Your Sinclair, or YS as it was abbreviated, was a British computer magazine for the Sinclair range of computers the ZX Spectrum. The magazine was launched in January 1984 as Your Spectrum by Sportscene Specialist Press renamed to Dennis Publishing in April 1987, it was published bimonthly, changing to monthly in June 1984. With the January 1986 issue, the title was relaunched as Your Sinclair, with the intention of expanding coverage of the QL into the main magazine, any future computers produced by Sinclair. However, the magazine remained focused entirely on the ZX Spectrum games scene. In 1990, the magazine was sold to Bath-based Future plc, the April 1990 issue was the first to be published by the new company; that issue's news section contained a feature on the move, which jokingly suggested that Future had intended to buy a Sinclair C5 and had ended up buying the magazine by mistake. It folded in September 1993, after the commercial life of the Spectrum ended and the magazine had fewer than 40 pages per issue.
A 94th issue, a retrospective on the magazine, was published in 2004 and given away free with Retro Gamer magazine. It featured interviews with notable writers and reviewers, a four-page memoir written by former staff writer Phil South, several new reviews and tips, keeping the style of the original magazine throughout; the magazine introduced a unique writing style, inspired by launch editor Roger Munford and expanded upon by subsequent editors and writers. Influences can be found in titles ranging from Private Eye to Viz. Towards the end of the magazine's life, under the editorship of Jonathan Nash, the style was further influenced by magazines YS had itself inspired, in particular Amiga Power and fanzine The Thing Monthly; the original 1986 Your Sinclair team included Kevin Cox, Teresa "T'zer" Maughan, Sara Biggs, Pete Shaw, Phil "Snouty" South. Marcus Berkmann joined as staff writer in early 1987 when Maughan took over as editor. Freelance writers of the time included John Minson, Mike Gerrard, Max Phillips, Tony Worrall and David McCandless.
The final 1993 team consisted of just two permanent staff members: Jonathan Nash and Andy Ounsted. Steve Anderson, Rich Pelley, Tim Kemp, Simon Cooke, Dave Golder and Simon Forrester were among those working on a freelance basis. YS's content varied occasionally ignoring the subject of computers entirely; as the Spectrum scene diminished and there was less software to review, this happened more frequently. In 1992, under the editorship of Andy Hutchinson, several'lifestyle' type sections were introduced; these included Haylp!, an agony aunt column, The World, which contained reviews of films and books. This section included The Killer Kolumn From Outer Space, dedicated to science fiction news and reviews, it was written by Dave Golder, who went on to be the second editor of the successful SFX. Writing in the 100th issue of that publication, Golder cited his earlier work on YS and described SFX as "like hundreds of Killer Kolumns stapled together". Flip! was discontinued, but the Killer Kolumn was kept on until the penultimate issue in 1993.
A similar page to Flip!/The World had existed in 1987-88 called Street Life, but this had contained Spectrum game charts. The news section was called Frontlines and dealt with Sinclair news and rumours, it regularly contained mock celebrity interviews and trivial charts, as well as features about the writers themselves. Subsections of Pssst and Frontlines included T'zers, a column which contained rumours about possible forthcoming releases for the Spectrum and on, the SAM Coupe, it was named after and written by Teresa Maughan, but the column remained after she left the magazine, as it was felt'T'zers' was an appropriate title since it contained'teasers' for future games. Rock Around The Clock, which first appeared in 1991, was a small column dedicated to looking at a particular back issue, as well as news and current affairs from the same time. One of the odder sections of Pssst was the Peculiar Pets Corner. Editor Matt Bielby intended this to be a showcase for YS readers' exotic pets such as snakes, monkeys or spiders, but these "pets" included such things as a purple fruit gum and a tuba.
When an editor or member of the writing staff left, the magazine would concoct fanciful stories surrounding their leaving. Matt Bielby was carted off to the funny farm after declaring himself to be God, Andy Ide became a Green Party ambassador, Andy Hutchinson left to design a skate park at Alton Towers. In actuality, the majority of ex-YS staff went on to work for other magazines, such as Amiga Power. Your Sinclair's reviewing system varied throughout the magazine's life. During the Your Spectrum era, game reviews were confined to the Spectrum Soft section called Joystick Jury. Games were reviewed by a panel of reviewers and given a mark out of 10. In practice this was a score out of 9, since no game received a perfect 10, on the rationale that a better game could come along at a date. After the name change to Joystick Jury, games were judged by each individual reviewer to be either a'hit' or a'miss'; the hit and miss system was abandoned with Issue 19, with the transition to Your Sinclair, the review section was renamed Screen Shots.
In Screen Shots, games were still rated out of ten, but they were given separate
The Amstrad CPC is a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad between 1984 and 1990. It was designed to compete in the mid-1980s home computer market dominated by the Commodore 64 and the Sinclair ZX Spectrum, where it established itself in the United Kingdom, France and the German-speaking parts of Europe; the series spawned a total of six distinct models: The CPC464, CPC664, CPC6128 were successful competitors in the European home computer market. The plus models, 464plus and 6128plus, efforts to prolong the system's lifecycle with hardware updates, were less successful, as was the attempt to repackage the plus hardware into a game console as the GX4000; the CPC models' hardware is based on the Zilog Z80A CPU, complemented with either 64 or 128 KB of RAM. Their computer-in-a-keyboard design prominently features an integrated storage device, either a compact cassette deck or 3 inch floppy disk drive; the main units were only sold bundled with either a colour, green-screen or monochrome monitor that doubles as the main unit's power supply.
Additionally, a wide range of first and third party hardware extensions such as external disk drives and memory extensions, was available. The CPC series was pitched against other home computers used to play video games and enjoyed a strong supply of game software; the comparatively low price for a complete computer system with dedicated monitor, its high resolution monochrome text and graphic capabilities and the possibility to run CP/M software rendered the system attractive for business users, reflected by a wide selection of application software. During its lifetime, the CPC series sold three million units; the philosophy behind the CPC series was twofold, firstly the concept was of an “all-in-one”, where the computer and its data storage device were combined in a single unit, sold with its own dedicated display monitor. Most home computers at that time such as Sinclair’s ZX series, the Commodore 64 and the BBC Micro relied on the use of the domestic television set and a separately connected tape recorder or disk drive.
In itself, the all-in-one concept was not new, having been seen before on business-oriented machines and the Commodore PET, but in the home computer space, it predated the Apple Macintosh by a year. Secondly, Amstrad founder Alan Sugar wanted the machine to resemble a “real computer, similar to what someone would see being used to check them in at the airport for their holidays”, for the machine to not look like “a pregnant calculator” – in reference to the Sinclair ZX81 and ZX Spectrum with their low cost, membrane-type keyboards; the CPC 464 sold more than two million units. The CPC 464 featured an internal cassette tape deck, it was introduced in June 1984 in the UK. Initial suggested retail prices for the CPC464 were GBP£249.00/DM899.00 with a green screen and GBP£359.00/DM1398.00 with a colour monitor. Following the introduction of the CPC6128 in late 1985, suggested retail prices for the CPC464 were cut by GBP£50.00/DM100.00. In 1990, the 464plus replaced the CPC 464 in the model line-up, production of the CPC 464 was discontinued.
The CPC664 features 64 KB RAM and an internal 3-inch floppy disk drive. It was introduced in May 1985 in the UK. Initial suggested retail prices for the CPC664 were GBP£339.00/DM1198.00 with a green screen and GBP£449.00/DM1998.00 with a colour monitor. After the successful release of the CPC464, consumers were asking for two improvements: more memory and an internal disk drive. For Amstrad, the latter was easier to realize. At the deliberately low-key introduction of the CPC664 in May 1985, the machine was positioned not only as the lowest-cost disk system but the lowest-cost CP/M 2.2 machine. In the Amstrad CPC product range the CPC664 complemented the CPC464, neither discontinued nor reduced in price. Compared to the CPC464, the CPC664's main unit has been redesigned, not only to accommodate the floppy disk drive but with a redesigned keyboard area. Touted as "ergonomic" by Amstrad's promotional material, the keyboard is noticeably tilted to the front with MSX-style cursor keys above the numeric keypad.
Compared to the CPC464's multicoloured keyboard, the CPC664's keys are kept in a much quieter grey and pale blue colour scheme. The back of the CPC664 main unit features the same connectors as the CPC464, with the exception of an additional 12V power lead. Unlike the CPC464's cassette tape drive that could be powered off the main unit's 5V voltage, the CPC664's floppy disk drive requires an additional 12V voltage; this voltage had to be separately supplied by an updated version of the bundled green screen/colour monitor. The CPC664 was only produced for six months. In late 1985, when the CPC6128 was introduced in Europe, Amstrad decided not to keep three models in the line-up, production of the CPC664 was discontinued; the CPC6128 features an internal 3-inch floppy disk drive. Aside from various hardware and firmware improvements, one of the CPC6128's most prominent features is the compatibility with the CP/M+ operating system that rendered it attractive for business uses; the CPC6128 was released in August 1985 and only sold in the US.
Imported and distributed by Indescomp, Inc. of Chicago, it was the first Amstrad product to be sold in the United States, a market that at the time was traditionally hostile towards European computer manufacturers. By the end of 1985, it replaced the CPC664 in the CPC model line-up. Initial suggested retail prices for the CPC6128 were US$699.00/£299.00/DM1598.00 wit
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick known as the control column, is the principal control device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a center stick or side-stick, it has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft's flight. Joysticks are used to control video games, have one or more push-buttons whose state can be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. Joysticks are used for controlling machines such as cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles, surveillance cameras, zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones. Joysticks originated as controls for aircraft ailerons and elevators, are first known to have been used as such on Louis Bleriot's Bleriot VIII aircraft of 1908, in combination with a foot-operated rudder bar for the yaw control surface on the tail.
The name "joystick" is thought to originate with early 20th century French pilot Robert Esnault-Pelterie. There are competing claims on behalf of fellow pilots Robert Loraine, James Henry Joyce, A. E. George. Loraine is cited by the Oxford English Dictionary for using the term "joystick" in his diary in 1909 when he went to Pau to learn to fly at Bleriot's school. George was a pioneer aviator who with his colleague Jobling built and flew a biplane at Newcastle in England in 1910, he is alleged to have invented the "George Stick". The George and Jobling aircraft control column is in the collection of the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Joysticks were present in early planes; the coining of the term "joystick" may be credited to Loraine, as his is the earliest known usage of the term, although he most did not invent the device. The electrical two-axis joystick was invented by C. B. Mirick at the United States Naval Research Laboratory and patented in 1926". NRL was developing remote controlled aircraft at the time and the joystick was used to support this effort.
In the awarded patent, Mirick writes: "My control system is applicable in maneuvering aircraft without a pilot."The Germans developed an electrical two-axis joystick around 1944. The device was used as part of the Germans' Funkgerät FuG 203 Kehl radio control transmitter system used in certain German bomber aircraft, used to guide both the rocket-boosted anti-ship missile Henschel Hs 293, the unpowered pioneering precision-guided munition Fritz-X, against maritime and other targets. Here, the joystick of the Kehl transmitter was used by an operator to steer the missile towards its target; this joystick had on-off switches rather than analogue sensors. Both the Hs 293 and Fritz-X used FuG 230 Straßburg radio receivers in them to send the Kehl's control signals to the ordnance's control surfaces. A comparable joystick unit was used for the contemporary American Azon steerable munition to laterally steer the munition in the yaw axis only; this German invention was picked up by someone in the team of scientists assembled at the Heeresversuchsanstalt in Peenemünde.
Here a part of the team on the German rocket program was developing the Wasserfall missile, a variant of the V-2 rocket, the first ground-to-air missile. The Wasserfall steering equipment converted the electrical signal to radio signals and transmitted these to the missile. In the 1960s the use of joysticks became widespread in radio-controlled model aircraft systems such as the Kwik Fly produced by Phill Kraft; the now-defunct Kraft Systems firm became an important OEM supplier of joysticks to the computer industry and other users. The first use of joysticks outside the radio-controlled aircraft industry may have been in the control of powered wheelchairs, such as the Permobil. During this time period NASA used joysticks as control devices as part of the Apollo missions. For example, the lunar lander test models were controlled with a joystick. In many modern airliners aircraft, for example all Airbus aircraft developed from the 1980s, the joystick has received a new lease on life for flight control in the form of a "side-stick", a controller similar to a gaming joystick but, used to control the flight, replacing the traditional yoke.
The sidestick saves weight, improves movement and visibility in the cockpit, may be safer in an accident than the traditional "control yoke". Ralph H. Baer, inventor of television video games and the Magnavox Odyssey console, released in 1972, created the first video game joysticks in 1967, they were able to control the vertical position of a spot displayed on a screen. The earliest known electronic game joystick with a fire button was released by Sega as part of their 1969 arcade game Missile, a shooter simulation game that used it as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move a motorized tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen. In 1970, the game was released in North America as S. A. M. I. by Midway Games. Taito released a four-way joystick as part of their arcade racing video game Astro Race in 1973, while their 1975 run and gun multi-directional shooter game Western Gun introduced dual-stick controls with one eight-way joystick for movement and the other for changing the shooting direction.
In North Americ
Space Invaders is a 1978 arcade game created by Tomohiro Nishikado. It was manufactured and sold by Taito in Japan, licensed in the United States by the Midway division of Bally. Within the shooter genre, Space Invaders was the first fixed shooter and set the template for the shoot'em up genre; the goal is to defeat wave after wave of descending aliens with a horizontally moving laser to earn as many points as possible. Space Invaders was an immediate commercial success. Adjusted for inflation, the many versions of the game are estimated to have grossed over $13 billion in total revenue as of 2016, making it the highest-grossing video game of all time. Space Invaders is considered one of the most influential video games of all time, it helped expand the video game industry from a novelty to a global industry, ushered in the golden age of arcade video games. It was the inspiration for numerous video games and game designers across different genres, has been ported and re-released in various forms.
The 1980 Atari VCS version quadrupled sales of the VCS, thereby becoming the first killer app for video game consoles. More broadly, the pixelated enemy alien has become a pop culture icon representing video games as a whole. Designer Nishikado drew inspiration from games like 1976's ball-bouncing game Breakout and the 1975 shooter game Gun Fight, as well as science fiction narratives such as The War of the Worlds, Space Battleship Yamato, Star Wars. To complete development of the game, he had to design custom development tools. Space Invaders is a fixed shooter in which the player controls a laser cannon by moving it horizontally across the bottom of the screen and firing at descending aliens; the aim is to defeat five rows of eleven aliens—although some versions feature different numbers—that move horizontally back and forth across the screen as they advance toward the bottom of the screen. The player's laser cannon is protected by several stationary defense bunkers—the number varies by version—that are destroyed from the top and bottom by blasts from either the aliens or the player.
The player earns points by shooting it with the laser cannon. As more aliens are defeated, the aliens' movement and the game's music both speed up. Defeating all the aliens on-screen brings another wave, more difficult, a loop which can continue endlessly. A special "mystery ship" will move across the top of the screen and award bonus points if destroyed; the aliens attempt to destroy the player's cannon by firing at it while they approach the bottom of the screen. If they reach the bottom, the alien invasion is declared successful and the game ends tragically; the game will end if all the player's cannons are destroyed by the enemies. Space Invaders was created by Japanese designer Tomohiro Nishikado, who spent a year designing the game and developing the necessary hardware to produce it; the game's inspiration is reported to have come from varying sources, including an adaptation of the mechanical game Space Monsters released by Taito in 1972, a dream about Japanese school children who are waiting for Santa Claus when they are attacked by invading aliens.
Nishikado himself has cited Atari's arcade game Breakout as his inspiration. He aimed to create a shooting game that featured the same sense of achievement from completing stages and destroying targets, but with more complex graphics; the game has altered game mechanics. Rather than bounce a ball to attack static objects, players are given the ability to fire projectiles at moving enemies. Early enemy designs for the game included tanks, combat planes, battleships. Nishikado, was not satisfied with the enemy movements. Humans would have been easier to simulate. After the release of the 1974 anime Space Battleship Yamato in Japan, seeing a magazine feature about Star Wars, he thought of using a space theme. Nishikado drew inspiration for the aliens from a novel by H. G. Wells, The War of the Worlds, created initial bitmap images after the octopus-like aliens. Other alien designs were modeled after crabs; the game was titled Space Monsters after a popular song in Japan at the time, "Monster", but was changed to Space Invaders by the designer's superiors.
Because microcomputers in Japan were not powerful enough at the time to perform the complex tasks involved in designing and programming Space Invaders, Nishikado had to design his own custom hardware and development tools for the game. He created the arcade board using the latest microprocessors from the United States; the game uses an Intel 8080 central processing unit, displays raster graphics on a CRT monitor, uses monaural sound hosted by a combination of analog circuitry and a Texas Instruments SN76477 sound chip. The adoption of a microprocessor was inspired by Gun Fight, Midway's microprocessor adaptation of Nishikado's earlier discrete logic game Western Gun, after the designer was impressed by the improved graphics and smoother animation of Midway's version. Despite the specially developed hardware, Nishikado was unable to program the game as he wanted—the Control Program board was not powerful enough to display the graphics in color or move the enemies faster—and he ended up considering the development of the game's hardware the most difficult part of the whole process.
While programming the game, Nishikado discovered that the processor was able to render the alien grap
"Popcorn" is an early synth-pop instrumental, composed by Gershon Kingsley in 1969 and first appearing on his album Music to Moog By. It was recorded at the Audio Fidelity Records label in New York City; the title may refer to the short staccato or sharp "popping" sound used, or to pop music and its being "corny", i.e. kitschy. The title is written as one word, although some single sleeves present it as two words, "Pop Corn". In 1972, a re-recording of "Popcorn" by the band Hot Butter was a huge hit in many countries; the track has since been covered by a great number of artists. Composer Gershon Kingsley first recorded "Popcorn" for his 1969 album Music to Moog By. In 1971 the track was re-recorded by Kingsley's band First Moog Quartet he released a version under the name of The Popcorn Makers, this was the version, the most successful in the charts; the record was one of a rash of Moog synthesizer-based releases, following the Billboard albums chart success Wendy Carlos had in 1968 with Switched-On Bach, which characterized electronic music of the future.
There were two 7" covers, both released in 1972 under Musicor Stateside labels. In 1972, Stan Free, a fellow member of the First Moog Quartet, re-recorded "Popcorn" with his band Hot Butter; this version of "Popcorn" became the second electronic-based piece of music to reach the American popular music charts, three years after "The Minotaur" by Dick Hyman & His Electric Eclectics. It peaked at No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 and No. 4 on the Easy Listening chart, had greater success in Australia, topping the charts for 8 weeks. It proved as popular in mainland Europe, spending several weeks at No. 1 in numerous European countries, including France and Switzerland becoming the biggest-selling single of 1972 in both countries.. "Popcorn" was a No. 1 hit in Germany, the Netherlands and Norway. 7" single"Popcorn" – 2:30 "At the Movies" – 2:31
Pajamas or pyjamas shortened to PJs or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing originating from the Indian subcontinent. In the Western world, pajamas are loose-fitting garments derived from the original garment and worn chiefly for sleeping, but sometimes for lounging by both sexes. More pajamas may refer to several garments, for both daywear and nightwear, derived from traditional pajamas and involving variations of style and material; the word pyjama was borrowed c. 1800 from the Hindustani pāy-jāma, itself borrowed from Persian pāy-jāmeh پايجامه lit.'leg-garment'. The original pyjāmā are loose, lightweight trousers fitted with drawstring waistbands worn by many Indian Muslims, as well as many Sikhs and Hindus, adopted by Europeans during British East India Company rule in India; the worldwide use of pajamas is the result of adoption by British colonists in India in the 18th and 19th centuries, the British influence on the wider Western world during the Victorian era. Pajamas had been introduced to England as "lounging attire" as early as the seventeenth century known as mogul's breeches but they soon fell out of fashion.
The word pajama is recorded in English use in the first half of the nineteenth century. They did not become a fashion in Britain and the Western world as sleeping attire for men until the Victorian period, from about 1870. Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases summarizes the state of usage at the time: Such a garment is used by various persons in India e.g. by women of various classes, by Sikh men, most by Mohammedans of both sexes. It was adopted from the Mohammedans by Europeans as an article of dishabille and of night attire, is synonymous with Long Drawers and Mogul-Breeches It is probable that we English took the habit like a good many others from the Portuguese, thus Pyrard says, in speaking of Goa Hospital: "Ils ont force calsons sans quoy ne couchent iamais les Portugais des Indes" The word is now used in London shops. A friend furnishes the following reminiscence: "The late Mr. B—, tailor in Jermyn Street, some on 40 years ago, in reply to a question why pyjammas had feet sewn on to them answered: "I believe, Sir, it is because of the White Ants."
Traditional pajamas consist of a jacket-and-pants combination made of soft fabric, such as flannel or lightweight cotton. The jacket element has a placket front and its sleeves have no cuffs. Many people opt to sleep or lounge in just the pajama pants, either with a t-shirt, or, for males, barechested. For this reason, pajama pants for men and boys are sold as separates. In colloquial speech, these traditional pajamas are called PJs, jim jams, or jammies. In South Asia and South Africa, they are sometimes referred to as night suits; some pajamas feature a drop seat: a buttoned opening in the seat, designed to allow the wearer to conveniently use a toilet. Drop seats were common on pajamas made before the 1950s, but in the early twenty-first century they are rather rare. Contemporary pajamas are derived from traditional pajamas. There are many variations in style such as short sleeve pajamas, pajama bottoms of varying length, or, on occasion, one-piece pajamas, pajamas incorporating various materials.
Chiefly in the US, stretch-knit sleep apparel with rib-knit trimmings are common. Worn by children, these garments have pullover tops or have zippers down the fronts, may be footed, although some would consider this to constitute a onesie. Although pajamas are distinguished from non-bifurcated sleeping garments such as nightgowns, in the US, they have sometimes included the latter as a top. Babydoll pyjamas have a kind of short dress top over short pants. Pajamas may today refer to women's combination daywear in the US where they became popular in the early twentieth century, consisting of short-sleeved or sleeveless blouses and lightweight pants. Examples of these include capri pajamas, beach pajamas, hostess pajamas. Pajamas are loose fitting and designed for comfort, using soft materials such as cotton or silk or satin. Synthetic materials such as polyester and Lycra are available. Pajamas contain visual references to a thing that may hold some special appeal to the wearer. Images of sports, balloons, polka dots, stripes, foulards and other motifs may all be used for decoration.
Pajamas may be found in plainer designs, such as plaid or plain gray, but when worn in public, they are designed in such a way that makes their identity unambiguous. Older styles of children's pajamas have been depicted as having a square button-up flap covering the buttocks. Pajamas are worn with bare feet and sometimes without underwear, they are worn for comfort by individuals in their living quarters. Since the late 20th century, some people, in particular those in the US and to some extent Britain and Australia, Polynesians in New Zealand, have worn pajamas in public, whether for convenience or as a fashion statement. In January 2007, the gulf emirate Ras al-Khaimah introduced a strict dress code for all local government workers in order to prevent them from wearing pajamas to work. In January 2010, the Tesco supermarket in St Mellons, United Kingdom, started a ban on customers wearing pajamas. In January 2012, a local Dublin branch of the Government's Department of Social Protection advised that pajamas were not regarded as
Elite (video game)
Elite is a space trading video game and developed by David Braben and Ian Bell and published by Acornsoft for the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron computers in September 1984. Elite's open-ended game model, revolutionary 3D graphics led to it being ported to every contemporary home computer system, earned it a place as a classic and a genre maker in gaming history; the game's title derives from one of the player's goals of raising their combat rating to the exalted heights of "Elite". Elite was one of the first home computer games to use wire-frame 3D graphics with hidden line removal, it twitch gameplay aspects to the genre established by the 1974 game Star Trader. Another novelty was the inclusion of The Dark Wheel, a novella by Robert Holdstock which gave players insight into the moral and legal codes to which they might aspire; the game was followed by the sequels Frontier: Elite II in 1993, Frontier: First Encounters in 1995, which introduced Newtonian physics, realistic star systems and seamless freeform planetary landings.
A third sequel, Elite Dangerous, began crowdfunding in 2012 and was launched on 16 December 2014, following a period of semi-open testing. Elite proved hugely influential, serving as a model for other games including Wing Commander: Privateer, Grand Theft Auto, EVE Online, the X series and No Man's Sky. Non-Acorn versions were each first published by Imagineer. Subsequently, Frontier Developments has claimed the game to be a "Game by Frontier", to be part of its own back catalogue and all the rights to the game to have been owned by David Braben; the player controls the character "Commander Jameson", though the name can be changed each time the game is saved. The player starts at Lave Station with 100 credits and a armed trading ship, a Cobra Mark III. Most of the ships that the player encounters are named after snakes or other reptiles. Credits can be accumulated through a number of means; these include piracy, military missions, bounty hunting and asteroid mining. The money generated by these enterprises allows the player to upgrade their ship with enhancements such as better weapons, increased cargo capacity, an automated docking system, an extra energy bank and more.
In the game universe, stars have single planets, each with a space station in its orbit. Stars are always separated by interstellar distances untraversable using the ship's sublight engines. Travel between stars is accomplished by hyperspace jumps, is constrained to those within range of the limited fuel capacity of the ship's hyperdrive. Sublight fuel capacity is infinite. Fuel can be replenished after docking with a space station, which requires matching the ship's rotation to that of the station before entering the docking bay - a task that can be avoided by purchasing a docking computer. Equipment upgrades include a fuel scoop, which allows raw fuel to be skimmed from the surface of stars, described by the manual as "a dangerous and difficult activity", but in practice a simple process far easier than manually docking at a space station—and collecting free-floating cargo canisters and escape capsules liberated after the destruction of other ships. While making a hyperspace jump between star systems, the antagonistic Thargoid insect race may intercept the player half way, forcing the player's ship to remain in "witch-space" and do battle with their smaller invasion ships.
As the interrupted jump uses the full journey's fuel, the player may have insufficient fuel to subsequently jump to a nearby planet, trapping them in witch-space and they must use an escape capsule if owned, or abort the game and reload. An expensive one-shot galactic hyperspace upgrade permits travel between the eight galaxies of the game universe. There is little practical difference between the different galaxies. However, in some versions it is necessary to travel to at least the second galaxy to access the game's missions; the planetary layout of the galaxies is different, many players discovered trade runs between positioned planets with fortuitous economic combinations. Most versions of Elite included several optional missions for the Galactic Navy. One requires destroying a stolen experimental ship. Rewards differed depending on the mission - from cash, gems to esoteric hardware such as a cloaking device. According to Braben and Bell, Elite was inspired by a range of sources; the developers refer to 2001: A Space Odyssey, Star Wars, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and the original Battlestar Galactica as influences.
Braben cites the works of Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle, Arthur C. Clarke, Robert L. Forward, Isaac Asimov and Orson Scott Card, it was thought that much of the game's content was derived from the Traveller tabletop role-playing game, including the default commander name Jameson, but David Braben has denied this several times. When the developers met at Jesus College, Bell was working on a game for Acornsoft called Freefall. Braben had started writing a game called Fighter; the two projects were sufficiently similar that Braben and Bell compared notes, after seeing Star Raiders on the Atari 800 they decided to collaborate to produce what became Elite. They first approached Thorn EMI. Braben and Bell met with Acornsoft.