Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
Manas National Park
Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan; the park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog. Manas is famous for its population of the wild water buffalo; the name of the park is originated from the Manas River, named after the serpent goddess Manasa. The Manas river is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River, which passes through the heart of the national park; the Manas National Park was declared a sanctuary on 1 October 1928 with an area of 360 km2. Manas bioreserve was created in 1973. Prior to the declaration of the sanctuary it was a reserved forest called Manas R. F. and North Kamrup R. F, it was used by Raja of Gauripur as a hunting reserve. In 1951 and 1955 the area was increased to 391 km2.
It was declared a World Heritage site in December 1985 by UNESCO. Kahitama R. F. the Kokilabari R. F. and the Panbari R. F. were added in the year 1990 to form the Manas National Park. In 1992, UNESCO declared it as a world heritage site in danger due to heavy poaching and terrorist activities. On 25 February 2008 the area was increased to 950 km2. On 21 June 2011, it was removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger and was commended for its efforts in preservation. There is only Agrang, in the core of the national park. Apart from this village 56 more villages surround the park. Many more fringe villages are indirectly dependent on the park. Political Geography: The park area falls in two districts: Chirang and Baksa in the state of Assam in India; the park is divided into three ranges. The western range is based at Panbari, the central at Bansbari near Barpeta Road, the eastern at Bhuiyapara near Pathsala; the ranges are not well connected. Most visitors come to Bansbari and spend some time inside the forest at Mathanguri on the Manas river at the Bhutan border.
Physical Geography: Manas is located in the foothills of the Eastern Himalaya and is densely forested. The Manas river is the main river within it, it is a major tributary of Brahmaputra river and splits into two separate rivers, the Bwrsi and Bholkaduba as it reaches the plains. Five other smaller rivers flow through the national park which lies on a wide, low-lying alluvial terrace spreading out below the foothills of the outer Himalaya; the Manas river serves as an international border dividing India and Bhutan. The bedrock of the savanna area in the north of the park is made up of limestone and sandstone, whereas the grasslands in the south of the park stand on deep deposits of fine alluvium; the combination of Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai formation along with the riverine succession continuing up to Sub-Himalayan mountain forest make it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. The park is 950 km2. in area and is situated at a height of 61m to 110m above mean sea level. Climate: The minimum temperature is around 15 degrees C and maximum temperature is around 37 degrees C.
Heavy rainfall occurs between September. The annual average rainfall is around 333 cm. There are two major biomes present in Manas: The grassland biomes: pygmy hog, Indian rhinoceros, bengal florican, wild Asian buffalo, etc; the forest biomes: slow loris, capped langur, wild pig, great hornbill, Malayan giant squirrel or black giant squirrel, Chinese pangolin etc. Vegetation: The monsoon forests of Manas lie in the Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests ecoregion; the combination of Sub-Himalayan Bhabar Terai formation with riverine succession leading up to the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests makes it one of the richest biodiversity areas in the world. The main vegetation types are: Sub-Himalayan Light Alluvial Semi-Evergreen forests in the northern parts. East Himalayan mixed Dry Deciduous forests. Low Alluvial Savanna Woodland, Assam Valley Semi-Evergreen Alluvial Grasslands which cover 50% of the park. Much of the riverine dry deciduous forest is at an early successional stage, it is replaced by moist deciduous forest away from water courses, succeeded by semi-evergreen climax forest in the northern part of the park.
A total of 543 plants species have been recorded from the core zone. Of these, 374 species are dicotyledons, 139 species monocotyledons and 30 are Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms; the park's common trees include Aphanamixis polystachya, Anthocephalus chinensis, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium formosum, Syzygium oblatum, Bauhinia purpurea, Mallotus philippensis, Cinnamomum tamala, Actinodaphne obvata, Bombax ceiba, Sterculia villosa, Dillenia indica, Dillenia pentagyna, Careya arborea, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Trewia polycarpa, Gmelina arborea, Oroxylum indicum and Bridelia spp. The grasslands are dominated by Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum naranga, Phragmites karka, Arundo donax, Dillenia pentagyna, Phyllanthus emblica, Bombax ceiba, species of Clerodendrum, Grewia and Mussaenda; the sanctuary has recorded 55 species of mammals, 380 species of birds, 50 of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians. Out of these wildlife, 21 mammals are India’s Schedule I mammals and 31 of t
The Bengal tiger is a Panthera tigris tigris population in the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2008, was estimated at comprising fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011, it is threatened by poaching and fragmentation of habitat. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within its range is considered large enough to support an effective population of more than 250 adult individuals. India's tiger population was estimated at 1,706–1,909 individuals in 2010. By 2014, the population had reputedly increased to an estimated 2,226 individuals. Around 440 tigers are estimated in 103 tigers in Bhutan; the tiger is estimated to be present in the Indian subcontinent since the Late Pleistocene, for about 12,000 to 16,500 years. The Bengal tiger ranks among the biggest wild cats alive today, it is considered to belong to the world's charismatic megafauna. It is the national animal of both Bangladesh, it is known as the Royal Bengal tiger. Felis tigris was the scientific name used by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 for the tiger.
It was subordinated to the genus Panthera by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1929. Bengal is the traditional type locality of the species and the nominate subspecies Panthera tigris tigris; the validity of several tiger subspecies in continental Asia was questioned in 1999. Morphologically, tigers from different regions vary little, gene flow between populations in those regions is considered to have been possible during the Pleistocene. Therefore, it was proposed to recognize only two subspecies as valid, namely P. t. tigris in mainland Asia, P. t. sondaica in the Greater Sunda Islands and in Sundaland. The extinct and living tiger populations in continental Asia have been subsumed to P. t. tigris since the revision of felid taxonomy in 2017. The Bengal tiger is defined by three distinct mitochondrial nucleotide sites and 12 unique microsatellite alleles; the pattern of genetic variation in the Bengal tiger corresponds to the premise that it arrived in India 12,000 years ago. This is consistent with the lack of tiger fossils from the Indian subcontinent prior to the late Pleistocene, the absence of tigers from Sri Lanka, separated from the subcontinent by rising sea levels in the early Holocene.
The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black. The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the tiger, reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal and from the former State of Rewa. However, it is not to be mistaken as an occurrence of albinism. In fact, there is only one authenticated case of a true albino tiger, none of black tigers, with the possible exception of one dead specimen examined in Chittagong in 1846. Males have an average total length of 270 to 310 cm including the tail, while females measure 240 to 265 cm on average; the tail is 85 to 110 cm long, on average, tigers are 90 to 110 cm in height at the shoulders. The weight of males ranges from 180 to 258 kg; the smallest recorded weights for Bengal tigers are from the Bangladesh Sundarbans, where adult females are 75 to 80 kg. The tiger has exceptionally stout teeth, its canines are 7.5 to 10 cm long and thus the longest among all cats. The greatest length of its skull is 332 to 376 mm. Bengal tigers weigh up to 325 kg, reach a head and body length of 320 cm.
Several scientists indicated that adult male Bengal tigers from the Terai in Nepal and Bhutan, Assam and West Bengal in north India attain more than 227 kg of body weight. Seven adult males captured in Chitwan National Park in the early 1970s had an average weight of 235 kg ranging from 200 to 261 kg, that of the females was 140 kg ranging from 116 to 164 kg. Thus, the Bengal tiger rivals the Amur tiger in average weight. In addition, the record for the greatest length of a tiger skull was an "over the bone" length of 16.25 in. Verifiable Sundarbans tiger weights are not found in any scientific literature. Forest Department records list weight measurements. There are reports of head and body lengths, some of which are listed as over 366 cm. More researchers from the University of Minnesota and the Bangladesh Forest Department carried out a study for the US Fish and Wildlife Service and weighed three Sundarbans tigresses from Bangladesh. Two of them were captured and sedated for radio-collaring, the other one had been killed by local villagers.
The two collared tigresses were weighed using 150 kg scales, the tigress killed by villagers was weighed using a balance scale and weights. The three tigresses had a mean weight of 76.7 kg. One of the two older female's weight 75 kg weighed less than the mean because of her old age and poor condition at the time of capture; the teeth wear of the two radio-collared females indicated that they were between 12 and 14 years old. The tigress killed by the villagers was a young adult between 3 and 4 years old, she was a pre-territorial transient. Skulls and body weights of Sundarbans tigers were found to be distinct from tigers in other habitats, indicating that they may have adapted to the unique conditions of the mangrove habitat, their small sizes are due to a combination of
The GenBank sequence database is an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations. This database is produced and maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information as part of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration; the National Center for Biotechnology Information is a part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States. GenBank and its collaborators receive sequences produced in laboratories throughout the world from more than 100,000 distinct organisms; the database started in 1982 by Los Alamos National Laboratory. GenBank has become an important database for research in biological fields and has grown in recent years at an exponential rate by doubling every 18 months. Release 194, produced in February 2013, contained over 150 billion nucleotide bases in more than 162 million sequences. GenBank is built by direct submissions from individual laboratories, as well as from bulk submissions from large-scale sequencing centers.
Only original sequences can be submitted to GenBank. Direct submissions are made to GenBank using BankIt, a Web-based form, or the stand-alone submission program, Sequin. Upon receipt of a sequence submission, the GenBank staff examines the originality of the data and assigns an accession number to the sequence and performs quality assurance checks; the submissions are released to the public database, where the entries are retrievable by Entrez or downloadable by FTP. Bulk submissions of Expressed Sequence Tag, Sequence-tagged site, Genome Survey Sequence, High-Throughput Genome Sequence data are most submitted by large-scale sequencing centers; the GenBank direct submissions group processes complete microbial genome sequences. Walter Goad of the Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory and others established the Los Alamos Sequence Database in 1979, which culminated in 1982 with the creation of the public GenBank. Funding was provided by the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense.
LANL collaborated on GenBank with the firm Bolt and Newman, by the end of 1983 more than 2,000 sequences were stored in it. In the mid 1980s, the Intelligenetics bioinformatics company at Stanford University managed the GenBank project in collaboration with LANL; as one of the earliest bioinformatics community projects on the Internet, the GenBank project started BIOSCI/Bionet news groups for promoting open access communications among bioscientists. During 1989 to 1992, the GenBank project transitioned to the newly created National Center for Biotechnology Information; the GenBank release notes for release 162.0 state that "from 1982 to the present, the number of bases in GenBank has doubled every 18 months". As of 15 June 2018, GenBank release 226.0 has 209,775,348 loci, 263,957,884,539 bases, from 209,775,348 reported sequences. The GenBank database includes additional data sets that are constructed mechanically from the main sequence data collection, therefore are excluded from this count.
Public databases which may be searched using the National Center for Biotechnology Information Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, lack peer-reviewed sequences of type strains and sequences of non-type strains. On the other hand, while commercial databases contain high-quality filtered sequence data, there are a limited number of reference sequences. A paper released in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology evaluated the 16S rRNA gene sequencing results analyzed with GenBank in conjunction with other available, quality-controlled, web-based public databases, such as the EzTaxon-e and the BIBI databases; the results showed that analyses performed using GenBank combined with EzTaxon-e were more discriminative than using GenBank or other databases alone. Ensembl Human Protein Reference Database Sequence analysis UniProt List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced archaeal genomes RefSeq — the Reference Sequence Database Geneious — includes a GenBank Submission Tool Open science data This article incorporates public domain material from the National Center for Biotechnology Information document "NCBI Handbook".
GenBank Example sequence record, for hemoglobin beta BankIt Sequin — a stand-alone software tool developed by the NCBI for submitting and updating entries to the GenBank sequence database. EMBOSS — free, open source software for molecular biology GenBank, RefSeq, TPA and UniProt: What's in a Name
Sunil Kumar Verma
Sunil Kumar Verma, is an Indian biologist and as of January 2018, a principal scientist at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, India. Verma is known for his contributions to the development of "universal primer technology", a DNA barcoding method, that can identify any bird, reptile or mammal from a small biological sample, satisfy legal evidence requirements in a court of law; this technology has revitalised the field of wildlife forensics and is now used across India to provide a species identification service in cases of wildlife crime. Verma received his D. Phil. in medical oncology from the University of Oxford, has worked in the areas of signal transduction in cancer and on molecular biology applications in wildlife conservation. He is the recipient of several national awards, including the 2008 CSIR Technology Award, the 2009 NRDC Meritorious Invention Award and the 2009 BioAsia Innovation Award in recognition of his contribution to Indian science and technology. Verma was born in a small village in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Verma grew up in Tikri and up to the twelfth standard studied at the government school in Tikri. After completing his twelfth standard in the science group from this school in 1991, he attended the G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar to complete his Bachelor of Science in agriculture and animal husbandry. Verma started his research career at G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, where he worked on the DNA fingerprinting of Indian scented basmati rice for identification of duplicate accessions. In 1998, Verma was appointed as a scientist at the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics where he continued his research on the DNA-based identification system, in 1999, he received the Emerging Forensic Scientist Continental Award from the International Association of Forensic Sciences at the University of California, USA for his work on DNA microsatellite based identification of wild animals. In 2000, Verma was appointed as a scientist at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, where in 2001, he and Lalji Singh invented universal primer technology for wildlife identification, for which he received a number of international patents, several national awards including the CSIR Technology Award in 2008, the 2009 NRDC Award and the BioAsia Innovation Award in 2009.
In 2003, Verma received a Lindau Fellowship to represent Indian scholars at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings in physiology and medicine. During the same year, he received a Commonwealth Scholarship to carry out his doctoral studies at the University of Oxford. Verma completed his D. Phil. in medical oncology at the University of Oxford in 2007, in January 2008 returned to India to continue his work at the CCMB. In 2010, he subsequently became principal scientist at the CCMB and as of January 2015, he remains in that position. Verma was a visiting fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology during 2010–2013. Starting in 2010, as of January 2015 he is a research ambassador for the DAAD to promote bidirectional research collaboration between India and Germany. Along with his team, Verma's research in the area of wildlife conservation led to the reclassification of the pygmy hog, an endangered endemic species, from Sus salvanius to Porcula salvania In 2015 Verma claimed that the malaria treatment drug artemisinin, the discovery of which earned Chinese scientist Tu Youyou the Lasker Award in 2011 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015, has roots in older traditional medicine from India under the name artemisin, associated with a related Indian plant species and identified as fever-treating.
Verma's argument was that no single person or country may take credit for a plant-based medicine that arises based on the traditional knowledge on the usage of the specific plant or related plant species, that existed in many countries. In March 2001, Verma and Lalji Singh claimed to have invented a method that they called "universal primer technology", which allowed the identification of any unknown biological sample and its assignment to a known species source. Through its ability to work across a large range of animal species, universal primer technology can identify any bird, reptile or mammal and satisfy legal evidence requirements in a court of law. Patents relating to this invention have been filed in several countries and the research papers published in various journals; this technique of CSIR-CCMB revitalised the field of wildlife forensics. It is being used in LaCONES at the CSIR-CCMB to provide a wildlife forensics service across India in cases pertaining to wildlife crime. Verma's and Singh's contribution to the development of universal primer technology has been recognised by the Indian minister of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Earth Sciences in a written report to the Lok Sabha.
Universal primer technology was used by Therion International, an independent animal testing lab in New York, to uncover the noted seafood scandal in Florida and other parts of America. Several undercover investigations carried out by the ABC7 Whistleblower and WKRG News5 investigators, revealed that half of the seafood was inaccurately labelled as a more expensive variety; this method of species identification used by the Therion International to uncover the seafood scam, was cited as "gold standard" by various labs worldwide. In February 2015, a credit dispute between universal primer technology and DNA barcoding came to light. Verma has argued that DNA barcoding, a technique