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Pyrrolysine is an α-amino acid, used in the biosynthesis of proteins in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria. It contains a carboxylic acid group, its pyrroline side-chain is similar to that of lysine in being basic and positively charged at neutral pH. Nearly all genes are translated using only 20 standard amino acid building blocks. Two unusual genetically-encoded amino acids are pyrrolysine. Pyrrolysine was discovered in 2002 at the active site of methyltransferase enzyme from a methane-producing archeon, Methanosarcina barkeri; this amino acid is encoded by UAG, its synthesis and incorporation into protein is mediated via the biological machinery encoded by the pylTSBCD cluster of genes. As determined by X-ray crystallography and MALDI mass spectrometry, pyrrolysine is made up of 4-methylpyrroline-5-carboxylate in amide linkage with the εN of lysine. Pyrrolysine is synthesized in vivo by joining two molecules of L-lysine. One molecule of lysine is first converted to -3-methyl-D-ornithine, ligated to a second lysine.

An NH2 group is eliminated, followed by dehydration step to yield L-pyrrolysine. The extra pyrroline ring is incorporated into the active site of several methyltransferases, where it is believed to rotate freely, it is believed that the ring is involved in positioning and displaying the methyl group of methylamine for attack by a corrinoid cofactor. The proposed model is that a nearby carboxylic acid bearing residue, becomes protonated, the proton can be transferred to the imine ring nitrogen, exposing the adjacent ring carbon to nucleophilic addition by methylamine; the positively charged nitrogen created by this interaction may interact with the deprotonated glutamate, causing a shift in ring orientation and exposing the methyl group derived from the methylamine to the binding cleft where it can interact with corrinoid. In this way a net CH+3 is transferred to the cofactor's cobalt atom with a change of oxidation state from I to III; the methylamine-derived ammonia is released, restoring the original imine.

Unlike posttranslational modifications of lysine such as hydroxylysine and hypusine, pyrrolysine is incorporated during translation as directed by the genetic code, just like the standard amino acids. It is encoded in mRNA by the UAG codon; this requires only the presence of the pylT gene, which encodes an unusual transfer RNA with a CUA anticodon, the pylS gene, which encodes a class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that charges the pylT-derived tRNA with pyrrolysine. This novel tRNA-aaRS pair is independent of other synthetases and tRNAs in Escherichia coli, further possesses some flexibility in the range of amino acids processed, making it an attractive tool to allow the placement of a wide range of functional chemical groups at arbitrarily specified locations in modified proteins. For example, the system provided one of two fluorophores incorporated site-specifically within calmodulin to allow the real-time examination of changes within the protein by FRET spectroscopy, site-specific introduction of a photocaged lysine derivative.

The pylT and pylS genes are part of an operon of Methanosarcina barkeri, with homologues in other sequenced members of the Methanosarcinaceae family: M. acetivorans, M. mazei, M. thermophila. Pyrrolysine-containing genes are known to include monomethylamine methyltransferase, dimethylamine methyltransferase, trimethylamine methyltransferase. Homologs of pylS and pylT have been found in an Antarctic archaeon, Methanosarcina barkeri and a Gram-positive bacterium, Desulfitobacterium hafniense; the occurrence in Desulfitobacterium is of special interest, because bacteria and archaea are separate domains in the three-domain system by which living things are classified. When use of the amino acid appeared confined to the Methanosarcinaceae, the system was described as a "late archaeal invention" by which a 21st amino acid was added to the genetic code. Afterward it was concluded that "PylRS was present in the last universal common ancestor" some 3 billion years ago, but it only persisted in organisms using methylamines as energy sources.

Another possibility is that evolution of the system involved a horizontal gene transfer between unrelated microorganisms. The other genes of the Pyl operon mediate pyrrolysine biosynthesis, leading to description of the operon as a "natural genetic code expansion cassette"; some differences exist between the archaeal systems studied. Homology to pylS is broken into two separate proteins in D. hafniense. Most notably, the UAG codon appears to act as a stop codon in many of that organism's proteins, with only a single established use in coding pyrrolysine in that organism. By contrast, in methanogenic archaea it was not possible to identify any unambiguous UAG stop signal; because there was only one known site where pyrrolysine is added in D. hafniense it was not possible to determine whether some additional sequence feature, analogous to the SECIS element for selenocysteine incorporation, might control when pyrrolysine is added. It was proposed that a specific downstream sequence "PYLIS", forming a stem-loop in the mRNA, forced the incorporation of pyrrolysine instead of terminating translation in methanogenic archaea.

However, the PYLIS model has lost favor in view of the lack of structural homology

Miss World 1975

Miss World 1975, the 25th edition of the Miss World pageant, was held on 20 November 1975 at the Royal Albert Hall in London, United Kingdom. 67 contestants took part in the pageant won by Wilnelia Merced of Puerto Rico. She was crowned by Anneline Kriel of South Africa. Runner-up was Germany, Marina Langer, third place was Vicki Harris representing the United Kingdom, fourth place was Maricela Maxie Clark of Cuba, Yugoslavia's Ladija Verkovska, Haiti's Joelle Apollon, Venezuela's María Conchita Alonso, completed the top 7. Spain – promptly withdrew from the competition, after an announcement that Francisco Franco, the ruler of Spain, had died on the morning of the pageant date. Pageant organizers concerned. Italy – Anna Vitale was replaced by Vanna Bortolini, her first runner-up of the Miss Italy beauty pageant, because she decided to return home to take care of her ill mother. South Africa – Rhoda Rademeyer was the second runner-up of Miss South Africa beauty pageant; the official titleholder of this pageant, Vera Johns, was disqualified by the Miss World organizers when it was discovered that she came from Rhodesia.

Her Rhodesian nationality violated the pageant's rules. The first runner-up, Crystal Coopers, went to London, but her father would not allow her to compete there because it was discovered that Vera Johns was not going to be stripped of her title. Pageantopolis – Miss World 1975

Ken Choy

Ken Choy is an American writer of Chinese-Native Hawaiian ethnicity. He is a performance artist and actor and owns and operates a shopping business in Southern California. Choy was the subject of a two-part series on KCBS-TV Los Angeles that featured his book, "Make Money Shopping," his web site,, his shopping and mystery shopping business. Upon arriving in the Twin Cities, Choy involved himself in the Asian American Renaissance, an Asian American arts organization, he taught classes and hosted AARGH!!, the Asian American Cabaret with poet and performance artist David Mura. In 1992, Choy toured. Under the auspices of the performance group he founded, Asian Pacific American Renegades, he directed and organized the large scale Asian American performance presentation at the Walker Art Center, "Miss Appropriated." He is discussed in Dorinne K. Kondo's "About Face," and Linda Frye Burnham's "High Performance" as well as David A. Schlossman's "Actors and Activists," and Deborah Wong's "Speak it Louder".

In 1993, along with Juliana Pegues, staged a protest at the Minnesota Opera performance of Madama Butterfly. Choy and Pegues protested inside the theater during the performance and were arrested for disorderly conduct. Although Choy was dressed in women's clothing, erroneous press accounts stated; the two were ordered to pay a $25 fine. In 1994, Choy received $5,000 as part of the Playwright's Center Jerome Fellowship in Minnesota; the program stated that he used the grant "for three months of travel and study in the Hawaiian Islands," researching and interviewing the family members and island natives, "focusing on disenfranchisement and the disappearance of island culture due to industrialization, white settlement and environmental racism."Choy founded and was co-chair of PAVE and the Miss Saigon Protest Committee with Rita Nakashima Brock. Choy is the author of the novel "My Loveable Combustible Asian American Nuclear Family" and his video blog, "From Chaos to Love: "My Loveable Combustible Asian American Nuclear Family" journey.

He is the creator of the journalistic dialectic, "Living with Bill and Rob," an ongoing research project which explores the link between racism and mental illness and how those both are unflinchingly harnessed as a viable excuse for lack of human and community involvement and participation. Choy traversed those manifestations in a roommate situation with the titular subjects, his screenplay Lazy Susan won first place in the Boulder Asian Film Festival in 2005. Choy is the producer and founder of Breaking the Bow: The Independent Asian Pacific Islander Performing Artists and Writers Festival; the 1st festival was held October 22–25, 2009. The festival was produced by Mavericks of Asian Pacific Islander Descent. Choy founded MAPID. Choy co-organized ID Film Fest and the Asian American Independent Features Conference with Quentin Lee and Koji Steven Sakai in October 2010 at the Japanese American National Museum, continuing with his Battle of the Pitches competition along with the API TV Pilot Shootout and a Filmmaker's Crash Course.

He has moderated panels at Comic-Con. Charlene Chan in "Me?" Sticky Substances Buzz off Butterfly Miss Appropriated Ken Choy's Theatrical Extravaganza Lazy Susan Ken Choy on IMDb MAPID home page

Abdullah (horse)

Abdullah was a Trakehner stallion ridden by Conrad Homfeld. He won many international titles in the sport of show jumping, is considered by some to be the best Trakehner to compete in the show-jumping ring. Abdullah was inducted into the United States Show Jumping Hall of Fame in 2009. Abdullah was purchased by Williamsburg Farm in 1973 as a three-year-old from Gerhard Schickedanz in Unionville, Canada, he was bought as an event prospect and breeding stallion, proved himself first in the dressage arena and in eventing before becoming a world-class show jumper. He was ridden by Joe Fargis and Conrad Homfeld. Abdullah was approved for breeding by the United States, Selle Francais, Sella Italiano, Anglo European Studbook, Irish Sport Horse, Trakehner, Belgium Warmblood, Belgium Sporthorse, Oldenburg studbooks, his progeny were successful, including seven United States Equestrian Federation Horses of the Year in both the Hunter and Jumper disciplines. He ranks third place in money won by offspring in the International Jumper Futurity and International Hunter Futurity.

He is the sire of showjumpers competing internationally in the Olympics, World Championships and World Cup Finals. Due to frozen semen, it is still possible to breed to the legendary stallion. During his eventing career, Abdullah was awarded the American Trakehner Association Trakehner Förderverein Award in 1976 and'77; this award is given annually to the ATA-registered purebred Trakehner, the most successful in combined training. Abdullah had an extensive international level career for fourteen years between 1979 and 1989, he won the American Trakehner Association Open Jumper Championships for 8 consecutive years between 1979 and 1986, as well as in 1988 and 1989. He was awarded the ATA Palmenblüte Award in 1980,'82,'84,'85, and'86; the Palmenblüte trophy is awarded to the "ATA purebred Trakehner who has contributed the most in competition to promote the breed in North America." After Abdullah won the trophy for the fifth time, the first trophy was retired, with an acknowledgement of Abdullah's tremendous contributions to the Trakehner breed throughout the world, a new trophy was put into place.

He helped the United States to the team gold, took an individual silver at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He won the 1985 World Cup Final in Berlin. Abdullah helped the United States to the team gold, taking individual silver, at the 1986 Show Jumping World Championships in Aachen, Germany. Abdullah won or placed at numerous other international level Grand Prix events; the stallion died January 2000, due to colic. The Chronicle of the Horse honored Abdullah as one of the top 50 horses of the century

Seip House

The Seip House is a historic building on the west side of Chillicothe, United States. Built in 1895, it is among the city's grandest houses. Born in Germany in the late 1810s, Charles Seip was a butcher who settled in the United States in 1845. Soon after crossing the Atlantic, Seip took up residence in Chillicothe; as his business grew, Seip expanded into downtown premises and began to purchase farms in the Chillicothe vicinity in order to supply more animals for his business. By the 1890s, Seip's son John had persuaded his father to erect a large house on the site of his original butcher shop; the resulting building took four years to complete, being started in 1895 and completed in 1898. A two-and-a-half story building, designed by John Cook, it is a brick building that sits on a sandstone foundation. At his death in 1902, Seip owned some of the leading properties in Ross County, his house was one of the most prominent Queen Anne homes in Chillicothe, he owned seven different farms in the region.

Since that time, the house has changed hands. In recognition of its historic architecture, the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981

Members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly, 1952–1955

This is a list of members of the Victorian Legislative Assembly from 1952 to 1955, as elected at the 1952 state election. Two party splits took place during the period: In August 1953, several Liberal members were expelled for supporting former Liberal Premier Thomas Hollway, who had formed an "Electoral Reform League" grouping in the Parliament advocating two Assembly seats for every Federal seat in Victoria and had, at the 1952 election, defeated the Liberal leader Les Norman in his own seat. With his electoral reform plans implemented by the Cain government, Hollway changed the name of the party to the Victorian Liberal Party in October 1954. In 1955 during the Hobart conference of the governing Labor Party, the Catholic supporters of the Industrial Groups and B. A. Santamaria either resigned from the party or were expelled and formed the Australian Labor Party, which became the Democratic Labor Party. Both groups lost their entire parliamentary representation at the 1955 state election which followed, although the DLP continued to be a significant source of Liberal preferences until the early 1970s.

1 On 2 May 1953, the Opposition Leader and Liberal member for Malvern, Trevor Oldham, died. Liberal candidate John Bloomfield won the resulting by-election on 11 July 1953. Re-member. Parliament of Victoria