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In chemistry, pyrophosphates are phosphorus oxyanions that contain two phosphorus atoms in a P-O-P linkage. A number of pyrophosphate salts exist, such as Na2H2P2O7. Pyrophosphates are called diphosphates; the parent pyrophosphates are derived from partial or complete neutralization of pyrophosphoric acid. Important salts include tetrasodium pyrophosphate; the pyrophosphate bond, as found in ATP, is important in biochemistry. Pyrophosphates are prepared by heating phosphates, hence the name pyro-phosphate. More they are generated by heating phosphoric acids to the extent that a condensation reaction occurs. Pyrophosphates are white or colorless; the alkali metal salts are water-soluble. They have many uses in industrial chemistry. Pyrophosphate is the first member of an entire series of polyphosphates; the term pyrophosphate is the name of esters formed by the condensation of a phosphorylated biological compound with inorganic phosphate, as for dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. This bond is referred to as a high-energy phosphate bond.

The anion P2O4 − 7 is abbreviated PPi. It is formed by the hydrolysis of ATP into AMP in cells. ATP → AMP + PPiFor example, when a nucleotide is incorporated into a growing DNA or RNA strand by a polymerase, pyrophosphate is released. Pyrophosphorolysis is the reverse of the polymerization reaction in which pyrophosphate reacts with the 3′-nucleosidemonophosphate, removed from the oligonucleotide to release the corresponding triphosphate; the pyrophosphate anion has the structure P2O4−7, is an acid anhydride of phosphate. It is unstable in aqueous solution and hydrolyzes into inorganic phosphate: P2O4−7 + H2O → 2 HPO2−4or in biologists' shorthand notation: PPi + H2O → 2 Pi + 2 H+In the absence of enzymic catalysis, hydrolysis reactions of simple polyphosphates such as pyrophosphate, linear triphosphate, ADP, ATP proceed slowly in all but acidic media; this hydrolysis to inorganic phosphate renders the cleavage of ATP to AMP and PPi irreversible, biochemical reactions coupled to this hydrolysis are irreversible as well.

PPi occurs in synovial fluid, blood plasma, urine at levels sufficient to block calcification and may be a natural inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation in extracellular fluid. Cells may channel intracellular PPi into ECF. ANK is a nonenzymatic plasma-membrane PPi channel. Defective function of the membrane PPi channel ANK is associated with low extracellular PPi and elevated intracellular PPi. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase may function to raise extracellular PPi. From the standpoint of high energy phosphate accounting, the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and PPi requires two high-energy phosphates, as to reconstitute AMP into ATP requires two phosphorylation reactions. AMP + ATP → 2 ADP 2 ADP + 2 Pi → 2 ATPThe plasma concentration of inorganic pyrophosphate has a reference range of 0.58–3.78 µM. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate converts to geranyl pyrophosphate the precursor to tens of thousand of terpenes and terpenoids. Various diphosphates are used as emulsifiers, acidity regulators, raising agents and water retention agents in food processing.

They are classified in the E number scheme under E450: E450: disodium dihydrogen diphosphate. Schröder HC, Kurz L, Muller WE, Lorenz B. "Polyphosphate in bone". Biochemistry. 65: 296–303. Archived from the original on 2011-08-25. Media related to Pyrophosphates at Wikimedia Commons Pyrophosphates at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Celestine Ukwu

Celestine Ukwu was an Igbo highlife musician during the 60s and 70s best known for his hit songs "Ije Enu", "Igede" and "Money Palava". Described as a "prolific and outstanding composer" by music critic Benson Idonije of Radio Nigeria Two, Ukwu's works has been featured on various world music compilations including The Rough Guide to Highlife and The Rough Guide to Psychedelic Africa. Ukwu was born in Enugu State, Nigeria to music-oriented parents, his father was a local performer of the igede and ode genres of Igbo music while his mother was lead singer in a women's musical group. At a young age, he began learning how to read music and play the harmonium with the help of his uncle. Upon completing his primary school education, he went to teacher training school for two years but dropped out to pursue music as a career, he went on to join Mike Ejeagha's group "Paradise Rhythm Orchestra" in 1962 at Enugu as a vocalist and maraca player before he left to join Mr. Picolo's band who were touring the Democratic Republic of the Congo at the time.

He returned to Nigeria to form his own band known as Celestine Ukwu & His Music Royals of Nigeria in 1966, disbanded in 1967 following the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War, before releasing a song at the outbreak of the war titled'Hail Biafra'. After the war, Ukwu formed Celestine Ukwu & His Philosophers National, his songs were composed in Igbo language with a bit of Efik. In a 1986 edition of Thisweek, a writer once wrote that his songs "gave a food for thought to its listeners", he died in an auto-crash on May 7, 1977. His Philosophies: Compilation Richard C. Okafor; the life and works of Celestine Ukwu. New Generation Books. ISBN 978-978-2900-39-5. List of Igbo people List of Nigerian musicians Rex Lawson


Bouladuff known as Inch and The Ragg, is a village near Thurles in County Tipperary, Ireland. According to the 2016 CSO census, the population of the Inch electoral division was 395. Bouladuff is in the barony of Eliogarty. Bouladuff lies 3 miles from Borrisoleigh; the village is set in the Suir valley and bounded by the Silvermine Mountains to the northwest and the Slieveardagh hills to the Southeast. The main road is the R498 regional road from Nenagh to Thurles; the area around Bouladuff has views of the Devils Tower mountains. Amenities in the area include Inch National school, Inch Community Hall, Inch Church; the village is served by a nightclub and bar, a petrol station and shop, a restaurant. The GAA grounds of Drom-Inch GAA club have dressing a covered stand. List of towns and villages in Ireland Ragg Settlement Plan Inch National School Monroe Roman Catholic Church - Buildings of Ireland Bouladuff House - Buildings of Ireland

All-American Murder

All-American Murder is a 1991 American direct-to-video thriller film directed by Anson Williams and starring Christopher Walken and Charlie Schlatter. It was released on December 18, 1991, in UK. Artie Logan is the new guy on campus, he meets Tally Fuller: the most popular and beautiful girl at Fairfield college and she agrees to go on a date with him. But that night she is brutally killed by a blowtorch-wielding maniac and Artie is wrongfully arrested. Despite protests from other police officers, detective P. J. Decker gives him 24 hours to track down the real killer. But, as Artie gets closer to the killer, each suspect is murdered and all the clues point to him. Christopher Walken as P. J. Decker Charlie Schlatter as Artie Logan Josie Bissett as Tally Fuller Joanna Cassidy as Erica Darby Richard Kind as Lou Alonzo Woody Watson as Frank Harley Mitchell Anderson as Doug Sawyer The town in the film is Sand Springs, Oklahoma; the campus in the film is Oklahoma State University, in Stillwater. The football scenes, the stadium and the shower scene were all filmed at Union High School's Tuttle Stadium in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in May 1991.

All-American Murder on IMDb

Gerald W. VandeWalle

Gerald Wayne VandeWalle is a justice of the North Dakota Supreme Court. He served as the court's Chief Justice from 1993 to 2019. Justice VandeWalle was born in Noonan, North Dakota and graduated from the University of North Dakota in 1955 with a bachelor of science degree in Commerce. While attending the University of North Dakota he joined the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity, he received a juris doctor degree from the University of North Dakota School of Law in 1958. He has served on the Supreme Court since 1978, was the Chief Justice from 1993 to 2019. In late 2019, VandeWalle announced he would not seek reelection for another term as Chief Justice, but would remain on the court, he was the longest-serving Chief Justice in North Dakota history and at the time, the oldest in the nation. 1958 – admitted to the State Bar of North Dakota 1975 – appointed First Assistant Attorney General of North Dakota August, 1978 – appointed to the North Dakota Supreme Court November, 1978 – elected to serve an unexpired term on Supreme Court 1985–1987 – served as the first chair of the North Dakota Judicial Conference 1993 – elected Chief Justice of North Dakota Supreme Court 1995 – re-elected Chief Justice 2000 – re-elected Chief Justice 2005—re-elected Chief Justice 2010—re-elected Chief Justice 2015—re-elected Chief Justice Gerald W. VandeWalle biography North Dakota Supreme Court official website

Kanagaki Robun

Kanagaki Robun was the pen name of Nozaki Bunzō, a Japanese author and journalist. Kanagaki Robun, the son of a fishmonger, was known for light fiction in the gesaku genre, he is said to have met painter Kawanabe Kyosai while writing an account of the 1855 Edo earthquake on the day after it happened. Kyosai's sketch of a catfish, accompanying Robun's text, was Kyosai's first single-sheet ukiyo-e woodblock print, its commercial success saw Robun producing a sequence of catfish pictures. In 1874 the pair collaborated to create what was Japan's first manga magazine, Eshinbun nipponchi. In 1874 Robun turned to journalism, joining the Yokohama mainichi shinbun and going on in 1875 to found his own newspaper, the Kana-yomi shinbun, his newspaper pioneered the genre of "dokufu-mono," criminal biographies of female outlaws, Kanagaki Robun's own Tale of Takahashi Oden the She-Devil is the most famous example of the genre. He wrote illustrated biographies, including an adapted biography of Ulysses S. Grant published for Grant's 1879 visit to Japan.

Ansei fūbunshū, 1856 Ansei korori ryūkōki, 1856 Hanagoromo kitsune no sōshi, 1863 Seiyō dōchū hizakurige, 1870–76 Aguranabe, 1871. Kyurisukai, 1872 Sekai miyakoji shusho eiri, 1872 Saga denshinroku, 1874 Genkon Shina jijō, 1875'Seiyo kabuki Hamuretto', Hiragana eiri Shinbun, 1875 Takahashi Oden yasha monogatari, 1879 Inaba kozō settō shinwa, 1883