Pylon (architecture)

Pylon is the Greek term for a monumental gateway of an Egyptian temple. It consists of two tapering towers, each surmounted by a cornice, joined by a less elevated section which encloses the entrance between them; the entrance was about half the height of the towers. Contemporary paintings of pylons show them with long poles flying banners. In ancient Egyptian theology, the pylon mirrored the hieroglyph for'horizon' or akhet, a depiction of two hills "between which the sun rose and set." It played a critical role in the symbolic architecture of a cult building, associated with the place of recreation and rebirth. Pylons were decorated with scenes emphasizing a king's authority since it was the public face of a cult building. On the first pylon of the temple of Isis at Philae, the pharaoh is shown slaying his enemies while Isis and Hathor look on. Other examples of pylons can be seen in Edfu. Rituals to the god Amun who became identified with the sun god Ra were carried out on the top of temple pylons.

In addition to standard vertical grooves on the exterior face of a pylon wall which were designed to hold flag poles, some pylons contained internal stairways and rooms. The oldest intact pylons belong to mortuary temples from the 13th and 12th century BCE Ramessside period. A pair of obelisks stood in front of a pylon. A single stone pillar standing at the Propylaea of the Acropolis in Athens is known as the pylon. Both Classical Revival and Egyptian Revival architecture employ the pylon form, with Boodle's gentleman's club in London being an example of the Classical style; the 19th and 20th centuries saw pylon architecture employed for bridge building with the Sydney Harbour Bridge being one of the largest examples. In 1928 a Pylon was erected by public subscription to commemorate the extension of the County Borough of Brighton on 1 April of that same year; the two stone towers known locally as "the Pylons" still stand and are visible to travellers on either carriageway of the A23. The Patcham Pylon towers flank the southbound carriageway of the A23 just outside the city of Brighton and Hove and are listed Grade II: of special interest warranting every effort to preserve them.

Many cathedrals have a similar western end, such as Elgin Cathedral. Obelisk Karnak Media related to Pylons at Wikimedia Commons Second Pylon Karnak

Ogmore Castle

Ogmore Castle is a Grade I listed castle ruin located near the village of Ogmore-by-Sea, south of the town of Bridgend in Glamorgan, South Wales. It is situated on the east bank of the River Ogmore, its construction might have begun in 1106. Ogmore was one of three castles built in the area in the early 12th century, the others being Coity Castle and Newcastle Castle, it was in use until the 19th century for a range of purposes, including a court of justice and a prison, but is now a substantial set of remains and a local landmark. It is managed by local authorities; when John Leland wrote his Itinerary, he referred to this fortress as "Ogor Castelle". The name comes from the River Ogmore. Construction of Ogmore Castle might have started around 1106, its foundation predating the Norman conquest. In Caradoc of Llancarfan's The historie of Cambria, now called Wales: a part of the most famous yland of Brytaine, Caradoc wrote that the manor and castle were given to William de Londres, one of the legendary Twelve Knights of Glamorgan, by Robert Fitzhamon, the Norman conqueror of Glamorgan.

In 1116, William de Londres was forced to abandon the castle. His butler, Arnold, is credited with protecting the castle from the Welsh attack during the absence of William de Londres, for this, he was knighted Sir Arnold Butler receiving the castle and manor of Dunraven as reward. According to the custom of the times, the founding of a religious institution followed the acquisition of power. William de Londres, or his descendant John, built Ewenny Abbey 1 mile from the castle. Nearby was a religious place appended to Ogmore Castle by Morris de Londres or his descendant John, in 1141; when Thomas' heiress married into the Chaworth family of Kidwelly, the lands passed in 1298 to the first Duke of Lancaster, ownership remains in the hands of the Duchy of Lancaster to this day. The earthworks were steeply banked and oval in shape, enclosing an area of 164 feet in length by 115 feet in width; the inner ward was flat and constructed of timber structures. After completion of the ringwork, the building material was stone.

The windows were round-headed with Sutton stone ashlar. The first-floor great hall had an ornate fireplace. William's son Maurice is credited with building the oblong keep. Situated north of the main gateway, the keep was the first masonry building and was built in the 1120s, it is both the castle's tallest surviving building, one of the oldest buildings in South Wales. Though only three of the original walls survive, their structure is characterized by irregularly shaped field stones, glacial pebbles, Lias limestone slabs, brown mortar. Thomas de Londres replaced a timber palisade with a stone wall in around 1200. In the early 13th century, a second storey was added. Garderobes were featured on two levels and a latrine tower was part of the exterior. A well-preserved lime kiln was built over an indeterminate 13th-century structure. Subsequently, a courthouse dating to the 14th century and rebuilt in the mid-15th century, was the third building to occupy the same spot; the building was flanked by two chambers.

Having sustained damage during Owain Glyndŵr's revolt, a new courthouse, situated in the castle's outer bailey, was built in 1454 and was in use until at least 1631. The present-day castle remains consist of the keep and some outer walls. A deep, rock-cut ditch surrounded the castle grounds, which were dry except when the River Ewenny flooded the area during high tide. While the ditch that enclosed the castle's inner bailey filled at high tide, the flow was regulated by an embedded stone wall that blocked rising waters so that the interior of the castle did not flood. Looking towards the sea from the castle ruins, the view includes sandhills that proceed up the coast nearly as far as the town of Briton Ferry. Opposite from Ogmore Castle is Merthyr Mawr. Near the castle are a popular set of stepping stones across the river which are a Scheduled Ancient Monument. A short distance to the southeast are several shallows filled with water that are said to have sunk spontaneously. One of them is circular, measuring 7 feet in diameter.

The ghost Y Ladi Wen purportedly guards the castle's treasure and Lady Wen's revenge was said to fall on the person who died prior to disclosing hidden treasure. List of castles in Wales Castles in Great Britain and Ireland Castles of Wales website Anglo-Norman Castles website photos of Ogmore Castle BBC Wales panoramic of the castle Map sources for Ogmore Castle

Tongxiao Shrine

The Tongxiao Shrine is a shrine in Tongxiao Township, Miaoli County, Taiwan. The shrine was built in 1937 during the Japanese rule of Taiwan. After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China, the main hall of the shrine was renovated by Tongxiao Mayor into the Tongxiao Zhonglie Shrine in 1947 for people to honor the fallen Republic of China Armed Forces in World War II; the shrine was damaged by the Jiji earthquake in 1999. In 2002, the government restored it; the shrine is accessible within walking distance north east of Tongxiao Station of Taiwan Railways. List of tourist attractions in Taiwan