click links in text for more info


Pyridinium refers to the cation +. It is the conjugate acid of pyridine. Many related cations are known involving substituted pyridines, e.g. picolines, collidines. They are prepared by treating pyridine with acids; as pyridine is used as an organic base in chemical reactions, pyridinium salts are produced in many acid-base reactions. Its salts are insoluble in the organic solvent, so precipitation of the pyridinium leaving group complex is an indication of the progress of the reaction; the pyridinium ion plays a role in Friedel-Crafts acylation. When pyridine is included, it forms a complex with the electrophilic acylium ion, rendering it more reactive. Pyridinium cations are aromatic ion, as determined through Hückel's rule, it is isoelectronic to benzene. When the acidic proton is replaced by alkyl, the compounds are called N-alkylpyridinium. A simple representative is N-methylpyridinium. From a commercial perspective, an important pyridinium compound is the herbicide paraquat. Pyridinium chlorochromate Pyridinium chloride

Tourism in the Arab world

Tourism in the Arab World encompasses a wide array of activities and tourist attractions in an area spanning more than 13 million square kilometers. The Arab World consists of the Arabic-speaking countries and populations in North Africa and Western Asia; the standard definition of the Arab world comprises the 22 countries and territories of the Arab League: 10 countries in Africa, 12 countries in Asia. Geographically, it stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast, it has a combined population of around 422 million people. The Arab World is divided into five main geographic regions: the Maghreb in Northwest Africa, the Nile Valley and the Horn of Africa in Northeast Africa, the Levant in the eastern Mediterranean, the Arabian Peninsula in southwestern Asia. Egypt is the only transcontinental country by virtue of the Sinai Peninsula; the vast area covered by the Arab World encompasses wide and diverse geographical features ranging from deserts and shrublands to Mediterranean forests and snow-capped mountain ranges.

Deserts reign in most of northern Africa where the Sahara exists, the world's hottest desert where some of the sand dunes can reach 180 metres in height. The Arabian Peninsula is covered by a range of deserts: the Nefud in the north, a stony desert. In contrast, the Arab World boasts some of the highest mountain ranges in both Asia; the Atlas Mountains rise from the northern Sahara to peak of 4,167 m before cascading east towards the Mediterranean and west towards the Atlantic Ocean. The Hijaz mountains rise parallel to the Red Sea on the western edge of the Arabian Peninsula, separating the coastline from the inland deserts. Mountains like the Mount Lebanon and the Taurus Mountains mark the edges of the Levant, providing heavy rainfall and snowfall, thus nurturing the areas' forest landscapes; the areas within the Arab World witnessed the first forms of civilization in Ancient Egypt, the Levant and Mesopotamia. Throughout history, numerous civilizations, both local and foreign, settled in and ruled the Arab World each of them leaving its trace of monuments and landmarks.

This made the regions within the Arab World a mosaic of remnants from most of the civilizations of the Old World. In some countries, you can find Ancient Roman temples next to an Umayyad palace, or a Crusader castle in a Mamluk old town, or an Eastern Orthodox Church next to an Ottoman mosque; the Maghreb is defined as much or most of the region of Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. The traditional definition as being the region including the Atlas Mountains and the coastal plains of Algeria, Tunisia and Libya; the term maghrib is in origin an Arabic word for "west", denoting the westernmost territories that fell to the Islamic conquests of the 7th century. Isolated from the rest of the continent by the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara desert, inhabitants of the northern parts of the Maghreb have long had commercial and cultural ties to the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe and Western Asia, going back at least to the Phoenicians in the 1st millennium BC; the region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia, followed by Roman Empire's rule or influence.

That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals, the brief re-establishment of a weak Byzantine rule by the Byzantine Empire, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates under the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Fatimids. The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber Muslim empires of Almoravids, Hammadids, Marinids, Wattasids during the 8th to 13th centuries; the Ottoman Turks ruled the region as well. In 1989, the five modern states of Northwest Africa established the Maghreb Union to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market. Maghreb is home to 1 percent of the global population as of 2010. Maghrebi people include Moroccans, Libyans and Tunisians. Maghrebis are composed of Berber and Arab descent with European and Sub-Saharan elements. Various other influences are prominent throughout the Maghreb. In northern coastal towns, in particular, several waves of European immigrants influenced the population in the Medieval era. Most notable were the moriscos and muladies, that is, the indigenous Spaniards who had earlier converted to the Muslim faith and were fleeing, together with ethnic Arab and Berber Muslims, from the Spanish Catholic Reconquista.

Other European contributions included French and others captured by the corsairs. Another significant group are Turks. A large Turkish descended population exists in Tunisia and Algeria; the impact of all these superimposed cultures are noticeable in the diverse culture of the Maghreb, as well as in its architecture and cuisine. Tunisia is the smallest country in North Africa with an area of 165,000 square kilometres and an estimated population of just under 10.7 million. Its name is derived from the capital Tunis located in the northeast; the south of the country is composed of the Sahara desert, with much of the remainder consisting of fertile soil and 1,300 kilometres of coastline along the Mediterranean. Tunisia's climate is temperate in the north, wi

Eiji Usatsuka

Eiji Usatsuka is a Japanese light novel illustrator. He is notable for the illustration for the series Zero no Tsukaima, he illustrates insert images for many novels. After university graduation he was employed as illustrator by the visual novel publisher Visual Art's using the pseudonym Sawagani; as side job he made illustrations for light novels, against the company policy. The similarity of "both peoples" designs, were however noticed and revealed by Tōya Okano in a Dengeki G's Magazine interview article presenting Visual Art's brand Mana’s game Angel Magister. Novels and other works he contributed his illustrations to include: Hayate the Combat Butler light novel #2 Zero no Tsukaima Zero no Tsukaima Gaiden: Tabatha no Bōken Kaze no Kishihime Shinkyoku Sōkai Polyphonica Marble Shinkyoku Sōkai Polyphonica Blue Series Scramble Heart as Sawagani In Another World With My Smartphone Angel Magister Eiji Usatsuka's personal website Eiji Usatsuka at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Vocea României (season 1)

The first season of the Romanian reality talent show Vocea României premiered on September 27, 2011 on ProTV and was hosted by Pavel Bartoș and Roxana Ionescu, while Vlad Roșca was the social media correspondent. Horia Brenciu, Loredana Groza and Marius Moga were the coaches for the first season; each coach was allowed to mentor twelve contestants. The winner was Ștefan Stan from Team Smiley; the season finale aired on December 26, 2011. It proved to be a hit for ProTV and the network renewed the show for a second season; the series consists of three phases: a battle phase and live performance shows. Four coaches, all famous musicians, choose teams of contestants through a blind audition process; each coach has the length of the auditioner's performance to decide if they want that singer on their team. Contestant auditions were held on June 27, 2011, at Hotel Crown Plaza Bucharest. Contestants were allowed to submit online applications. Color key Color key The first of five pre-recorded audition episodes aired on Tuesday, September 27, 2011.

The show started with the four coaches singing Queen's "Don't Stop Me Now". The second episode aired on October 4, 2011; the third episode aired on October 11, 2011. The fourth episode aired on October 18, 2011; the fifth and last blind audition episode was aired on October 25, 2011. After the blind auditions, each coach had twelve contestants for the battle rounds that aired from November 1 to November 15, 2011. Coaches began narrowing down the playing field by training the contestants with the help of "trusted advisors"; each episode featured seven or eight battles consisting of pairings from within each team, each battle concluding with the respective coach eliminating one of the two contestants. The trusted advisors for these episodes are: Monica Anghel working with Horia Brenciu, Dana Dorian working with Loredana Groza, Alex Velea working with Smiley and Randi working with Marius Moga Color key The sixth episode aired on November 1, 2011; the seventh episode aired on November 8, 2011. The eighth episode aired on November 15, 2011.

* Lavinia Vâlcan withdrew from the contest. At the end of the battle rounds, each coach advanced four contestants from their team to the live shows, leaving the other two to duel for the fifth and last spot, in an extra round called "the sing-off"; the contestants sang their blind audition songs again and the coaches chose one contestant each. Color key: Color key Team Brenciu and Team Smiley competed in the first live show, which aired on November 22. From each team, viewers could save two contestants, while the coach could save one of the remaining three; the other two went on to the sing-off, where they performed their songs for the night once again, after which one was eliminated by their coach. Team Loredana and Team Moga competed in the second live show, which aired on November 29. Public voting commenced at this point. From each team, viewers could save two contestants, while the coach could save one of the remaining three; the other two went on to the sing-off, where they performed their songs for the night once again, after which one was eliminated by their coach.

The third week comprised episodes 11 and 12. Team Brenciu and Team Smiley competed in the first part of this week, which aired on Tuesday, December 6, while Team Loredana and Team Moga competed in the second part of this week, which aired on Friday, December 9. Voting proceeded as before. Voting proceeded as before; the fourth week comprised episodes 13 and 14. All remaining contestants performed in both live shows. Voting proceeded as before, except the third-placed contestant in each team was automatically eliminated, without going through the sing-off round. All eight remaining contestants performed in the semi-final on Friday, December 16, 2011. Within each team, the coach and the viewers each had a 50/50; the top 4 contestants performed in the grand final on Monday, December 26, 2011. This week, the four finalists performed a solo song, a duet with a famous singer and a duet with their coach; the public vote determined the winner, that resulted in a victory for Ștefan Stan, Smiley's first victory as a coach.

Color key Artist info Lavinia Vâlcan, a contestant in Team Smiley, withdrew from the contest before the battle round, as she considered that the show didn't allow her to express herself as an artist. Vâlcan claimed that, for the battle round, she had been forced to choose between two songs that did not suit her; the artist stated. Note: The figures above are approximations and they only represent viewers from urban areas. Official Vocea României website

New Public Management

New Public Management is an approach to running public service organizations, used in government and public service institutions and agencies, at both sub-national and national levels. The term was first introduced by academics in the UK and Australia to describe approaches that were developed during the 1980s as part of an effort to make the public service more "businesslike" and to improve its efficiency by using private sector management models; as with the private sector, which focuses on "customer service", NPM reforms focused on the "centrality of citizens who were the recipient of the services or customers to the public sector". NPM reformers experimented with using decentralized service delivery models, to give local agencies more freedom in how they delivered programs or services. In some cases, NPM reforms that used e-government consolidated a program or service to a central location to reduce costs; some governments tried using quasi-market structures, so that the public sector would have to compete against the private sector.

Key themes in NPM were "financial control, value for money, increasing efficiency... identifying and setting targets and continuance monitoring of performance, handing over... power to the senior management" executives. Performance was assessed with audits and performance evaluations; some NPM reforms used private sector companies to deliver what were public services. NPM advocates in some countries worked to remove "collective agreements... individual rewards packages at senior levels combined with short term contracts" and introduce private sector-style corporate governance, including using a Board of Directors approach to strategic guidance for public organizations. While NPM approaches have been used in many countries around the world, NPM is associated with the most industrialized OECD nations such as the United Kingdom and the United States of America. NPM advocates focus on using approaches from the private sector – the corporate or business world–which can be applied in the public sector and in a public administration context.

NPM approaches have been used to reform its policies and its programs. NPM advocates claim that it is a more effective means of attaining the same outcome. In NPM, citizens are viewed as "customers" and public servants are viewed as public managers. NPM tries to realign the relationship between public service managers and their political superiors by making a parallel relationship between the two. Under NPM, public managers have incentive-based motivation such as pay-for-performance, clear performance targets are set, which are assessed by using performance evaluations; as well, managers in an NPM paradigm may have greater discretion and freedom as to how they go about achieving the goals set for them. This NPM approach is contrasted with the traditional public administration model, in which institutional decision-making, policy-making and public service delivery is guided by regulations and administrative procedures. NPM reforms use approaches such as disaggregation, customer satisfaction initiatives, customer service efforts, applying an entrepreneurial spirit to public service, introducing innovations.

The NPM system allows "the expert manager to have a greater discretion". "Public Managers under the New Public Management reforms can provide a range of choices from which customers can choose, including the right to opt out of the service delivery system completely". The first practices of New Public Management emerged in the United Kingdom under the leadership of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher played the functional role of “policy entrepreneur" and the official role of prime minister. Thatcher drove changes in public management policy in such areas as organizational methods, civil service, labor relations, expenditure planning, financial management, audit and procurement. Thatcher's successor, John Major, kept public management policy on the agenda of the Conservative government, leading to the implementation of the Next Steps Initiative. Major launched the programs of the Citizens Charter Initiative, Competing for Quality, Resource Accounting and Budgeting, the Private Finance Initiative.

A term was coined in the late 1980s to denote a new focus on the importance of management and ‘production engineering’ in public service delivery, which linked to doctrines of economic rationalism. During this timeframe public management became an active area of policy-making in numerous other countries, notably in New Zealand and Sweden. At the same time, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development established its Public Management Committee and Secretariat, conferring to public management the status accorded more conventional domains of policy. In the 1990s, public management was a major item on President Clinton’s agenda. Early policy actions of the Clinton administration included launching the National Partnership and signing into law the Government Performance and Results Act. There are few indications that public management issues will vanish from governmental policy agendas. A recent study showed that in Italy, municipal directors are aware of a public administration now being oriented toward new public management where they are assessed according to the results they produce.

The term New Public Management expresses the idea that the cumulative flow of policy decisions over the past twenty years has amounted to a substantial shift in the governance and management of the “state sector” in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Scandinavia, North America, Latin America. For instance, regiona

Rural Municipality of Cymri No. 36

Cymri No. 36 is a rural municipality in south-east Saskatchewan, Canada encompassing 832.36 square kilometers in area. The rural municipality maintains offices in the town of Saskatchewan; the rural municipality, in conjunction with the provincial government, is in charge of maintenance of highways in its area. The municipality provides policing, fire protection, municipal governance for the rural district, with a reeve as its administrator; the rural municipality includes the Mainprize Regional Park. The following urban municipalities are surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Cymri No. 36: CitiesnoneTownsMidaleVillagesHalbrite MacounResort villagesnoneThe following unincorporated communities are located within the Rural Municipality of Cymri No. 36: Hamletsnonespecial service areasnoneOrganized hamletnoneUnincorporated hamletsBlewett There is one historical building located within the rural municipality: Steven Peterson Residence - Constructed in 1916 as the Gustav Peterson Residence, in the village of Halbrite, Saskatchewan.

The residence functioned as a community meeting place