Cangjie input method
The Cangjie input method is a system by which Chinese characters may be entered into a computer using a standard keyboard. Invented in 1976 by Chu Bong-Foo, the method is named after Cangjie, the mythological inventor of the Chinese writing system. Although the input method was based upon traditional Chinese characters, it has since been revamped so that Cangjie and the simplified Chinese character set can interact. Cangjie is the first Chinese input method. Other earlier methods use large keyboards with 40 to 2400 keys, except the Four-Corner Method which uses only the number keys. Chu saw that the QWERTY keyboard had become international standard, believed therefore that Chinese-language input had to be based on it. Chu Bong-Foo released the patent of Cangjie in 1982 as he thought that it should belong to the Chinese cultural heritage. Therefore, Cangjie has become open source software—free for anyone to use and modify—making Cangjie ubiquitous on every computer system that supports traditional Chinese.
In filenames and elsewhere, the name Cangjie is sometimes abbreviated as cj. Unlike pinyin, Cangjie is based on the graphological aspect of the characters: each basic, graphical unit is represented by a basic character component, 24 in all, each mapped to a particular letter key on a standard QWERTY keyboard. An additional, "difficult character" function is mapped to the X key. Within the keystroke-to-character representations, there are four subsections of characters: the Philosophical Set, the Strokes Set, the Body-Related Set, the Shapes Set; the basic character components in Cangjie are called "radicals". The basic character components in Cangjie are called "radicals" or "letters". There are 24 radicals but 26 keys. For instance, the letter A can represent either itself, the wider 曰, or a 90° rotation of itself; the auxiliary shapes of each Cangjie radical have changed between different versions of the Cangjie method. Chu Bong-Foo has provided alternative names for some letters according to their characteristics, for example H is called 斜 which means slant.
The names form a rhyme for learners to memorize the letters, each group in a line: 日 月 金 木 水 火 土 斜 點 交 叉 縱 橫 鈎 人 心 手 口 側 並 仰 紐 方 卜 The typist must be familiar with several decomposition rules 拆字規則 that define how to analyse a character to arrive at a Cangjie code. Direction of decomposition: left to right, top to bottom, outside to inside Geometrically connected forms: take 4 Cangjie codes, namely the first, second and last codes Geometrically unconnected forms that can be broken into two subforms: identify the two geometrically connected subforms according to the direction of decomposition rules take the first and last codes of the first subform and the first and last code of the second subform. Geometrically unconnected forms that can be broken into multiple subforms: identify the first geometrically connected subform according to the direction of decomposition rules and take the first and last codes of that form. Next, break the remainder into subforms and take the first and last codes of the first subform and the last code of the last subform.
The rules are subject to various principles: Conciseness — if two decompositions are possible, the shorter decomposition is correct Completeness — if two decompositions of the same length are possible, the one that identifies a more complex form first is the correct decomposition Reflection of the form of the radical — the decomposition should reflect the shape of the radical, meaning using the same code twice or more should be avoided if possible, the shape of the character should not be "cut" at a corner in the form Omission of codes Partial omission — when the number of codes in a complete decomposition would exceed the permitted number of codes, the extra codes are ignored Omission in enclosed forms — when part of the character to be decomposed and the form is an enclosed form, only the shape of the enclosure is decomposed. The Cangjie code is thus 十 田 corresponding to the basic shapes of the codes in this example. 謝 This character consists of geometrically unconnected parts arranged horizontally.
For the initial decomposition, we treat it as two parts, 言 and 射. The first part, 言, is geo
S60 (software platform)
The S60 Platform is a software platform for smartphones that runs on top of the Symbian operating system. It was created by Nokia based on the'Pearl' user interface from Symbian Ltd, it was first shipped with the Nokia 7650 smartphone. The platform has since seen 5 updated editions. Series 60 was renamed to S60 in November 2005. In 2008, the Symbian Foundation was formed to consolidate all the assets of different Symbian platforms, making it open source. In 2009, based on the code base of S60, the first iteration of the platform since the creation of Symbian Foundation was launched as S60 5th Edition, or Symbian^1, on top of Symbian OS 9.4 as its base. Subsequent iterations were named Symbian^2 and Symbian^3; the S60 software is a multivendor standard for smartphones that supports application development in Java MIDP, C++, Python and Adobe Flash. Its API was called Avkon UI. S60 consists of a suite of libraries and standard applications, such as telephony, personal information manager tools, Helix-based multimedia players.
It was intended to power featured modern phones with large colour screens, which are known as smartphones. The most distinguishing feature of S60 phones was that they allowed users to install new applications after purchase. Unlike a standard desktop platform, the built-in apps are upgraded by the vendor beyond bug fixes. New features are only added to phones while they are being developed rather than after public release. Certain buttons are standardized, such as a menu key, a four way joystick or d-pad and right soft keys and a clear key. S60 was used by Nokia but they licensed it to a few other manufacturers, including Lenovo, LG Electronics, Samsung, Siemens Mobile, Sony Ericsson and Vertu. Sony Ericsson notably was the main vendor using the competing UIQ Symbian interface. In addition to the manufacturers the community includes: Software integration companies such as Sasken, Teleca, Mobica, Atelier.tm Semiconductor companies Texas Instruments, STMicroelectronics, Sony, Freescale Semiconductor, Samsung Electronics Operators such as Vodafone and Orange who develop and provide S60-based mobile applications and services Software developers and independent software vendors.
There have been four major releases of S60: "Series 60", "Series 60 Second Edition", "S60 3rd Edition" and "S60 5th Edition". Each release had an updated version called Feature Pack, sometimes known as relay; each runs on a different Symbian version. Version 0.9 was the original and first shipped with Nokia 7650. Version 1.2 first shipped with Nokia 3600/3650 in 2003. Many devices are capable of running the S60 software platform with the Symbian OS. Devices ranging from the early Nokia 7650 running S60 v0.9 on Symbian OS v6.1, to the latest Samsung i8910 Omnia HD running S60 v5.0 on Symbian OS v9.4. In Symbian^3 the version of the revised platform is v5.2. The table lists devices carrying each version of S60 as well as the Symbian OS version on what it is based. Note that new devices since Symbian^3 May be capable of upgrading to systems, such as Symbian Anna and Symbian Belle. Therefore, you may see a device being listed in many systems. Symbian is now progressing through a period of organisational change to metamorph into an open source software platform project.
As an OS, Symbian OS provided no user interface, the visual layer that runs atop an operating system. This was implemented separately. Examples of Symbian UIs are MOAP; this separation of UI from underlying OS has created both flexibility and some confusion in the market place. The Nokia purchase of Symbian was brokered with the involvement of the other UI developers and all major user interface layers have been donated to the open source foundation who will independently own the Symbian operating system; the new Symbian Foundation has announced its intent to unify different Symbian UIs into a single UI based on the S60 platform.. On 12 April 2011, Nokia announced Symbian Anna as a software update to the Symbian^3 release. Three new devices were announced. Symbian Anna will be available as a Software Update for Symbian^3 based devices as well. Most Significant updates that come with "Anna" are Portrait QWERTY with split-view data entry New Icon Set New internet browser with an improved user interface, search-integrated address field, faster navigation and page loading.
Updated Ovi Maps. Java Runtime 2.2, Qt Mobility 1.1 and Qt4.7. On 24 August 2011, Nokia announced Symbian Belle as a software update to the Symbian Anna release. Three new devices were announced. Symbian Belle was available as a Software Update for Symbian Anna-based devices as well. Most Significant updates that came with "Belle" were Free-form, differently-sized, live widgets More homescreens Improved status bar Dropdown menu Modernised navigation New apps Informative lock screen NFC devices Visual multitasking In November 2011, Nokia announced the Carla and Donna updates. Carla was expected to be released in late 2012 or early 2013 and feature a new web browser, new widgets, new NFC capabilities and Dolby Surround audio enhancement. Donna was going t
A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms.
In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion—enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung and Huawei, smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For feature phones as of 2016, the largest were Samsung and Alcatel. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from trains; the race to create portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, were expensive. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms; the first commercial automated cellular network analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s; these first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard; this sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media; the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera. 5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R.
New standards beyond 4G are being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation. Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features; the International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions. In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony. Feature phone is a term used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone, only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface.
By contrast, smartphones use a mobile operating system that shares common traits across devices. There are Orthodox Jewish religious re
Stroke count method
The Stroke Count Method, Wubihua method, Stroke input method or Bihua IME is a simple Chinese input method for writing text on a computer or a mobile phone. It is based on the stroke order of a word, not pronunciation, it uses five or six buttons, is placed on a numerical keypad. Although it is possible to input Traditional Chinese characters with this method, this method is associated with Simplified Chinese characters; the Wubihua method should not be confused with the Wubi method. Each of the five keys from 1 to 5 are assigned a certain type of stroke: A horizontal stroke from left to right A vertical stroke from top to bottom A long diagonal stroke downward from right to left A short dash stroke downward from left to right A horizontal stroke from left to right, ending with a downwards hook to the left To input any character, the user presses the keys corresponding to the first four strokes of a character and the key corresponding to the last stroke of a character; the user presses 0 after the last stroke for characters with four strokes or less.
Some Wubihua systems have a match option. Some systems take more than 4 strokes; the user must select from a list of matching characters. The list of suggestions to choose from becomes more and more specific as more digits of the code are entered; the system will not recognize a character input with an incorrect stroke order. Some people find this method of entering characters into a mobile phone to be faster than pinyin. In fact, as pinyin is based upon Mandarin Chinese, many Chinese people - in the southern regions of China like Hong Kong and Macau - who speak other varieties of Chinese and never learned pinyin relied on this method of entering characters on their phones, until touchscreen-based Smartphones allowed the possibility of Handwriting recognition. Wubihua is one of the easiest to learn methods because it is simple and does not require knowledge of pronunciation or Pinyin. However, it tends to be vague, as a Wubihua code will match ten characters, each character has one correct code, which confuses users whose stroke orders are wrong.
Strokes map to Wubihua input according to the following table: Wubi method Chinese input methods for computers Stroke Eight principles of yong: how stroke styles is taught to student calligraphers Wubihua For Speakers of English Thesis on chinese language processing and computing - Wubihua
Chinese input methods for computers
Chinese input methods are methods that allow a computer user to input Chinese characters. Most, if not all, Chinese input methods fall into one of two categories: phonetic readings or root shapes. Methods under the phonetic category are easier to learn but are less efficient, thus resulting in slower typing speeds because they require users to choose from a list of phonetically similar characters for input. Other methods allow users to write characters directly onto touchscreens, such as those found on mobile phones and tablet computers. Chinese input methods predate the computer. One of the early attempts was an electro-mechanical Chinese typewriter Ming kwai, invented by Lin Yutang, a prominent Chinese writer, in the 1940s, it assigned thirty base shapes or strokes to different keys and adopted a new way of categorizing Chinese characters. But the typewriter was not produced commercially and Lin soon found himself in debt. Before the 1980s, Chinese publishers hired teams of workers and selected a few thousand type pieces from an enormous Chinese character set.
Chinese government agencies entered characters using a long, complicated list of Chinese telegraph codes, which assigned different numbers to each character. During the early computer era, Chinese characters were categorized by their radicals or Pinyin romanization, but results were less than satisfactory. Chu Bong-Foo invented a common input method in 1976 with his Cangjie input method, which assigns different "roots" to each key on a standard computer keyboard. With this method, for example, the character 日 is assigned to the A key, 月 is assigned to B. Typing them together will result in the character 明. Despite its steeper learning curve, this method remains popular in Chinese communities that use traditional Chinese characters, such as Hong Kong and Taiwan, it was the first method that allowed users to enter more than a hundred Chinese characters per minute. All methods have their weaknesses; the pinyin method can be learned but its maximum input rate is limited. The Wubi takes longer to learn, but expert typists can enter text much more with it than with phonetic methods.
Due to these complexities, there is no "standard" method. In mainland China, the wubi and pinyin methods such as Sogou Pinyin and Google Pinyin are the most popular. Other methods include OCR and voice recognition; the computer itself must first be "trained" before the first or second of these methods are used. The latter two methods are used less than keyboard-based input methods and suffer from high error rates when used without proper "training", though higher error rates are an acceptable trade-off to many users; the user enters pronunciations. The user must select the desired character from homophones. Modern systems, such as Sogou Pinyin and Google Pinyin, predict the desired characters based on context and user preferences. For example, if one enters the sounds jicheng, the software will type 繼承, but if jichengche is entered, 計程車 will appear. Various Chinese dialects complicate the system. Phonetic methods are based on standard pinyin, Zhuyin/Bopomofo, Jyutping in China and Hong Kong, respectively.
Input methods based on other varieties of Chinese, like Hakka or Minnan exist. While the phonetic system is easy to learn, choosing appropriate Chinese characters slows typing speed. Most users report a typing speed of fifty characters per minute, though some reach over one hundred per minute. With some phonetic IMEs, in addition to predictive input based on previous conversions, it is possible for users to create custom dictionary entries for used characters and phrases lowering the number of characters required to evoke it. Shuangpin dual spell, is a stenographical phonetic input method based on hanyu pinyin that reduces the number of keystrokes for one Chinese character to two by distributing every vowel and consonant composed of more than one letter to a specific key. In most Shuangpin layout schemes such as Xiaohe, Microsoft 2003 and Ziranma, the most used vowels are placed on the middle layer, reducing the risk of repetitive strain injury. Shuangpin is supported by a large number of pinyin input software including QQ, Microsoft Bing Pinyin, Sogou Pinyin and Google Pinyin.
Cangjie input method Simplified Cangjie CKC Chinese Input System Boshiamy method Dayi method Array input method Four-Corner Method Oxis Chinese Character Finder Q9 method Shouwei method Stroke count method Stroke method Wubi method Wubihua method Zhengma method Biaoxingma method Shou-wei Hao-ma method Knot DNA method Tze-loi method Renzhi code method Cong Ming Da Zi Chinese telegraph code (中
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon