The Metamorphoses is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus. Comprising fifteen books and over 250 myths, the chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the deification of Julius Caesar within a loose mythico-historical framework. Although meeting the criteria for an epic, the poem defies simple classification by its use of varying themes and tones. One of the most influential works in Western culture, the Metamorphoses has inspired such authors as Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Geoffrey Chaucer, numerous episodes from the poem have been depicted in acclaimed works of sculpture and music. The work has been the subject of numerous translations into English, Ovids decision to make myth the dominant subject of the Metamorphoses was influenced by the predisposition of Alexandrian poetry. However, whereas it served in that tradition as the cause for reflection or insight, he made it instead the object of play. There are three examples of the Metamorphoses by Hellenistic writers, but little is known of their contents, the Heteroioumena by Nicander of Colophon is better known, and clearly an influence on the poem —21 of the stories from this work were treated in the Metamorphoses.
However, in a way that was typical for writers of the period, the Metamorphoses was longer than any previous collection of metamorphosis myths and positioned itself within a historical framework. Some of the Metamorphoses derives from literary and poetic treatment of the same myths. This material was of varying quality and comprehensiveness — while some of it was finely worked, scholars have found it difficult to place the Metamorphoses in a genre. However, the handles the themes and employs the tone of virtually every species of literature, ranging from epic and elegy to tragedy. Commenting on the debate, G. Karl Galinsky has opined that. It would be misguided to pin the label of any genre on the Metamorphoses and it begins with the ritual invocation of the muse, and makes use of traditional epithets and circumlocutions. But instead of following and extolling the deeds of a human hero, the recurring theme, as with nearly all of Ovids work, is love—be it personal love or love personified in the figure of Amor.
Apollo comes in for particular ridicule as Ovid shows how love can confound the god out of reason. The work as a whole inverts the order, elevating humans and human passions while making the gods and their desires. The Metamorphoses ends with an epilogue, one of two surviving Latin epics to do so. Book I – The Creation, the Ages of Mankind, the flood and Pyrrha, Apollo and Daphne, Io, Book II – Phaëton, the raven and the crow, Ocyrhoe and Battus, the envy of Aglauros and Europa
Fall Out Toy Works
Fall Out Toy Works is an American comic book limited series, created by Pete Wentz of Fall Out Boy, Darren Romanelli, and Nathan Cabrera. It is written by Brett Lewis, whose work includes The Winter Men. The first issue was published by Image Comics on September 2,2009, the story is about androids with artificial intelligence in a futuristic Los Angeles. It has been compared to Pinocchio and Pygmalion, the plot is inspired by the ideas & lyrics of Fall Out Boy, especially the song Tiffany Blews from the album Folie à Deux. The story focuses on the Toymaker, who despite being a brilliant inventor, a rich magnate known as the Baron seeks to have a robotic woman companion, but his team of scientists is unable to create one that behaves realistically. The Baron hires the Toymaker to help advance the process, Wentz met with designer, Darren Romanelli, to discuss a creative collaboration for Fall Out Boys musical tour. They decided to base their concept on the song, Tiffany Blews, Romanelli consulted with comics industry member, Nathan Cabrera, together creating a world inspired by the songs lyrics.
Wentz, while not a really big comic guy, approved of the comic series after being shown some storyboards they had drawn. They were introduced to writer Brett Lewis and Imaginary Friends Studios through Romanellis friend, while not directly involved in the writing process, contributed ideas and oversaw the general direction of the comic. They intend to expand the concept into a media franchise, including animation. In interviews, Wentz talked about the themes discussed in the comic, Theres a strong element of and it explores the dimensions of what love really is. Can it be designed in you, can a robot fall in love. He cited Blade Runner as a thematic and visual influence, an animated adaptation, dubbed a motion comic, is in production by Double Barrel Motion Labs. A teaser trailer was released online on the day of the first issues publication, over 75 people turned up for a comic book signing at a Phoenix, Arizona retailer, Atomic Comics
One Touch of Venus
The show satirizes contemporary American suburban values, artistic fads and romantic and sexual mores. Weill had been in America for eight years by the time he wrote this musical, the original Broadway production opened at the Imperial Theatre on October 7,1943 and closed on February 10,1945 after 567 performances. It was directed by Elia Kazan, featured choreography by Agnes de Mille and it starred Mary Martin, Kenny Baker and Paula Laurence. Marlene Dietrich reportedly backed out of the role during rehearsals, calling it too sexy and profane. The musical was made into a 1948 film, directed by William A. Seiter and starring Ava Gardner, the movie version changed Hatchs first name from Rodney to Eddie and omitted much of the Broadway score, it received poor reviews. In 1987, the played at the Goodspeed Opera House. Ian Marshall Fishers Discovering Lost Musicals Charitable Trust has presented the work twice, first in 1992 at the Barbican Centre, Louise Gold played the title role on both occasions.
Both productions found Myra Sands playing Mrs Kramer, while Dick Vosburgh put in an appearance in the 2000 production and its premiered in Germany on June 17,1994, at the Meiningen Court Theatre in Meiningen, Thuringia. In 1995, BBC Radio broadcast the piece with Paige OHara in the title role, other cast members included Kim Criswell, Peter Gale, Myra Sands and Dick Vosburgh. In 1996, New York City Centers Encores, series presented the piece, directed by Leonard Foglia with Melissa Errico in the title role. In 1997, Light Opera Works in Illinois produced the work, in 2001, Londons first major theatrical run opened at the Kings Head Theatre in Islington. With a new adaptation by director Tim Childs it starred Peter Land as Whitelaw Savory, Michael Gyngell, not surprisingly, New York Producers did not want to commit to producing the piece at that time. Opera North produced the piece in 2004 at the Grand Theatre, the cast included, Nina Josephs as Venus, Anil Margsahayam as Rodney Hatch, Peter Budinger as Whitelaw Savory, Amy Louise Cole as Molly Grant, Tom Orr as Julius E.
Taxi Black, Juliet Heller as Gloria Kramer, Chris Macomber as Mrs. Florabelle Kramer, Tyler Kent as Stanley/Zuvetli/Dr, Jarrod Quon as Sam and Elise Youssef as Rose. Metal Monkey Theatre Company produced a revival of the musical for the 2009 Edinburgh Festival Fringe, directed by Michael Hall, with musical direction & accompaniment by Duncan White. The cast included, Chrissy Quinn as Venus, Michael Trakas as Rodney Hatch, John Kirkman as Whitelaw Savory, Emily Grogan as Molly Grant, taxi Black, Jo Britton as Gloria Kramer, Morven Rae Mrs. Florabelle Kramer, David Sanders as Stanley/Dr. Rook, Simon Motz as Zuvetli, Christopher Rorke as Sam, Sarah Block as Mrs Moats, John Owen Edwards and James Holmes conducted the National Symphony. The recording was thirteen years in the making and involved studios in both London and New York City, co-starred were Ron Raines, Victoria Clark and Brent Barrett
Pygmalion is a legendary figure of Cyprus. In Ovids narrative, Pygmalion was a Cypriot sculptor who carved a woman out of ivory, according to Ovid, after seeing the Propoetides he was not interested in women, but his statue was so beautiful and realistic that he fell in love with it. In time, Aphrodites festival day came, and Pygmalion made offerings at the altar of Aphrodite, too scared to admit his desire, he quietly wished for a bride who would be the living likeness of my ivory girl. When he returned home, he kissed his ivory statue, and he kissed it again, and found that the ivory had lost its hardness. Pygmalion married the ivory sculpture changed to a woman under Aphrodites blessing, in Ovids narrative, they had a daughter, from whom the citys name is derived. In some versions Paphos was a son, and they had a daughter, perhaps he drew on the lost narrative by Philostephanus that was paraphrased by Clement of Alexandria. Pygmalion is the Greek version of the Phoenician royal name Pumayyaton, the moral anecdote of the Apega of Nabis, recounted by the historian Polybius, described a supposed mechanical simulacrum of the tyrants wife, that crushed victims in her embrace.
The trope of a sculpture so lifelike that it seemed about to move was a commonplace with writers on works of art in antiquity and this trope was inherited by writers on art after the Renaissance. The basic Pygmalion story has been transmitted and re-presented in the arts through the centuries. At an unknown date, authors give as the name of the statue that of the sea-nymph Galatea or Galathea, goethe calls her Elise, based upon the variants in the story of Dido/Elissa. In the final scene of William Shakespeares The Winters Tale, a statue of Queen Hermione which comes to life is revealed as Hermione herself, there have been numerous sculptures of the awakening. Ovids Pygmalion has inspired works of literature, some of which are listed below. The popularity of the Pygmalion myth surged in the 19th century, R. M. D. s Pygmalion Genevieve Taggards Galatea Again Albert G. Millers Pygmalion Harry C. Morris Pygmalion Melvin H. Bernsteins Mr. H. P. Lovecrafts Herbert West–Reanimator Tommaso Landolfis La moglie di Gogol John Updikes Pygmalion E. T.
A, douglass novel Invitation To Live William Hazlitts Liber Amoris, or, the New Pygmalion Richard Powerss novel Galatea 2. The sculpture represents the power of a mothers love for a child. Chihiro Watanabes manga series Pygmalion, which started its serialization in 2015 in the magazine Monthly Comic Garden, the story of Pygmalion is the subject of Jean-Philippe Rameaus 1748 opera, Pigmalion. It was the subject of Gaetano Donizettis first opera, Il Pigmalione, molin produced a ballet-pantomime version of Pygmalion in 1800. Franz von Suppe composed an operetta Die schöne Galathée which is based on the characters of Pygmalion, the ballet Coppélia, about an inventor who makes a life-sized dancing doll, has strong echoes of Pygmalion
Pygmalion and Galatea (play)
Pygmalion and Galatea, an Original Mythological Comedy is a blank verse play by W. S. Gilbert in three acts based on the Pygmalion story. It opened at the Haymarket Theatre in London on 9 December 1871, Pygmalion was Gilberts greatest success to that date and is said to have earned him £40,000 during his lifetime. Pygmalion and Galatea was so popular that other Pygmalions were rushed to the stage, in January 1872, Ganymede and Galatea opened at the Gaiety Theatre. This was a version of Franz von Suppés Die schöne Galathee, coincidentally with Arthur Sullivans brother, Fred Sullivan. In March 1872, William Broughs Pygmalion, or, The Statue Fair was revived, and in May of that year, a visiting French company produced Victor Massés Galathée. Gilbert created several blank verse fairy comedies at the Haymarket Theatre for John Baldwin Buckstone and starring William Hunter Kendal and his wife Madge Robertson Kendal, in the early 1870s. These plays, influenced by the work of James Planché, are founded upon the idea of self-revelation by characters under the influence of some magic or some supernatural interference.
The first was The Palace of Truth in 1870, an adapted from a story by Madame de Genlis. Pygmalion and Galatea, a satire of sentimental, romantic attitudes toward myth, was one of seven plays that Gilbert produced in 1871. They established that his capabilities extended far beyond burlesque and won him artistic credentials as a writer of wide range, in Gilberts Pygmalion story, the sculptor is a married man. He sculpts many copies in the image of wife and his wife at first encourages his interest in one of these statues, Galatea. Cynisca is often away, and she doesnt want her husband to be bored, when the statue comes to life, matters become complex, as she falls in love with her creator. Galatea is born so innocent that she appears wayward and disrupts the lives she touches during her one day in the flesh. Under the fire of Cyniscas jealousy, and seeing the difficulty in which she has placed Pygmalion, Galatea decides that her original state was happier, and turns back into a statue. Pygmalion, an Athenian Sculptor – W. H.
Kendal Leucippus, a Soldier – Mr. Howe Chrysos, to do so had been the regular proceeding in burlesque, and the age almost expected it, but Gilberts is not the usual hearty cockney vulgarity. In Pygmalion and Galatea, still more, in Gretchen, the vulgarity is cynical and bitter. The play is, from one side and aggressively disagreeable and its characters are low and selfish. Pygmalion – an antique poetic conception – is reduced here to snobbishness and priggishness and his sister, his wife, his kinsmen, and his friends are insufferable
Cleopatra and Caesar (painting)
Cleopatra and Caesar, known as Cleopatra Before Caesar, is an oil on canvas painting by the French Academic artist Jean-Léon Gérôme, completed in 1866. The work was commissioned by the French courtesan La Païva but she was unhappy with the finished painting. It was exhibited at the Salon of 1866 and the Royal Academy of Arts in 1871, the work is considered a classic example of Egyptomania and was mass-produced by Goupil, allowing it to reach a wide audience. The painting was held by California banker Darius Ogden Mills and remained in the Mills family art collection for over a century until it was sold to a collector in 1990. Jean-Léon Gérôme was a nineteenth century French painter and sculptor, at the age of twenty-three, he came to the attention of the art world at the Salon of 1847 with The Cock Fight, a Neo-Grec painting that was praised by Théophile Gautier. According to historian Charles Sowerwine, Gérôme painted erotic subjects with an approach and sensual charge. To us, Gérômes nudes seem pornographic, but to contemporaries they were idealized by their removal from contemporary society, French writer Prosper Mérimée first proposed the subject of Cleopatra and Caesar in a letter sent to Gérôme in December 1860.
La Païva, a wealthy French courtesan, commissioned the painting from Gérôme, intending it for display in the Hôtel de la Païva, Gérôme made at least two previous oil paintings and a number of sketches in preparation for the work. One shows Cleopatra lying on the ground stretching out to Julius Caesar with Apollodorus crouching behind her, in one variation before the finished version, Caesar is shown by himself with his hands on the desk without his four secretaries. When the work was finished in 1866, Cleopatras position changed to show her standing before Caesar with Apollodorus bent down beside her. Gérôme painted the scene based on the meeting between Cleopatra and Caesar written in the Life of Caesar by Greek historian Plutarch more than a century after the incident took place. Even though Gérôme visited Egypt in 1857, where George W. La Païva disliked the painting she had commissioned and returned it to Gérôme. Ackerman notes that La Païva felt the work was too expensive, Gérôme first met Goupil in 1859 and married his daughter Marie several years later.
Cleopatra and Caesar was one of three works Gérôme presented at the Salon of 1866 where it was exhibited with the title César et Cléopâtre, the painting appeared at the Royal Academy of Arts exhibition in 1871 under the longer name Cléopâtre apportée à César dans un tapis. The painting depicts the year 47 BC, when Cleopatra stands before Julius Caesar after Apollodorus, the figures are shown approximately half life-size. Since the 1866 exhibition, the work has become known by titles, such as Cleopatra Before Caesar. The American Egyptomania project at George Mason University describes the painting as a example of Egyptomania, containing sex, nudity. Lucy H. Hooper called it a piece to Gérômes earlier work