National Geographic is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded, it contains articles about science, geography and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by The Walt Disney Company since 2019; the magazine is published monthly, additional map supplements are included with subscriptions. It is available through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued; as of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Goldberg is Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to CEO of National Geographic Partners; the first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, became well known for this style; the June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.
National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was closed. In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine, it was sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation; the magazine prevailed in the dispute, in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was updated to make more recent issues available, the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers. On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.
In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners. The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief"; the list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980. John Hyde Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor John Oliver LaGorce Melville Bell Grosvenor Frederick Vosburgh Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Wilbur E. Garrett William Graves William L. Allen Chris Johns Susan Goldberg During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain; the magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.
There were many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. There were articles about biology and science topics. In years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, chemical pollution, global warming, endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, food crop, o
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
The white-toothed shrews or Crocidurinae are one of three subfamilies of the shrew family Soricidae. The outer layer of these shrews' teeth is white, unlike that of the red-toothed shrews; these species are found in Africa and southern Europe and Asia. This subfamily includes the largest shrew, the Asian house shrew, at about 15 cm in length, the smallest, the Etruscan shrew, at about 3.5 cm in length and 2 grams in weight. Shrews are the world's smallest extant mammal. Crocidura contains the most species of any mammal genus; when young must be moved before they are independent and young form a chain or "caravan" where each animal hangs on to the rear of the one in front. This behaviour has been observed in some Sorex species. Subfamily Crocidurinae Genus Crocidura Cyrenaica shrew, Crocidura aleksandrisi East African highland shrew, Crocidura allex Andaman shrew, Crocidura andamanensis Ansell's shrew, Crocidura ansellorum Arabian shrew, Crocidura arabica Jackass shrew, Crocidura arispa Armenian shrew, Crocidura armenica Asian gray shrew, Crocidura attenuata Hun shrew, Crocidura attila Bailey's shrew, Crocidura baileyi Kinabalu shrew, Crocidura baluensis Batak shrew, Crocidura batakorum Bates's shrew, Crocidura batesi Mindanao shrew, Crocidura beatus Beccari's shrew, Crocidura beccarii Bottego's shrew, Crocidura bottegi Bale shrew, Crocidura bottegoides Thick-tailed shrew, Crocidura brunnea Buettikofer's shrew, Crocidura buettikoferi African dusky shrew, Crocidura caliginea Canarian shrew, Crocidura canariensis Caspian shrew, Crocidura caspica Cinderella shrew, Crocidura cinderella Congo white-toothed shrew, Crocidura congobelgica Long-footed shrew, Crocidura crenata Crosse's shrew, Crocidura crossei Reddish-gray musk shrew, Crocidura cyanea Dent's shrew, Crocidura denti Desperate shrew, Crocidura desperata Dhofar shrew, Crocidura dhofarensis Long-tailed musk shrew, Crocidura dolichura Doucet's musk shrew, Crocidura douceti Dsinezumi shrew, Crocidura dsinezumi Eisentraut's shrew, Crocidura eisentrauti Elgon shrew, Crocidura elgonius Elongated shrew, Crocidura elongata Heather shrew, Crocidura erica Fischer's shrew, Crocidura fischeri Greater red musk shrew, Crocidura flavescens Flower's shrew, Crocidura floweri Bornean shrew, Crocidura foetida Fox's shrew, Crocidura foxi Southeast Asian shrew, Crocidura fuliginosa Savanna shrew, Crocidura fulvastra Smoky white-toothed shrew, Crocidura fumosa Bicolored musk shrew, Crocidura fuscomurina Glass's shrew, Crocidura glassi Gmelin's white-toothed shrew, Crocidura gmelini Goliath shrew, Crocidura goliath Peters's musk shrew, Crocidura gracilipes Large-headed shrew, Crocidura grandiceps Greater Mindanao shrew, Crocidura grandis Grasse's shrew, Crocidura grassei Luzon shrew, Crocidura grayi Greenwood's shrew, Crocidura greenwoodi Crocidura guy Harenna shrew, Crocidura harenna Sri Lankan rain forest shrew, Crocidura hikmiya Hildegarde's shrew, Crocidura hildegardeae Hill's shrew, Crocidura hilliana Lesser red musk shrew, Crocidura hirta Andaman spiny shrew, Crocidura hispida Horsfield's shrew, Crocidura horsfieldii Hutan shrew, Crocidura hutanis North African white-toothed shrew, Crocidura ichnusae Indochinese shrew, Crocidura indochinensis Jackson's shrew, Crocidura jacksoni Jenkins' shrew, Crocidura jenkinsi Crocidura jouvenetae, Jouvenet's shrew Katinka's shrew, Crocidura katinka Crocidura kegoensis Kivu shrew, Crocidura kivuana Lamotte's shrew, Crocidura lamottei Kivu long-haired shrew, Crocidura lanosa Ussuri white-toothed shrew, Crocidura lasiura Latona's shrew, Crocidura latona Sulawesi shrew, Crocidura lea Sumatran giant shrew, Crocidura lepidura Bicolored shrew, Crocidura leucodon Sulawesi tiny shrew, Crocidura levicula Butiaba naked-tailed shrew, Crocidura littoralis Savanna swamp shrew, Crocidura longipes Lucina's shrew, Crocidura lucina Ludia's shrew, Crocidura ludia Moonshine shrew, Crocidura luna Mauritanian shrew, Crocidura lusitania MacArthur's shrew, Crocidura macarthuri MacMillan's shrew, Crocidura macmillani Nyiro shrew, Crocidura macowi Malayan shrew, Crocidura malayana Manenguba shrew, Crocidura manengubae Makwassie musk shrew, Crocidura maquassiensis Swamp musk shrew, Crocidura mariquensis Gracile naked-tailed shrew, Crocidura maurisca Javanese shrew, Crocidura maxi Mindoro shrew, Crocidura mindorus Sri Lankan long-tailed shrew, Crocidura miya Kilimanjaro shrew, Crocidura monax Sunda shrew, Crocidura monticola Montane white-toothed shrew, Crocidura montis West African long-tailed shrew, Crocidura muricauda Mossy forest shrew, Crocidura musseri Ugandan musk shrew, Crocidura mutesae Somali dwarf shrew, Crocidura nana Savanna dwarf shrew, Crocidura nanilla Peninsular shrew, Crocidura negligens Negros shrew, Crocidura negrina Nicobar shrew, Crocidura nicobarica Nigerian shrew, Crocidura nigeriae Blackish white-toothed shrew, Crocidura nigricans Black-footed shrew, Crocidura nigripes African black shrew, Crocidura nigrofusca Nimba shrew, Crocidura nimbae Niobe's shrew, Crocidura niobe West African pygmy shrew, Crocidura obscurior African giant shrew, Crocidura olivieri Oriental shrew, Crocidura orientalis Ryukyu shrew, Crocidura orii Palawan shrew, Crocidura palawanensis Panay shrew, Crocidura panayensis Sumatran long-tailed shrew, Crocidura paradoxura Small-footed shrew, Crocidura parvipes Sahelian tiny shrew, Crocidura pasha Pale gray shrew, Crocidura pergrisea Guramba shrew, Crocidura phaeura Crocidura phanluongi Crocidura phuquocensis Cameroonian shrew, Crocidura picea Pitman's shrew, Crocidura pitmani Flat-headed shrew, Crocidura planiceps Fraser's musk shrew, Crocidura poensis Polia's shrew, Crocidura polia Kashmir white-toothed shrew, Crocidura pullata Rainey's shrew, Crocidura raineyi Negev shrew, Crocidura ramona Chinese white-toothed shrew, Crocidura rapax Egyptian pygmy shrew, C
The Mindanao shrew is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae. It is endemic to the Philippines, its natural habitat is tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss
Johann Jakob Kaup
Johann Jakob von Kaup was a German naturalist. A proponent of natural philosophy, he believed in an innate mathematical order in nature and he attempted biological classifications based on the Quinarian system. Kaup is known for having coined popular prehistoric taxa like Pterosauria and Machairodus, he was born at Darmstadt. After studying at Göttingen and Heidelberg he spent two years at Leiden, where his attention was specially devoted to the amphibians and fishes, he returned to Darmstadt as an assistant in the grand ducal museum, of which in 1840 he became inspector. In 1829 he published Skizze zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der europäischen Thierwelt, in which he regarded the animal world as developed from lower to higher forms, from the amphibians through the birds to the beasts of prey; the extensive fossil deposits in the neighbourhood of Darmstadt gave him ample opportunities for palaeontological inquiries, he gained considerable reputation by his Beiträge zur näheren Kenntniss der urweltlichen Säugethiere.
He wrote Classification der Säugethiere und Vögel, with Heinrich Georg Bronn, Die Gavial-artigen Reste aus dem Lias. He died at Darmstadt. A important incident in the history of paleontology involves Kaup. In 1854 he bought the American mastodon found in 1799 in New York; this is the mastodon immortalized in Charles Willson Peale's painting of the 1801 excavation. This mastodon was on display for many years in Peale's Museum and is on display in Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Germany This mastodon is the first complete example found in the United States, may be only the second fossil animal mounted for display; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Kaup, Johann Jakob". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
An invasive species is a species, not native to a specific location, that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health. The criteria for invasive species has been controversial, as divergent perceptions exist among researchers as well as concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive". Several alternate usages of the term have been proposed; the term as most used applies to introduced species that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls; this includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant communities. It has been used in this sense by government organizations as well as conservation groups such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the California Native Plant Society.
The European Union defines "Invasive Alien Species" as those that are, outside their natural distribution area, secondly, threaten biological diversity. The term is used by land managers, researchers, horticulturalists and the public for noxious weeds; the kudzu vine, Andean pampas grass, yellow starthistle are examples. An alternate usage broadens the term to include indigenous or "native" species along with non-native species, that have colonized natural areas. Deer are an example, considered to be overpopulating their native zones and adjacent suburban gardens, by some in the Northeastern and Pacific Coast regions of the United States. Sometimes the term is used to describe a non-native or introduced species that has become widespread. However, not every introduced. A nonadverse example is the common goldfish, found throughout the United States, but achieves high densities. Notable examples of invasive species include European rabbits, grey squirrels, domestic cats and ferrets. Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not an anthropogenic phenomenon.
There are many mechanisms by which species from all Kingdoms have been able to travel across continents in short periods of time such as via floating rafts, or on wind currents. Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, performed many experiments to better understand long distance seed dispersal, was able to germinate seeds from insect frass, faeces of waterfowl, dirt clods on the feet of birds, all of which may have traveled significant distances under their own power, or be blown off course by thousands of miles. Invasion of long-established ecosystems by organisms from distant bio-regions is a natural phenomenon, accelerated via hominid-assisted migration although this has not been adequately directly measured; the definition of "native" is controversial in that there is no way to determine nativity. For example, the ancestors of Equus ferus evolved in North America and radiated to Eurasia before becoming locally extinct. Upon returning to North America in 1493 during their hominid-assisted migration, it is debatable as to whether they were native or exotic to the continent of their evolutionary ancestors.
Scientists include species and ecosystem factors among the mechanisms that, when combined, establish invasiveness in a newly introduced species. While all species compete to survive, invasive species appear to have specific traits or specific combinations of traits that allow them to outcompete native species. In some cases, the competition is about rates of reproduction. In other cases, species interact with each other more directly. Researchers disagree about the usefulness of traits as invasiveness markers. One study found that of a list of invasive and noninvasive species, 86% of the invasive species could be identified from the traits alone. Another study found invasive species tended to have only a small subset of the presumed traits and that many similar traits were found in noninvasive species, requiring other explanations. Common invasive species traits include the following: Fast growth Rapid reproduction High dispersal ability Phenotype plasticity Tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions Ability to live off of a wide range of food types Association with humans Prior successful invasionsTypically, an introduced species must survive at low population densities before it becomes invasive in a new location.
At low population densities, it can be difficult for the introduced species to reproduce and maintain itself in a new location, so a species might reach a location multiple times before it becomes established. Repeated patterns of human movement, such as ships sailing to and from ports or cars driving up and down highways offer repeated opportunities for establishment. An introduced species might become invasive if it can outcompete native species for resources such as nutrients, physical space, water, or food. If these species evolved under great competition or predation the new environment may host fewer able competitors, allowing the invader to proliferate quickly. Ecosystems which are being used to their fullest capacity by native species can be modeled as zero-sum systems in which any gain for the invader is a loss for the native. However, su
Eulipotyphla is an order of mammals suggested by molecular methods of phylogenetic reconstruction, includes the laurasiatherian members of the now-invalid polyphyletic order Lipotyphla, but not the afrotherian members. Lipotyphla in turn had been derived by removing a number of groups from Insectivora, the used wastebasket taxon. Eulipotyphla comprises the hedgehogs and gymnures, the desmans and shrew-like moles and true shrews. True shrews and solenodons were grouped in Soricomorpha. Order Eulipotyphla Family Erinaceidae Subfamily Erinaceinae: hedgehogs Subfamily Hylomyinae: gymnures or moonrats Family Soricidae Subfamily Crocidurinae: white-toothed shrews Subfamily Soricinae: red-toothed shrews Subfamily Myosoricinae: African white-toothed shrews Family Talpidae Subfamily Desmaninae: desmans Subfamily Talpinae: moles Subfamily Uropsilinae: shrew-like moles Family Solenodontidae: solenodons † Family Nesophontidae: extinct West Indian shrews † Family AmphilemuridaeFamily-level cladogram of extant eulipotyphlan relationships, following Roca et al. and Brace et al