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Pyrénées – Mont Perdu World Heritage Site

The PyrénéesMont Perdu World Heritage Site is a World Heritage site straddling the border between Spain and France in the Pyrenees mountain chain. The summit of Monte Perdido is on the Spanish side of the border; the site was designated in 1997 and extended north in 1999 to include the Commune of Gèdre in France. The site includes two bordering national parks: the entire Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park in Spain and the eastern part of Pyrénées Occidentales National Park in France; the World Heritage site comprises a total area of 30,639 hectares. UNESCO Pyrénées - Mont Perdu unesco.org, retrieved 2013-08-20 "UNESCO Patrimonio Mundial Pirineos – Monte Perdido " mcu.es, retrieved 2013-08-20 MPPM - Monte Perdido Patrimonio Mundial mppm.org, retrieved 2013-08-20

Chameleon Circuit (band)

Chameleon Circuit was a band known for creating music inspired by the British television series Doctor Who. Composed of popular UK YouTube vloggers and Doctor Who fans, the band released their self-titled debut album on 1 June 2009. At the beginning of 2011, Chameleon Circuit, in their new line-up of Alex Day, Charlie McDonnell, Liam Dryden, Ed Blann and American YouTuber Michael Aranda, began work on their second album Still Got Legs, it was released on 12 July 2011. and charted on the UK iTunes Album and Rock Album charts, on the Billboard Heatseekers chart in the United States at #23. Inspired by the growing phenomenon of Wizard rock, Alex Day, a YouTuber and fan of Doctor Who, was inspired to begin writing songs about the TV series in summer 2008, dubbed the resulting genre "Time Lord Rock". Charlie McDonnell a fan, did the same, released an acoustic video performance of "Blink" - based on the episode of the same name - on YouTube. With the addition of Scottish vloggers Liam Dryden and Chris Beattie, Chameleon Circuit were formed and began work on their first album.

It was arranged to be released under the newly founded DFTBA Records, set up by Alan Lastufka and Hank Green the same year, to provide popular YouTube musicians an outlet for releasing their music professionally. The release of Chameleon Circuit's debut album was delayed when conflict arose with their original producer, who did not want to complete production of the album. After unsuccessfully searching for a replacement producer, Chameleon Circuit were forced to release Chameleon Circuit uncompleted. Regardless, it still received some critical acclaim, including a positive review on Den of Geek and an article in Doctor Who Magazine. Former Doctor David Tennant, in an interview, described Chameleon Circuit as "proper decent music". In July 2010, their song "Count the Shadows" appeared on DFTBA Records, Volume Two, a compilation sampler, given for free in grab bags at VidCon 2010. In late 2010, the members of Chameleon Circuit announced that work had begun on their second album, with American YouTuber Michael Aranda working as producer.

In January 2011, Chameleon Circuit announced the departure of Chris Beattie and the addition of Ed Blann to the band, as well as the album title, Still Got Legs. In April 2011 Chameleon Circuit found themselves struggling with producer trouble when Aranda was refused entry back into the UK by border officials after a trip to France; the band set up an online petition to help him re-enter England, were successful. Aranda was granted a week's re-entry to the UK. Meanwhile, drink company Red Bull were made aware of Chameleon Circuit's predicament and offered to send the band to Paris to complete their recording. Following this incident, Aranda was announced an official member of the band. Chameleon Circuit finished their recording and played the album to a small number of fans at Red Bull's London studio in June 2011; the album was made available for pre-order the same weekend, was released via DFTBA on 12 July 2011. The album charted on the Billboard Heatseekers chart at #23. On 31 July, Chameleon Circuit performed songs from Still Got Legs as well as a few from their first album, in a live show at VidCon 2011.

As a part of YouTube's Geek Week in August 2013, Chameleon Circuit released their music video for their track "Teenage Rebel", filmed in the set of the TARDIS used in the TV series. A second video for "The Doctor Is Dying" was released by the band in November 2013 as a part of BBC America and Nerdist's "Doctor Who Week", an event that took place on YouTube in the week building up to Doctor Who's 50th Anniversary Special; the band were heavily featured in "The Story Of Trock", a radio episode played on BBC Radio 1 on November 25th. The band provided interviews for the episode and songs from their discography comprised the bulk of its soundtrack. In January 2014, in response to a question from a fan on his Tumblr blog, Alex Day confirmed that Ed Blann had decided to leave the band. After the public condemnation of Day following his admission to entering into manipulative relationships with women, the band began an unannounced hiatus and has not announced any plans to continue in the future. Charlie McDonnellvocals, ukulele, melodica, stylophone Liam Dryden – vocals, bass Michael Aranda – backing vocals, bass, drums, turntables, sampling Chris Beattie – vocals, ukulele Ed Blann – vocals, guitar Alex Day – vocals, bass Chameleon Circuit on DFTBA Records Chameleon Circuit on Facebook Chameleon Circuit on Twitter

History of the New York City Subway

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system that serves four of the five boroughs of New York City, New York: the Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. Its operator is the New York City Transit Authority, controlled by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority of New York. In 2016, an average of 5.66 million passengers used the system daily, making it the busiest rapid transit system in the United States and the seventh busiest in the world. The first underground line opened on October 27, 1904 35 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line. By the time the first subway opened, the lines had been consolidated into two owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. After 1913, all lines built for the IRT and most lines for the BRT were built by the city and leased to the companies; the first line of the city-owned and operated Independent Subway System opened in 1932. However, it was kept within the core of the city because of the low amount of startup capital provided to the municipal Board of Transportation by the state.

This required it to be run "at cost", necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time. In 1940, the city took over running the privately operated systems; some elevated lines closed while others closed soon after. Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT, which now operate as one division called the B Division. Since IRT infrastructure is too small for B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division; the NYCTA, a public authority presided over by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway and streetcar operations from the city. The NYCTA was under control of the state-level MTA in 1968. Soon after the MTA took control of the subway, New York City entered a fiscal crisis, it closed many elevated subway lines. Graffiti and crime became common, equipment and stations fell into decrepit condition; the New York City Subway tried to stay solvent, so it had to make many service cutbacks and defer necessary maintenance projects.

In the 1980s an $18 billion financing program for the rehabilitation of the subway began. The September 11 attacks resulted in service disruptions on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, which ran directly underneath the World Trade Center. Sections of the tunnel, as well as the Cortlandt Street station, directly underneath the Twin Towers, were damaged and had to be rebuilt, requiring suspension of service on that line south of Chambers Street. Ten other nearby stations were temporarily closed. By March 2002, seven of those stations had reopened; the rest reopened on September 2002, along with service south of Chambers Street. Since the 2000s, expansions include the 7 Subway Extension that opened in September 2015, the Second Avenue Subway, the first phase of which opened on January 1, 2017. However, at the same time, under-investment in the subway system led to a transit crisis that peaked in 2017. Though there was an earlier, underground railroad called the Atlantic Avenue Tunnel since 1844, it had no underground subway stops.

Construction of this tunnel, built to create a grade-separated right of way for the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad, began in May 1844, the tunnel was open by December 1844. This led to South Ferry at the foot of Atlantic Avenue, where passengers could catch ferries to Manhattan; this extension, running under Cobble Hill, was closed by 1861. The tunnel was reopened for tourism in 1982, closed again in 2010; the beginnings of the actual Subway came from various excursion railroads to Coney Island and elevated railroads in Manhattan and Brooklyn. At that time, New York County, Kings County, Queens County were separate municipal entities. Competing steam-powered elevated railroads were built over major avenues; the first elevated line was constructed in 1867-1870 by Charles Harvey and his West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway company along Greenwich Street and Ninth Avenue. More lines were built on Second and Sixth Avenues. None of these structures remain today, but these lines shared trackage with subway trains as part of the IRT system.

In Kings County, elevated railroads were built by several companies, over Lexington, Myrtle and Fifth Avenues, Fulton Street and Broadway. These later shared trackage with subway trains, operated into the subway, as part of the BRT and BMT. Most of these structures have been dismantled; these lines were linked to Manhattan by various ferries and the tracks along the Brooklyn Bridge. In Kings County, six steam excursion railroads were built to various beaches in the southern part of the county; the Beach Pneumatic Transit was the first attempt to build an underground public transit system in New York City. In 1869, Alfred Ely Beach and his Beach Pneumatic Transit Company of New York began constructing a pneumatic subway line beneath Broadway. Funneled through a company he set up, Beach put up $350