted in their two members of Parliament. Behind the "Town Hall" is a stone urn with serpents entwined on a deep moulded plinth inscribed "in memory of the deceased Borough". During the 1860s Coleman commissioned Henry Ernest Milner to design the parterre; the park is home to a stone circle called The Millennium Stones created by the sculptor Richard Kindersley to mark the double millennium in 2000. It is made from flat Caithness flagstones quarried in the far north of Scotland near Thurso; the first stone in the series is inscribed with the words from St John's Gospel, "in the beginning the word was". The subsequent nine stones are carved with quotations contemporary with each 200 year segment of the 2000 year period, ending with the words of T. S. Eliot "At the still point of the turning world. Neither flesh nor fleshless. Official website the Royal Alexandra and Albert School Gatton Park Education website Gatton Park at GreatBritishGardens.co.uk Gatton Park at VisitSurreyHills.com Gatton Hall, Redhill