Old Government House, Queensland
Queensland's first Government House is located at Gardens Point in the grounds of the Queensland University of Technology at the end of George Street in Brisbane, Australia. The building's construction was the first important architectural work undertaken by the newly formed Government of Queensland; the government residential building was constructed to accommodate the first Governor of Queensland, Sir George Bowen, his family. On 22 May 1860, the first Queensland parliament met. One month a vote to fund a new government house was successful; the site chosen for the building was a high point of Gardens Point overlooking the Brisbane Botanic Gardens and with expansive vistas of the Brisbane River. There was an issue with the building being built in Brisbane, as the capital of Queensland had not yet been decided; the two-storey building was designed by colonial architect Charles Tiffin in the Classical revival style in 1860. The front half of the building contained the Governor's public and private rooms while the rear housed the service section.
The front of the house had a plain design without displays of grandeur so as not to affront politicians and country citizens. The first stage of the building was completed in March 1862 by builder Joshua Jeays; the building is built from locally sourced materials, with sandstone facades, Brisbane tuff to the service areas, red cedar, hoop pine and cast iron. The family first arrived in Brisbane in 1859 and Adelaide House, now the Deanery of St John's Cathedral, was leased for their use as a temporary Government House, while the construction of this building was undertaken; the Governor and his family moved into the building in April 1862. The first public function held in the building was a ball on Monday 16 June 1862 to celebrate the birthday of Queen Victoria; the ball was to have been earlier, but was postponed due to a period of public mourning for the Prince consort Albert. Sir George and Lady Diamantina Bowen hosted 300 to 400 guests, it was a gala occasion and the new Government House was praised for enabling "the Governor to exercise his hospitality without restrictions through the want of space".
There were rooms available for dancing, drinking of claret, sherry and coffee and the playing of the card game whist. Meanwhile, the dowagers and other ladies not involved in the drinking and card playing were entertained in drawing room. At 1 am, supper was served in the quadrangle, protected by a canvas roof and decorated with candles and Chinese lanterns; the dancing continued until 4 am, although the Bowens did not participate in the dancing due to his wife Lady Diamantina's delicate health. One month on 26 July 1862, Lady Diamantina was safely delivered of a daughter, Agnes. Lady Diamantina's "delicate health" at the Birthday Ball was a delicate reference to her advanced pregnancy. Agnes is believed to be the first child born in the building, their son, George William Howard, was born at Government House on 9 April 1864. Lady Diamantina Bowen was interested in the development of the gardens around the building, which features lawns and flower gardens on the public sides of the building and vegetable gardens at the rear.
She collaborated with Walter Hill, curator of the adjacent Brisbane Botanic Gardens on a number of projects, including large public events which extended out from the grounds of Government House into the Botanic Gardens. The house was lit with candles and kerosene lamps, but by the late 1860s, gas became available and was installed; the initial pipes used were too thin and it was not possible to turn on all the gas lights simultaneously. The building was home to the first 11 of the Governors of their families; the building was modified somewhat during those years, the most obvious difference to the public face of the building being the roofing of the open upper terraces converting them into more Queenslander-style verandahs. In 1873, a roof was built over the balcony. By the late 1870s the building was being described as inadequate for large scale entertainment purposes; some extensions were made at the rear, but these were more related to the service areas. Larger gas pipes were installed to allow all the lights to be used.
Although Brisbane had electricity in the late 1880s, the cost of fitting it to Government House was regarded as too expensive. About 1900, a billiard room was added at the request of Lord Lamington; the interior was renovated and redecorated in 1985—96. By 1909 the once spacious Government House was now nearly fifty years old, by the standards of the times, perceived as being too small for the Governor's residence as it lacked a ballroom deemed essential for entertaining, it was decided to give Government House to be the nucleus of Queensland's first university, the University of Queensland, to be established at Gardens Point. A plaque on the building commemorates this transfer in December 1909. In early 1910, the Governor, Sir William MacGregor, relocated into the leased property Fernberg at Paddington, a suburb of Brisbane, as a temporary measure while a new Government House was constructed in Victoria Park. However, although the plans for the new Government House were drawn and the foundations laid, for some reason, the project was abandoned.
In 1911 the Government purchased Fernberg for £10,000 to be the permanent Government House of Queensland, a role that continues to the present day. On 10 December 1909, Old Government House was given to be the nucleus of the newly established University of Queensland, as part of t
The Queensland Times
The Queensland Times is a daily newspaper serving Ipswich and surrounds in Queensland, Australia. The newspaper is owned by APN Media; the circulation of The Queensland Times is 14,153 on Saturday. The Queensland Times is circulated to the Ipswich city area and the Ipswich rural area including Harrisville, Laidley, Forest Hill, Boonah, Gatton and Toogoolawah; the Queensland Times website is part of the APN Regional News Network. The Queensland Times is the oldest surviving provincial paper in Queensland. Founded on 4 July 1859 as the Ipswich Herald, it has continued since; until a printer's strike interrupted production in 1972, it had the proud record of never having missed a scheduled issue, in spite of fires and machinery breakdowns. It was not, the first newspaper in Ipswich; that honour belongs to the North Australian, founded in 1855 and having on its staff two men who were to play a major part in the establishment of other Queensland newspapers, Hugh Parkinson, the foremen printer, Arthur Sidney Lyon, the editor.
The publishing office of this paper was moved to Brisbane in 1863. One of the main aims of the Ipswich Herald was to promote Ipswich's claims to be capital city of the Moreton bay colony as separation from New South Wales loomed, it was bought in 1861 by Hugh Parkinson and two other north Australian employees, Hugh Bowring Sloman and Francis Kidner. They changed its name to The Queensland Times and said it "would undertake to speak as from the centre of authority, the capital, would oppose centralization in Brisbane." The editor was John Charlton Thompson, who surveyed and laid out the city of Bundaberg. The greatest success story connected with the paper was that of a young lad, William Kippen, who rose from the position of paper seller in 1862 to become chairman of directors in 1914. Between the 1860s and the 1880s the bi-weekly Queensland Times faced competition from other newspapers, but outlasted them all. On Tuesday, 8 October 1861, the Ipswich Herald merged to form The Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald, General Advertiser.
It became a morning daily in 1899, but a depression forced it to revert to a tri-weekly publication until, in 1908, it became a daily again. The Queensland Times is owned by the APN Media Ltd Group; the Queensland Times has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program of the National Library of Australia. The Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser was the second newspaper published in Queensland, it was established in 1859 by Central Queensland separationists, who argued for a separation from New South Wales. The paper merged with another to become the Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser when it changed ownership in October 1861; the newspaper claimed to be the leading proponent for populating, opening up, exploiting the resources of Queensland. It is now known as The Queensland Times, is the oldest surviving newspaper in Queensland; the Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser was established and owned by Walter Gray, H. M. Cockburn, Arthur Macalister and John Rankin, Central Queensland separationists.
It launched on 4 July 1859 with an ex-Sydney Morning Herald employee Edmund Gregory acting as both publisher and editor. An editorial under the pseudonym "Red Gum" in the 4 July 1899 issue: — The "Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser" was established by a private company of ardent Separationists, comprising the late Messrs. Arthur Macalister, H. M. Cockburn, Walter Gray, John Rankin. Mr. Edmund Gregory, the present Queensland Government Printer, was the printer and publisher of the "'Ipswich Herald", having been specially en-gaged in Sydney to manage the paper, its offices were situated in Ellenborough-street, about on the site where the railway bridge crosses the line. Separation was achieved just prior to the first edition: the proclamation by Queen Victoria established a colony separate to New South Wales called Queensland. News of this proclamation featured in the first issue; the newspaper was one of three regional Queensland newspapers published during the 1850s, the first in Ipswich was named The North Australian.
In 1861 Gregory left to join the Moreton Bay Courier, the paper was bought by three former employees of The North Australian, Hugh Parkinson, F. Kidner and J. Sloman, it was known as Queensland Times, Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser, with the new ownership keen to represent the interests of Queensland more generally. In 1874 the Elenborough Street site was purchased by the railways and the paper moved to "Dowden's corner"; the Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program of the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia The Queensland Times The Queensland Times at Trove Ipswich Herald and General Advertiser at Trove
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988, it contains a significant portion of Queensland's documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank; the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902. In 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating to Queensland; the Libraries Act of 1943 established the Library Board of Queensland to manage the Public Library of Queensland. In March 1947, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queensland's first State Librarian.
Stapleton advocated for a new building for the library and that library services should be free to the public. He remains the longest-serving CEO, has been followed by five others: Sydney Lawrence Ryan from 1970 to 1988, Des Stephens from 1988 to 2001, Lea Giles-Peters from 2001 to 2011, Janette Wright, from 2012-2015 and from 2016, Vicki McDonald. In 1971, the "Public Library" became the "State Library." The following year, the Public Library Service was established to liaise with Queensland local authorities regarding their public libraries. A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange and other services to public libraries in Queensland's smaller local government areas. Under the new name of Rural Libraries Queensland, the service is still going strong today, administered by the State Library's Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York and Torres Strait areas.
There is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities: across Cape York, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland and at Cherbourg in South East Queensland. The State Library's current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons; the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, which includes the James Hardie Library of Australian Fine Arts; the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material. The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, posters and how-to-vote cards.
Access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to public libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people and multicultural communities. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools and other community organisations. Outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. Library services to Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders including the establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Centres in Cape York and Torres Strait regions and increasing the employment and training opportunities for Indigenous peoples in the library industry. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people. A free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business; the library has hosted a number of prominent exhibitions, including Plantation Voices Home: A Suburban Obsession Islands: hidden histories from Queensland Islands Hot Modernism Free guided tours of the building are available.
In 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. Rural Libraries Queensland is a collaboration between the State Library of Queensland and 30 of the local government councils to provide library libraries to rural communities; the Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street, Brisbane in 1899. This building had been occupied by the Queensland Museum; the Library shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery. In the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space; the mural was the winning design in a national competition held in 1958. In 1988, the State Library of Queensland moved to a new home within the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank, near the Queensland Museum and the original Queensland Art Gallery. In 2004, work began on the Millennium Library Project - a major redevelopment of the existing State Library building. After three years of extensive redevelopment, the South Bank building
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Separation of Queensland
The Separation of Queensland was an event in 1859 in which the land that forms the present-day State of Queensland was removed from the Colony of New South Wales and created as a separate Colony of Queensland. European settlement of Queensland began in 1824 when Lieutenant Henry Miller, commanding a detachment of the 40th Regiment of Foot, founded a convict outpost at Redcliffe; the settlement was transferred to the north bank of the Brisbane River the following year and continued to operate as a penal establishment until 1842, when the remaining convicts were withdrawn and the district opened to free settlement. By squatters had established themselves on the Darling Downs, far distant from the seat of the New South Wales government in Sydney. Agitation soon commenced for the creation of a separate northern colony which could look after local interests, with the clamour being no less apparent in the fledgling township of Brisbane. In the vanguard of those seeking representative government was the Reverend John Dunmore Lang, representative for Moreton Bay in the New South Wales Legislative Council.
Lang's call for the creation of a northern colony in 1844 was defeated in the Council by 26 votes to seven, matters were held in abeyance until 1850 when the British Parliament passed the Australian Colonies Government Act, which enabled the creation of new Australian colonies with a similar form of government to New South Wales. In other words, they would have a bicameral parliament watched over by a vice-regal representative. Mentioned Port Phillip and Moreton Bay as districts which were to become colonies in the foreseeable future; the Act inspired Lang to renewed efforts, between 1851 and 1854 he held nine meetings to gain further support for separation. He was, in fact, preaching to the converted as the inhabitants of the northern district had been neglected by the government in Sydney, yet while they could reach consensus on the need for separation, whether a new colony would be free or unfree became a divisive issue. Lang and the majority of townspeople supporters favoured free immigration.
The powerful squatting fraternity who were reliant on cheap labour advocated a renewal of convict transportation. While urban growth in Brisbane and Ipswich dictated for the former, there was still disagreement over where a new capital should be located. Brisbane, Gayndah, Gladstone and Rockhampton were all potential candidates favoured by parochial interests. Brisbane emerged victorious, the reality of a new colony moved a step closer in 1856 when the British Government agreed that the time was ripe to create a new northern colony. Among other things there was uncertainty over the location of a southern border. Lang was among many others who believed that the Northern Rivers should become part of a northern colony; the following month unofficial news was received that the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, had appointed Sir George Bowen to be the colony's first Governor of Queensland. Bowen had served as Britain's Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands near Greece, was to have a distinguished career in the Colonial Office.
While both the Letters Patent and the Order-in-Council appointing Bowen as Governor were duly published by the New South Wales Government, separation could not be accomplished until the Letters Patent had been published in Queensland. As Governor Bowen was due to arrive on 6 December 1859 with the Letters Patent formally proclaiming the new colony, a reception committee was organised as early as September to arrange the celebrations. Inclement weather intervened meaning Governor Bowen did not arrive until the evening of 9 December 1859; the following day Governor and Lady Bowen were welcomed by an estimated crowd of 4,000 exultant colonists when they stepped ashore at the Botanic Gardens in Brisbane. They were conveyed by carriage to the temporary Government House, a building which now serves as the deanery of St John's Cathedral. After ascending to the balcony, the resident Supreme Court Judge, Justice Alfred Lutwyche administered Governor Bowen's oath, after which the Queen's Commission was read to the assembled throng by the newly appointed Colonial Secretary, Robert Herbert.
The formalities concluded with the proclamation of the Letters Patent being read by Governor Bowen's acting private secretary, Abram Moriarty, to become the new colony's first civil servant after being appointed Under Colonial Secretary on 15 December 1859. The Letters Patent were published in the inaugural issue of the Queensland Government Gazette on 10 December 1859, this has given rise to confusion over whether 10 December 1859 should be remembered as Separation Day or Proclamation Day; the former may be preferred, for it was only with the publication of the Letters Patent in Queensland that separation became a legal reality, though it can be accepted that this was an official proclamation of their content. On 10 December 1859, Bowen appointed an Executive Council to operate as a provisional government until a parliament had been elected. Under the terms of separation, however, it was left for Sir William Denison, Governor of New South Wales, to appoint 11 members to the first Queensland Legislative Council in May 1860 for a term of five years.
Bowen was to appoint their successors for life, from the outset the nominee character of the Upper House proved unpopular. Attempts to amend the Constitution to make the Upper House elected were to continue until the Legislative Council was abolished in 1