South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Dr. Slump is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama, it was serialized in Shueisha's anthology magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump from 1980 to 1984, with the chapters collected into 18 tankōbon volumes. The series follows the humorous adventures of the little girl robot Arale Norimaki, her creator Senbei Norimaki, the other residents of the bizarre Penguin Village; the manga was adapted into an anime television series by Toei Animation that ran on Fuji TV from 1981 to 1986 consisting of 243 episodes. A remake series was created thirteen years after the manga ended, consisting of 74 episodes that were broadcast from 1997 to 1999; the series has spawned several novels, video games and eleven animated films. Dr. Slump launched Toriyama's career, it was awarded the Shogakukan Manga Award for shōnen and shōjo manga in 1981 and has sold over 35 million copies in Japan. The manga was released in North America by Viz Media from 2004 to 2009. Discotek Media released the first five films in North America in 2014.
Dr. Slump is set in Penguin Village, a place where humans co-exist with all sorts of anthropomorphic animals and other objects. In this village lives Senbei Norimaki, an inventor. In the first chapter, he builds what he hopes will be the world's most perfect little girl robot, named Arale Norimaki. However, she turns out to be in severe need of eyeglasses, she is very naïve, in issues she has adventures such as bringing a huge bear home, having mistaken it for a pet. To Senbei's credit, she does have super-strength. In general, the manga focuses on Arale's misunderstandings of humanity and Senbei's inventions and romantic misadventures. In the middle of the series, a recurring villain named. Dr. Slump is filled with puns and toilet humor, parodies of both Japanese and American culture. For example, one of the recurring characters is Suppaman, a short, pompous buffoon who changes into a Superman-like alter-ego by eating a sour-tasting umeboshi. Unlike Superman, Suppaman cannot fly, instead pretends to fly by lying belly down on a skateboard and scooting through the streets.
One of the village's policemen wears a Star Wars-style stormtrooper helmet, just as in the American movies. Toriyama himself has been portrayed as a bird, although it has been suggested that he based the design of Senbei on himself. In addition, other real-life people make appearances as well, such as Toriyama's editor, wife, his colleague friends and others. With Toriyama a newcomer to manga and his editor Kazuhiko Torishima still new at his job as well, the two worked for 18 months with Torishima rejecting all the author's ideas until the first draft of Dr. Slump. One of these rejected Ageha-chō Kansatsu Nikki, served as a basis for Dr. Slump. Toriyama drew several short omake included in the Dr. Slump tankōbon volumes that depict actual events on the production of the series, although, as they are humorous, the level of truthfulness to them is uncertain. In one, he claimed that when he told Torishima that he wanted to make a manga about a doctor, the editor told him to add a robot. Toriyama wanted a large robot, but as it would not fit in the panels, he instead made it small.
When Torishima rejected that idea, he made the robot a girl, knowing Torishima would find her "cute". He stated that Senbei was supposed to be the main character, but his editor told him to make it Arale instead, which Toriyama agrees turned out better; the act of having Senbei and Midori get married came from having nothing else to draw that week, it happened because he does not like romance. He went on to state that Torishima does enjoy romance, that the relationships of Arale and Obotchaman and Tsukutsun, Taro and Tsururin were all Torishima's ideas. Toriyama did not expect Dr. Slump to last long, as before it debuted Torishima was asking him what he would draw for his next series. However, it lasted for five years; when Toriyama began Dr. Slump, he worked at home, where he lived with his parents, had one assistant who worked one day a week. Toriyama has said several times that he would not have any ideas for the story for that week's chapter, but would think up something as soon as Torishima called asking.
He thought up each week's story as he drew and sent the rough draft to Torishima at Weekly Shōnen Jump headquarters in Tokyo by air courier from Nagoya Airport. After getting the approval of his editor, he began by drawing the lines that stick out of the frames the frames themselves, before using a g-pen to draw clear crisp lines at one page an hour. After he had around eight pages finished, his assistant Hisashi Tanaka came over, although Toriyama stated he only allowed him to color. For color pages, Toriyama first drew them with permanent ink and used water-soluble color pens, before touching up with a wet brush. In serialization, Takashi Matsuyama became his assistant when Hiswashi started his own series, although Hiswashi still helped out, as did Toriyama's wife when they were close to a deadline. In 2016, Torishima said that although Dr. Slump was successful, having debuted at number two in the magazine's reader rankings, Toriyama wanted to stop it after about six months, he explained that because it was a self-contained comedy each week, if something did not work, the author had to change everything.
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
Eric Sykes was an English radio, stage and film writer, comedian and director whose performing career spanned more than 50 years. He wrote for and performed with many other leading comedy performers and writers of the period, including Tony Hancock, Spike Milligan, Tommy Cooper, Peter Sellers, John Antrobus, Johnny Speight. Sykes first came to prominence through his many radio credits as a writer and actor in the 1950s, most notably through his collaboration on The Goon Show scripts, he became a TV star in his own right in the early 1960s when he appeared with Hattie Jacques in several popular BBC comedy television series. Sykes was born on 4 May 1923 in Lancashire, he was the second child of his parents' marriage. Sykes's father was a labourer in a former army sergeant; when Sykes was two, his father remarried and he gained a half-brother named John. Sykes was educated at Ward Street Central School in Oldham, he joined the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, qualifying as a wireless operator with the rank of leading aircraftman.
Sykes's entertainment career began during the Second World War while serving in a Special Liaison Unit, when he met and worked with Flight Lieutenant Bill Fraser. Sykes collaborated with fellow RAF servicemen Denis Norden and Ron Rich in the production of troop entertainment shows. Whilst preparing for one of these shows in 1945, accompanied by Norden and Rich, went to a nearby prison camp in search of stage lighting. Sykes and Rich organised a food collection amongst their comrades to feed the starving camp inmates; when the war ended Sykes decided to try his luck in London, arriving in the middle of the coldest winter in living memory. He rented lodgings, expecting to find work but by the end of the first week he was cold and penniless; the turning point in his life and career came on the Friday night of his first week in London: he had a chance meeting in the street with Bill Fraser, by now featuring in a comedy at the Playhouse Theatre. Fraser took the impoverished Sykes to the theatre, offered him food and drink, asked if Sykes would like to write for him.
Sykes began providing scripts for both Fraser and Frankie Howerd and soon found himself in demand as a comedy writer. Forming a partnership with Sid Colin, he worked on the BBC radio ventriloquism show Educating Archie, which began in 1950, Variety Bandbox. Working on Educating Archie led to him meeting Hattie Jacques for the first time. Sykes had begun to write for television as early as 1948, but from the early 1950s Sykes began to make an successful transition from radio to TV, writing a number of series episodes and one-off shows for the BBC, his credits in this period include The Howerd Crowd, Frankie Howerd's Korean Party, Nuts in May, The Frankie Howerd Show, as well as The Big Man starring Fred Emney and Edwin Styles. Sykes made his first screen appearance at this time in the army film comedy Orders Are Orders, which featured Sid James, Tony Hancock, Peter Sellers, Bill Fraser, Donald Pleasence. Sykes's small office above a grocer's shop at 130 Uxbridge Road, Shepherd's Bush, was shared from around 1953 by Spike Milligan..
Late in 1954, Sykes began collaborating with Spike Milligan on scripts for The Goon Show, easing Milligan's workload. Their first collaborative script was for a Goon Show special called Archie in Goonland, a crossover between The Goon Show and Educating Archie; the special was broadcast in June 1954 and featured the regular Goon Show cast plus Peter Brough, his dummy Archie Andrews and Hattie Jacques. It was not a success and neither recording nor the script has survived. Sykes and Milligan are credited as the co-writers of all but the first six of the 26 episodes in Series 5 and three episodes of Series 6. In 1955, Sykes wrote and performed in a BBC Christmas spectacular, a spoof pantomime called Pantomania, which featured many well-known BBC personalities of the era; that same year Sykes signed a contract as scriptwriter and variety show presenter for the newly formed independent television company ATV, while continuing to write and perform for the BBC. In 1956, Sykes performed, wrote scripts, acted as script editor for the pioneering Rediffusion TV comedy The Idiot Weekly, Price 2d, the first attempt to translate the humour of the Goons to television.
It starred Peter Sellers, with Sykes, Kenneth Connor, Valentine Dyall. During this year he made his second film appearance, playing a minor role in the Max Bygraves film Charley Moon, which featured Bill Fraser, Peter Jones, Dennis Price, Jane Asher. During 1956–57, Sykes wrote for and performed in The Tony Hancock Show, where he again worked with Hattie Jacques, his next venture for the BBC was a one-hour special, Sykes Directs a Dress Rehearsal, playing a harassed director in a fictional TV studio rehearsal room, just before going live to air. That year he wrote and appeared in another all-star spectacular called Opening Night
Adam Michael Rodriguez is an American actor and director. He became, he is portraying Task Force Agent and the newest recruit to the BAU, Agent Luke Alvez in Criminal Minds. Rodriguez was born in Yonkers, New York, the son of Janet, an airline ticket agent, Ramon Rodríguez, an executive with the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, his father is of half Puerto Rican and half Cuban descent, his mother is of Puerto Rican ancestry. He attended Clarkstown High School North in New City, New York, where he graduated with the class of 1993. Rodriguez had hoped to be a professional baseball player, but after a high school injury, he turned his attention to acting and performed in a children's theater in New York. Prior to full-time acting, he was a stockbroker. Rodriguez has appeared in commercials, including one for Coca-Cola, his first film appearance was as an extra in The X-Files. He appeared on Brooklyn South, Law & Order, Roswell, NYPD Blue, he has appeared in a number of music videos, including Jennifer Lopez's 1999 video, "If You Had My Love", Busta Rhymes' "Respect My Conglomerate", Lionel Richie's "I Call It Love", opposite Nicole Richie, Melanie Fiona's "It Kills Me", 50 Cent's "Many Men", alongside Rory Cochrane, Wisin & Yandel's No Dejemos Que Se Apague.
He was a participant in the pro-Obama video, Yes We Can. He joined the main cast of CSI: Miami which premiered in 2002 and directed and wrote the episode "Hunting Ground", he left the main cast 5 episodes into Season 8 and was credited as a recurring cast member for 8 episodes. In Season 9, he returned to the main cast until the show ended with season 10 in 2012. Rodriguez starred in the 2009 Tyler Perry movie I Can Do Bad All By Myself as Sandino, alongside Taraji P. Henson. Rodriguez co-starred in a smaller film called Love and Debate, he played Hilda's love interest in season 4 of Ugly Betty. He splits his time between New York and Los Angeles, has a third residence in Puerto Rico, he appeared in Let The Game Magic Mike. In 2015, he played the recurring role of Dr. Chavez in the second season of The Night Shift. Rodriguez was on the cover of H mag on April 2012, photographed by Joey Shaw. In 2016, Rodriguez was cast as Luke Alvez, an FBI Fugitive Task Force Agent who joins the Behavioral Analysis Unit in the twelfth season of Criminal Minds, replacing Shemar Moore.
Adam Rodriguez profile, cbs.com. Adam Rodriguez on IMDb
CSI: Miami is an American police procedural drama television series that premiered on September 23, 2002, on CBS. Starring David Caruso as Lieutenant Horatio Caine, Emily Procter as Detective Calleigh Duquesne, Kim Delaney as Lieutenant Megan Donner, the series is the first direct spin-off of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, "transplanting the same template and trickery—gory crimes, procedural plot and dazzling graphics—into while retaining the essence of the original idea". CSI: Miami is executive produced by Carol Mendelsohn, Anthony E. Zuiker, Ann Donahue, with the latter acting as show-runner; the series ended on April 2012, after 10 seasons and 232 episodes. Following the series finale, Nina Tassler credited CSI: Miami as a "key player in CBS's rise to the top", stating that the series "leaves an amazing television legacy—a signature look and style global popularity". In 2006, BBC News published an article stating that CSI: Miami was the world's most popular television series, featuring in more countries' top ten rankings for 2005 than any other series.
CSI: Miami follows a group of detectives assigned to the Miami-Dade Police Department's Crime Scene Investigations, an elite unit operating out of the "Miami Dade police headquarters, with its eerie blue light and flickering screens". The team is led by Lieutenant Horatio Caine, through his history as a bomb-disposal expert, has gained specialized knowledge in explosive forensics. Horatio believes that "evil is" and lives "between the perpetrators of this evil and the people who try and come between that evil and the citizen". In his pursuit of justice, he has proven that "he can handle himself on the street and he's not a person to be messed with"The New York Sun has described Caine as an amalgam of "the spirits of all the laconic American law men who preceded him", while The New York Post describes Caine's partner Detective Calleigh Duquesne as "a bilingual Southern beauty with a specialty in ballistics". Together and Calleigh head a team of forensic investigators that includes Lieutenant Megan Donner, conceived as "a strong woman duplicate the chemistry that Caruso displayed with Marg Helgenberger" during Cross Jurisdictions, Detective Eric Delko, an underwater recovery expert, Walter Simmons, a Detective who forces the "CSIs to do more science and research instead of relying on databases", Los Angeles Police-transfer Jesse Cardoza, former FBI agent Natalia Boa Vista, Ryan Wolfe, a master of genetics recruited following the death of Detective Timothy Speedle.
The team are assisted by Medical Examiner Alexx Woods, who began her career as Medical Examiner in New York, her replacement Tara Price, Miami Dade Police Sergeant Frank Tripp, Horatio's sister-in-law, Detective Yelina Salas. During their investigations, the team cooperate with both allies and nemeses, including Internal Affairs Lieutenant Rick Stetler, States Attorney Rebecca Nevins, Medical Examiner Tom Loman, newly minted detective Sam Owens. On April 17, 2002, CBS Television Studios announced plans to launch a series titled CSI: Miami-Dade, a spin-off to the hit procedural CSI. On the location choice, co-creator Carol Mendelsohn stated that " felt Miami was the most happening place Miami is so rich as a character. There is so much water. There are so many different cultures here all colliding, its politics are so interesting. All that gives Miami an edge."CBS ordered 22 episodes of the series, with Anthony Zuiker stating that whilst he intended for the series to look "ridiculously gorgeous", he felt that the "show not about women walking around in bikinis.
It's about science." The series was launched as a second-season episode of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, featured a cast led by David Caruso, Emily Procter, Adam Rodriguez, Khandi Alexander, with Rory Cochrane. Kim Delaney joined the series following the pilot episode's broadcast; the series is executive produced by creators Carol Mendelsohn, Anthony E. Zuiker, Ann Donahue, with Ann Donahue acting as show-runner. Jerry Bruckheimer executive-produces the series. CSI: Crime Scene Investigation stars William Petersen and Marg Helgenberger expressed their displeasure at CBS' launch of Miami, with Petersen stating that " should have waited five years for a CSI spinoff." Helgenberger supported Petersen's comments during an Emmy acceptance speech, noting that "as far as concerned, there’s only one CSI." Petersen jestingly referred to the series NYPDCSI, as it featured both David Caruso and Kim Delaney, of NYPD Blue fame. In 2002, CSI executive producer Anthony Zuiker began casting for the then-unnamed Miami based spin-off.
First cast was Emily Procter, as Calleigh Duquesne. Regarding her decision to leave The West Wing and join Miami, Procter stated that "It was like choosing between a boyfriend that wants to be with you casually or a man that says I love you." She described her character as "a weird girl bright and nerdy. She looks like a hippie. I just like to pretend I'm Velma in Scooby-Doo."Adam Rodriguez, Rory Cochrane, Khandi Alexander were cast alongside Procter, completing the supporting ensemble. For the lead, CBS suggested David Caruso. Zuiker, who stated that he had "heard about the NYPD Blue thing", was hesitant. Elaborating, Zuiker stated that he "sort of jumped in and said,'Naw, I don't know about this guy; the show's tough eno
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea