The Bear (play)
The Bear: A Joke in One Act, or The Boor, is a one-act comedic play written by Russian author Anton Chekhov. The play was dedicated to Nikolai Nikolaevich Solovtsov, Chekhov's boyhood friend and director/actor who first played the character Smirnov. Elena Ivanovna Popova, a landowning little widow, with dimples on her cheeks Grigory Stepanovitch Smirnov, a middle-aged landowner Luka, Popova's aged footman The play takes place in the drawing room of Elena Ivanovna Popova's estate on the seven-month anniversary of her husband's death. Since her husband died, Popova has locked herself in the house in mourning, her footman, begins the play by begging Popova to stop mourning and step outside the estate. She ignores him, saying that she made a promise to her husband to remain forever faithful to his memory, their conversation is interrupted when Grigory Stepanovitch Smirnov arrives and wishes to see Elena Popova. Although Luka tells Grigory Smirnov to leave, he enters the dining room. Popova agrees to meet with him and Smirnov explains to her that her late husband owes him a sum of 1,200 roubles as a debt.
Because he is a landowner, Smirnov explains that he needs the sum paid to him on that same day to pay for the mortgage of a house due the next day. Popova explains that she has no money with her and that she will settle her husband's debts when her steward arrives the day after tomorrow. Smirnov gets angered by her refusal to pay him back and mocks the supposed'mourning' of her husband, saying: Well, there! "A state of mind."... "Husband died seven months ago!" Must I pay the interest, or mustn't I? I ask you: Must I pay, or must I not? Suppose your husband is dead, you've got a state of mind, nonsense of that sort.... And your steward's gone away somewhere, devil take him, what do you want me to do? Do you think I can fly away from my creditors in a balloon, or what? Or do you expect me to go and run my head into a brick wall? Smirnov decides that he will not leave the estate until his debts are paid off if that means waiting until the day after tomorrow, he and Popova get into another argument when he starts yelling at the footman to bring him kvass or any alcoholic beverage.
The argument turns into a debate about true love according to the different genders. Smirnov argues that women are incapable of loving "anybody except a lapdog", to which Popova argues that she wholeheartedly loved her husband although he cheated on her and disrespected her; the argument deteriorates into another shouting match about paying back the debt. During this argument Popova insults Smirnov by calling him a bear, amongst other names, saying, "You're a boor! A coarse bear! A Bourbon! A monster!" Smirnov, calls for a duel, not caring that Popova is a woman. Popova, in turn, enthusiastically goes off to get a pair of guns her husband owned. Luka overhears their conversation, gets frightened for his mistress, goes off to find someone to help put an end to their feud before anyone gets hurt. Meanwhile, Smirnov says to himself how impressed he is by Popova's audacity and realizes that he has fallen in love with her and her dimpled cheeks; when Popova returns with the pistols, Smirnov makes his love confession.
Popova oscillates between ordering him to leave and telling him to stay. The two get close and kiss each other just as Luka returns with the gardener and coachman; the Bear's comedy derives from the characters' lack of self-knowledge. The widow Popova fancies herself inconsolably bereaved, while Smirnov considers himself a misogynist, they are both stock examples of alazons: figures made ludicrous by pretending to be more than they are. The Bear is one of many of Chekhov's "farce-vaudevilles", which includes The Proposal, A Tragedian in Spite of Himself, the unfinished Night before the Trial. In a letter to Yakov Polonsky on February 22, 1888 Chekhov wrote: Just to while away the time, I wrote a trivial little vaudeville in the French manner, called The Bear... Alas! when they out on New Times find out that I write vaudevilles they will excommunicate me. What am I to do? I plan something worthwhile—and—it is all tra-la-la! In spite of all my attempts at being serious the result is nothing. Chekhov used the French play Les Jurons de Cadillac by Pierre Berton as inspiration for The Bear.
The main similarity between the two involves the idea of the male being a'bear' tamed by a woman. Les Jurons de Cadillac was performed by the actor Nikolai Solovstov, whom Chekhov dedicates The Bear to and plays the role of Smirnov, it had its first English language premiere in London in 1911. The United States premiere was in New York in 1915. In 1935, Russian theatre producer and director Vsevolod Meyerhold produced 33 Swoons, a production that combined Chekhov's The Anniversary, The Bear, The Proposal. Meyerhold counted 33 cases of swooning and combined these three plays with swooning as the key comedic gag; the play had its premiere in Korsh Theatre in Moscow on October 28, 1888. The Bear was a success from the start. In Chekhov's lifetime it brought in regular royalties, it has been revived on both professional and amateur stages worldwide since. Chekhov, who referred to his own writing in self-deprecating ways, remarked on his success: "I've managed to write a stupid vaudeville which, owing to the fact that it is stupid, is enjoying surprising success."
The play is the basis for operas by William Walton. It was the inspiration for the second act of the 1979 musical A Day in Ho
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Wayang known as Wajang, is a form of puppet theatre art found in Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia, wherein a dramatic story is told through shadows thrown by puppets and sometimes combined with human characters. The art form celebrates artistic talent. Wayang refers to the entire dramatic show. Sometimes the leather puppet. Performances of shadow puppet theatre are accompanied by a gamelan orchestra in Java, by gender wayang in Bali; the dramatic stories depict mythologies, such as episodes from the Hindu epics the Ramayana, the Mahabharata as well as local adaptations of cultural legends. Traditionally, a wayang is played out in a ritualized midnight-to-dawn show by a dalang, an artist and spiritual leader. UNESCO designated wayang kulit, a shadow puppet theatre and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003. In return for the acknowledgment, UNESCO required Indonesians to preserve their heritage. Wayang has been a significant historical art form in Malaysia, Thailand and Laos.
The term ` wayang' is bayang in standard Indonesian. In modern daily Javanese and Indonesian vocabulary, wayang can refer to the puppet itself or the whole puppet theatre performance. Wayang is the traditional shadow puppet theatre in Indonesia and other southeast Asian countries. There is no evidence; the earliest evidence is from the late 1st millennium CE, in medieval-era texts and archeological sites. The origins of Wayang are unclear, three competing theories have been proposed: Indian origin: this is the favored theory, since Hinduism and Buddhism arrived on the Indonesian islands in the early centuries of the 1st millennium, along with theology, the peoples of Indonesia and Indian subcontinent exchanged culture and traded goods. Puppet arts and dramatic plays have been documented in ancient Indian texts, dated to the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE and the early centuries of the common era. Further, the coastal region of Southern India which most interacted with Indonesian islands has had a leather-based intricate puppet arts called Tholu bommalata, which shares many elements with Wayang.
Some characters such as the Vidusaka in Sanskrit drama and Semar in Wayang are similar. Indian mythologies and characters from the Hindu epics feature in many of the major plays performed, all of which suggest possible Indian origins, or at least an influence in the pre-Islamic period of Indonesian history. Jivan Pani states that wayang developed from two arts of Odisha in Eastern India, the Ravana Chhaya puppet theatre and the Chhau dance. Indigenous origin: the word "Wayang" is not found in Indian languages, but is Javanese; some of the other technical terms used in the Wayang Kulit found in Java and Bali are based on local languages when the play overlaps with Buddhist or Hindu mythologies. This state some scholars such as Hazeu, that Wayang has indigenous roots. Chinese origin: the least popular theory, but it is based on the evidence that puppet arts based on animism existed in ancient China and it may have been the "place of origin of all Asian shadow theatre", states Brandon. Regardless of its origins, states Brandon, Wayang developed and matured into a Javanese phenomenon.
There is no true contemporary puppet shadow artwork in either China or India that has the sophistication and creativity as expressed in Wayang. The oldest known record that concerns wayang is from the 9th century. Around 860 CE an Old Javanese charter issued by Maharaja Sri Lokapala mentions three sorts of performers: atapukan and abanol. Ringgit is described in an 11th-century Javanese poem as a leather shadow figure. An inscription dated 930 CE says si Galigi mawayang. From that time till today it seems. Galigi was an itinerant performer, requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bhima from the Mahabharata; the kakawin Arjunawiwaha composed by Mpu Kanwa, the poet of Airlangga's court of Kahuripan kingdom, in 1035 CE describes santoṣâhĕlĕtan kĕlir sira sakêng sang hyang Jagatkāraṇa, which means "He is steadfast and just a wayang screen away from the'Mover of the World'." Kelir is Javanese word for wayang screen, the verse eloquently comparing actual life to a wayang performance where the almighty Jagatkāraṇa as the ultimate dalang is just a thin screen away from us mortals.
This reference to wayang as shadow plays suggested that wayang performance is familiar in Airlangga's court and wayang tradition has been established in Java earlier. An inscription from this period mentioned some occupations as awayang and aringgit. Wayang kulit is a unique form of theatre employing shadow; the puppets are mounted on bamboo sticks. When held up behind a piece of white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the screen; the plays are based on romantic tales and religious legends adaptations of the classic Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Some of the plays are based on local happening or other local secular stories; the dalang, sometimes referred to as Dhalang or Kawi Dalang, is the puppeteer ar
Raden Adjeng Kartini, sometimes known as Raden Ayu Kartini, was a prominent Indonesian national heroine from Java. She was a pioneer in the area of education for girls and women's rights for Indonesians. Born into an aristocratic Javanese family in the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, she attended a Dutch language primary school, she aspired to further education but the option was unavailable to her and other girls in Javanese society. She came into contact with various officials and influential people including J. H. Abendanon, in charge of implementing the Dutch Ethical Policy. Kartini wrote letters about her feelings and they were published in a Dutch magazine and as: Out of Darkness to Light, Women's Life in the Village and Letters of a Javanese Princess, her birthday is now celebrated as Kartini Day in Indonesia. She opposed polygamy, her advocacy for the education of girls was continued by her sisters. Kartini Schools were named for her and a fund established in her name to fund the education of girls.
K Java was part of the Dutch colony of the Dutch East Indies. Kartini's father, became Regency Chief of Jepara. Kartini's father was the district chief of Mayong, her mother, Ngasirah was a teacher of religion in Telukawur. She was his first wife but not the most important one. At this time, polygamy was a common practice among the nobility, she wrote the Letters of a Javanese Princess. Colonial regulations required a Regency Chief to marry a member of the nobility. Since Ngasirah was not of sufficiently high nobility, her father married a second time to Woerjan, a direct descendant of the Raja of Madura. After this second marriage, Kartini's father was elevated to Regency Chief of Jepara, replacing his second wife's own father, Tjitrowikromo. Kartini was the fifth child and second eldest daughter in a family of eleven, including half siblings, she was born into a family with a strong intellectual tradition. Her grandfather, Pangeran Ario Tjondronegoro IV, became a Regency Chief at the age of 25, while Kartini's older brother Sosrokartono was an accomplished linguist.
Kartini's family allowed her to attend school. Here, among other subjects, she learnt to speak Dutch, an unusual accomplishment for Javanese women at the time. After she turned 12 she was secluded at home, a common practice among Javanese nobility, to prepare young girls for their marriage. During seclusion girls were not allowed to leave their parents' house until they were married, at which point authority over them was transferred to their husbands. Kartini's father was more lenient than some during his daughter's seclusion, giving her such privileges as embroidery lessons and occasional appearances in public for special events. During her seclusion, Kartini continued to educate herself on her own; because she could speak Dutch, she acquired several Dutch pen friends. One of them, a girl by the name of Rosa Abendanon, became a close friend. Books and European magazines fed Kartini's interest in European feminist thinking, fostered the desire to improve the conditions of indigenous Indonesian women, who at that time had a low social status.
Kartini's reading included the Semarang newspaper [ich she began to send contributions which were published. Before she was 20 she had read Love Letters by Multatuli, she read De Stille Kracht by Louis Couperus, the works of Frederik van Eeden, Augusta de Witt, the Romantic-Feminist author Goekoop de-Jong Van Eek and an anti-war novel by Berta von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder!. All were in Dutch. Kartini's concerns were not only in the area of the emancipation of women, but other problems of her society. Kartini saw that the struggle for women to obtain their freedom and legal equality was just part of a wider movement. Kartini's parents arranged her marriage to Joyodiningrat, the Regency Chief of Rembang, who had three wives, she was married on 12 November 1903. Her husband understood Kartini's aims and allowed her to establish a school for women in the east porch of the Rembang Regency Office complex. Kartini's only son was born on 13 September 1904. A few days on 17 September 1904, Kartini died at the age of 25.
She was buried in Rembang. Inspired by R. A. Kartini's example, the Van Deventer family established the R. A. Kartini Foundation which built schools for women,'Kartini's Schools' in Semarang in 1912, followed by other women's schools in Surabaya, Malang, Madiun and other areas. In 1964, President Sukarno declared R. A. Kartini's birth date, 21 April, as'Kartini Day' - an Indonesian national holiday; this decision has been criticised. It has been proposed that Kartini's Day should be celebrated in conjunction with Indonesian Mothers Day, on 22 December so that the choice of R. A. Kartini as a national heroine would not overshadow other women who, unlike R. A. Kartini, took up arms to oppose the colonisers. In contrast, those who recognise the significance of R. A. Kartini argue that not only was she a feminist who elevated the status of women in Indonesia, she was a nationalist figure, with new ideas, who struggled on behalf of her people and played a role in the national struggle for independence. After Raden Adjeng Kartini died, Mr. J. H. Abendanon, the Minister for Culture and Industry in the East Indies and published the letters that Kartini had sent to her friends in Europe.
The book was titled Door Duisternis tot Licht and was published in 1911. It went through five editions, with some additional letters included in the final edition, was translated into English by Agnes L. Symmers and
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Minggu Pagi is an Indonesian general interest weekly published by the Yogyakarta-based Kedaulatan Rakyat Group. It began in 1948 as a magazine. Minggu Pagi was established as a magazine in the central Javan city of Yogyakarta on 7 December 1948 by M. Wonohito and H. Samawi. Afterwards, the magazine did not publish again until 1950; the issues published through early 1951 were listed as Volume 2. In April 1953 Minggu Pagi jumped from Volume 4 to Volume 6, thus bringing the number of volumes in-line with the years since the magazine was established. During a period of hyperinflation in the early 1960s, Minggu Pagi ceased publication as a standalone magazine, it was included as a supplemental with the newspaper Kedaulatan Rakyat. As the economy improved in the 1970s, Minggu Pagi was again issued as a stand-alone publication, it migrated to the tabloid format in the 1980s. In 1992 the United States Information Service described Minggu Pagi, which by consisted of twelve pages, as one of the oldest extant press publications in Indonesia.
At this time it was one of several media published by Kedaulatan Rakyat Group, together with the newspaper Kedaulatan Rakyat, the children's magazine Gatotkaca, the Javanese-language magazine Mekar Sari. In its early years, Minggu Pagi included articles on a variety of topics, including science, traditional culture and sports, it included space for literary works short stories. Among short story writers and other authors, the magazine was seen as providing an alternative space for publication, one accessible to those who had not yet been recognized by the Jakarta-based "rulers" of the Indonesian literary canon. Given this opportunity, as well as the honorariums paid to authors, Minggu Pagi soon became a popular medium in which local writers could publish their works. In the 1950s, the Indonesian author Nasjah Djamin described Minggu Pagi, as a "cesspool", a descriptor that the academic Will Derks characterises as "embracing the low status and insignificance might have had in the eyes of scholars and critics".
By 1988 more than four hundred writers had contributed their literary works to the magazine and its successor. These included Motinggo Busye, Satyagraha Hoerip, Bakri Siregar, Djamin, who published his novel Hilanglah Si Anak Hilang in Minggu Pagi between 1960 and 1961 on request of the editors. In the 1990s, Minggu Pagi had a column on sexuality, "Liku-Lika Seksualitas", managed by a "Dr. Rosi", it regularly featured information on miraculous healing, sacred sites, invulnerability practices