Quantum Effect Devices
Quantum Effect Devices was a microprocessor design company incorporated in 1991 as Quantum Effect Design. It was based in California; the three founders, Tom Riordan, Earl Killian and Ray Kunita, were senior managers at MIPS Computer Systems Inc.. They left MIPS at a time when the company was having a difficult time selling entire computer systems instead of concentrating on building microprocessor chips, MIPS' original mission. Soon after, SGI purchased MIPS. IDT was a major customer for the initial QED design; the original product plan for QED was to build a MIPS microprocessor for a laptop computer. This was during the ACE initiative from Microsoft to support multiple RISC architectures for their new Windows NT operating system. System companies like DeskStation Technology and board companies like ShaBLAMM! Computer were building products in the hope that RISC-based personal computers would become mainstream. While that market never materialized, the first product, the R4600 "Orion" microprocessor, proved to be successful in several embedded markets such as networking routers and arcade games.
Subsequent projects were designed for companies such as Toshiba and IDT, IDT & NKK, SGI and NEC. The PowerPC 603q was a PowerPC microprocessor designed for Motorola, meant for Apple Computer's home PC and game machine designs. Neither of these designs were productized, so the PowerPC 603q never reached full production. Several years in an attempt to increase product revenue, the company transformed itself to a product company selling its own line of MIPS microprocessors. At that time, the company changed its name to Quantum Effect Devices. After successful products introductions like the RM5200 and the RM7000, under its own "RISCMark" label, the company had its IPO on 1 February 2000; the initial stock price of $16 jumped to $56.50 on the first day of trading. The company was acquired by PMC-Sierra on October 2000; the company became the Microprocessor Products Division of PMC. The acquisition was valued at $2.3 billion. The team completed the RM9x00 product line while at PMC, but that product line was not successful in the marketplace.
Most of the microprocessor core development team derived from QED was laid off as a group by PMC-Sierra in June 2005. The company name was attributed to Tom Riordan, he believed that the company would survive to the age when semiconductor geometry dimensions would become so small that quantum effects would dominate circuit behavior. The first QED microprocessor was the R4600; the founders of QED, who were involved with the R4000, felt that the large device was too complicated and that a simpler implementation would give a better price/performance ratio. For that reason, the R4600 is a re-implementation of the 5-stage Classic RISC pipeline with large caches. For a while, this small and low cost device was one of the highest performance microprocessors on the market. While the initial target market of a MIPS laptop computer never materialized, this device found success in several markets, it was the first RISC processor used within a Cisco Systems network router. It was used in several Atari/Midway arcade games such as the well-known original Mortal Kombat game.
The R4600 was licensed by IDT and Toshiba who manufactured and sold the devices. The R4700 was targeted at SGI; the R4700 improved on the repeat rate of floating point multiply instructions. This device was used inside the SGI Indy low-end workstation; the R4700 was licensed by Toshiba who manufactured and sold the devices. The R4650 was commissioned by NKK, who desired a cheaper implementation for a video console game machine; the R4650 achieved a smaller die area by cutting the caches in half, only implementing single precision floating-point. This device was the first QED device that implemented the multiply–accumulate instructions, which enabled software functions such as softmodem; this device was used in the original Microsoft WebTV device. The R4650 was licensed by NKK who manufactured and sold the devices; the R4640 was the same chip but with the system bus restricted to 32-bits instead of 64-bits. The R5000 was commissioned by SGI; this device doubled the instruction and data caches to 32 KB.
It implemented a high-performance pipelined floating point unit with multiply–accumulate capability and a SRT divider. The device had a limited implementation of superscalar instruction issue in which one integer instruction and one floating-point instruction could be issued in one cycle; this device was used in the SGI SGI Indy low-end workstations. The design was owned by SGI, which licensed the design to IDT and NEC and to Toshiba; the PowerPC 603q was commissioned by Motorola and the target market was Apple Computer's low-cost accounts including a home computer for students and a home video console game named Pippen. The 603q was the R4600 pipeline re-targeted for the PowerPC instruction set. Since the PowerPC 603 was the most power-efficient chip from the AIM alliance, the name of this device was chosen to reflect its low-cost and low-power characteristics. Once those Apple projects were cancelled, Motorola stopped the development of the 603q though QED had received first silicon samples and they were functional.
The RM52XX series was the first product line sold directly by QED. The first of the series was a cost-reduced version of the R5000 with smaller caches and a different pin-out; the earlier RM52X0 devices had only 16 KB caches while the RM52X1 devices had 32 KB caches. The RM523X devices had 3
QED: Question, Discover called QEDcon or QED, is an annual skeptical conference held in Manchester, UK. QED is organised by North West Skeptical Events Ltd, a volunteer-owned non-profit organisation originating from a collaboration between the Merseyside Skeptics Society and the Greater Manchester Skeptics Society. Starting in February 2011 the Merseyside Skeptics Society, in conjunction with the Greater Manchester Skeptics Society, began organising and presenting an annual two-day skeptical science festival, QED: Question, Discover; the master of ceremonies for the first QED was George Hrab. Notable speakers included Steven Novella and Eugenie Scott, episodes of three podcasts, InKredulous, The Pod Delusion, Strange Quarks, were recorded live during the event. In an article about the first QED conference on the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry website, Kylie Sturgess said, "The organisers of QEDCon didn't need to proclaim the success of their convention from the stage — it was evident from the beginning to the end."
The conference was part of the 2011 10:23 Campaign, with The Challenge culminating in a homeopathic overdose on Belladonna by 350 participants of QED. By 2016, QED had grown out to 650 attendees, with multiple simultaneous sessions in various formats, covering a wide range of topics "from ethics in magic to evolutionary biology to effective science communication and everything in between." Incumbent ECSO President Claire Klingenberg described QED as "a high-energy event", where "both the audience and the speakers are on average young and active in their fields of interest." She said there were "so many brilliant people mulling around and not enough time to see and do everything, which makes you want to come back next year.". In 2018, David Attenborough described the conference as "the largest gathering of sceptics in the world". October 2018 QED event was the largest conference to date; the weekend was hosted by Helen Arney, along with speakers from around the world including. Alex Moshakis from The Observer, attending QED 2018, found the "underlining message related more to the skeptical process: how to become a more effective critical thinker".
QED is organised by volunteers, any proceeds go back into future events or to charities. In the first year, these charities were Sense About the National Autistic Society. On the Token Skeptic podcast, co-organiser Michael Marshall commented: How we try to always pitch it and how we try and run it is – it's all about the skeptical community; because it's being run by people who are just part of that community who are doing this because we love it, the atmosphere, seems to be, of people coming together. It's kind of a big party, a celebration of UK skepticism and international skepticism. QED formally comprises a Saturday and a Sunday, it is preceded by so-called "fringe events", with a Skeptics in the Pub event on Thursday night, a SkeptiCamp on Friday morning and afternoon, following by a pub quiz, an informal socialising event known as the "QED Mixer". The fringe events don't require a QED ticket; the general setup of the QED agenda is to have several main speakers who give lectures and workshops, live podcasts and panel discussions, alternated with in-depth sessions that most run in parallel.
Some documentary films about scientific skepticism are screened, with Science Moms having had its world premiere at QED. Many sessions are filmed, can be viewed on YouTube afterwards. On Saturday night, several social events are organised, such as a gala dinner and comedy shows, the Ockham Award ceremony; the Skeptic magazine annually awards the Ockham Awards, or the Ockhams, at QED. This occurred for the first time in 2012, the award ceremony has been considered a highlight of the conference since; the Ockhams were introduced by editor-in-chief Deborah Hyde to "recognise the effort and time that have gone into the community’s favourite skeptical blogs, skeptical podcasts, skeptical campaigns and outstanding contributors to the skeptical cause."The name refers to Ockham's razor, formulated by English philosopher William of Ockham. The trophies, designed by Neil Davies and Karl Derrick, carry the upper text "Ockham's" and the lower text "The Skeptic. Shaving away unnecessary assumptions since 1285."
Between the texts, there is an image of a double-edged safety razorblade, both lower corners feature an image of William of Ockham's face. First, the skeptical community nominates the candidates for the Ockham Awards online, in the categories: blog, event / campaign and video; the most popular of these nominations comprise the shortlists. The shortlist winners are contacted to provide a selection of their best work, The Skeptic's panel of Judges makes the final decision from there; the ironic award'for the most audacious pseudo-science', "The Rusty Razor", is determined by public vote. "The Editors' Choice Award" is a special Ockham without a category, chosen by the current and past editors-in-chief of The Skeptic, Chris French, Wendy Grossman and Deborah Hyde. Best Skeptic Blog 2012: SkepChick – Rebecca Watson et al. 2013: The Quackometer – Andy Lewis 2014: Leaving Fundamentalism – Jonny Scaramanga 2015: Hayley is a Ghost – Hayley Stevens 2016: Naturopathic Diaries – Britt Marie Hermes 2017: Always Look on the Bright Side of Death – Crispian JagoBest Skeptic Event / Campaign 2012: Robin Ince 2013: Skeptics on the Fringe – Edinburgh Skeptics 2014: The Nightingale Collaboration – Alan Henness & Maria MacLachlan 2015: S
Q. E. D. is a manga series created by Motohiro Katou. Sou Touma is a university graduate who encounters a variety of investigative cases after returning to Japan from the US, he works with his friend, Kana Mizuhara, combining his deductive skills with Mizuhara's social gifts. Q. E. D. has been adapted as a live-action TV series. The manga was first serialised in Magazine GREAT in 1997, continued as a Magazine E-no segment in 2009 after Magazine GREAT's cessation. Q. E. D. is serialized in Magazine Plus, and, as of October 2014, 50 volumes of tankōbon have been released. Each volume has two cases, both of which are solved at the end; as of March 2012, there was only one full-length case that had spanned an entire volume which flashbacked to Sou's time studying at MIT in the US. After the cancellation of Magazine Plus, the manga was renewed in Magazine R under the title Q. E. D. Iff. Sou Touma The main character of the series. Though and a genius detective, is not interested in going out and finding wrongs to right.
Rather, it is his erstwhile partner Kana. An introvert, he is well-known for his intelligence, although he is not popular. Sou is introduced, he assists Kana's father in finding a murderer. After that, he and Kana are seen together, although she denies they are going out. Sou's past is a mystery, he appears to be a sort of polymath with a wide range of knowledge. What is known is that he graduated from MIT in the United States and was planning on continuing to graduate school, but decided to drop out for unknown reasons and came to join Kana's high school. While intelligent, Sou is seen being amused by such simple things as snowflakes, suggesting he did not have an ordinary childhood. During cases, he becomes more quiet and it is sometimes hinted that, in addition to Kana's prompting, he only solves cases for his own reasons. Sou is often the unfortunate recipient of Kana's violent tendencies, as he is bopped on the head for reasons ranging from asking an embarrassing question in public to accidentally looking up her shorts.
Despite this, despite complaining whenever Kana drags him somewhere against his will, he demonstrates concern for her taking her along whenever he goes out of town. He doesn't mind it when people call Kana his girlfriend. Besides being a genius, Sou is wealthy and can speak in a number of languages including French, he is seen as having interest in biology. He has a younger sister named Yuu, a genius with all languages. Kana Mizuhara Kana is a spirited, tomboy who excels in every sport she attempts. Brave and rather pretty, she has been described as having a heart "big enough to float a planet", it is her willingness to help others than draws Sou into cases. She first encounters Sou, she is warned by her close friend that Sou is mysterious and she should leave him alone. Shortly thereafter, her friend learns her father was murdered, leading Kana to drag Sou along for support, her father, Detective Mizuhara, is with Sou's help arrests the murderer. Since the two have been nearly inseparable, in that Kana drags Sou wherever she goes.
She categorically denies that the two are dating, but there have been many hints in the manga that she is developing feelings for him. She admits to a female senpai, interested in Sou that she is confused about the relationship between herself and Sou because she think they are more than friends yet she still can't name the feeling she feels nor can she describe their relationship; the fact that she knows so little about his past bothers her and she tries to find out more about him, going so far as to secretly follow him after school. What little she learns either impresses her or makes her unhappy at how much Sou's been through. Kana is a popular student, she is seen in a leadership role, she practices judo and kendo, the former skill coming in handy when attempting to defend herself or Sou and apprehending suspects. She is infamous for her violent tendencies, showing no mercy to anyone who suggests there is something more to her and Sou than friendship. Detective Mizuhara Kana's father. A gruff, unshaven police detective, he is introduced as the chief investigator of the murder of Kana's friend's father.
Upon returning home and noticing Sou's shoes, he is outraged that a boy was not only visiting, but was in his daughter's room unsupervised. Despite the circumstances of their meeting, Sou manages to impress the detective with his wide range of knowledge. After Sou unmasked the murderer, the detective develops a healthy respect for his abilities, he comes to trust Sou a great deal as he allows Kana to accompany him on trips and includes him in family events. He reaches a point where he is no longer surprised to see Kana together most of the time. Loki Real name Sid Green. An old friend of Sou from MIT, Loki is, like Sou, a intelligent individual, he and Sou are like brothers, he teases the younger boy. In his first appea
Q.E.D. (UK TV series)
Q. E. D. was the name of a strand of BBC popular science documentary films which aired in the United Kingdom from 1982 to 1999. Running in a half-hour peak-time slot on the BBC's primary mass-audience channel BBC1, the series had a more populist and general interest agenda than the long-running Horizon series which aired on the more specialist channel BBC2. Horizon could be difficult for a scientific novice, requiring a modicum of background knowledge beyond the reaches of many viewers, so Q. E. D. was a more approachable way of introducing scientific stories. A Guide to Armageddon – the effects of a one megaton nuclear bomb being exploded over London. Director Mick Jackson went on to direct the 1984 docu-drama Threads, an account of a nuclear holocaust and its effect on the working class city of Sheffield and the eventual long-term effects of nuclear war on civilization. Simon's War – the life of Simon Weston, who suffered serious burns in the Falklands War Big Brother's Little Test – How reliable is polygraphy, the use of lie-detectors?
Can the innocent be unjustly condemned? Can the guilty beat them? In at the Deep End – an experiment in which divers spent nine days at simulated depths of up to 1000 feet, breathing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen Round Britain Whizz – a sped-up flight around the coastline of Britain The Foolish Wise Ones – a look at the talents and worlds of Autistic Savants, such as Stephen Wiltshire With a Goal in Mind – A sport psychologist works with First Division Queen's Park Rangers for a period of six weeks. John's Not Mad – follows a 15-year-old boy with severe Tourette syndrome My Best Friend's a Computer – explores the effects of computers on the emotional development of children Nerve Transplant – explores the work of a unique nerve transplant surgeon, bringing back movement to the limbs of paralysed patients Superspecs – follows the travels of a British inventor around Ghana with a pair of glasses made for just a dollar, that he is convinced could save the sight of millions The Burning Question – on spontaneous human combustion Breathless – investigates the Buteyko method for treating asthma Equinox – Channel 4 popular science series, last aired in 2001 Horizon – comparable BBC2 strand, on air since 1964 Nova – documentary series on PBS in the United States, which bought in and re-voiced Equinox and Horizon films Q.
E. D. British Film Institute. List of films, with dates. Q. E. D. on IMDb
Q.E.D. (U.S. TV series)
Q. E. D. is a 1982 adventure television series set in Edwardian England, starring Sam Waterston as Professor Quentin Everett Deverill. The Professor was a scientific detective in the mold of Sherlock Holmes, the series had a smattering of what would be called steampunk. In the show, the lead character was known by his initials, Q. E. D. E. D. Stands for quod erat demonstrandum, a statement signalling the end of a proof. However, characters would sometimes state the initials to represent "quite done." The show aired on the CBS network in the United States, by a variety of ITV companies in the United Kingdom. Prof. Quentin E. Deverill Phipps Charlie Andrews Betsy Stephens Jenny Martin Dr. Stefan Kilkiss Q. E. D. on IMDb Q. E. D. at TV.com
QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter
QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman. QED was designed to be a popular science book, written in a witty style, containing just enough quantum-mechanical mathematics to allow the solving of basic problems in quantum electrodynamics by an educated lay audience, it is unusual for a popular science book in the level of mathematical detail it goes into allowing the reader to solve simple optics problems, as might be found in an actual textbook. But unlike in a typical textbook, the mathematics is taught in simple terms, with no attempt to solve problems efficiently, use standard terminology, or facilitate further advancement in the field; the focus instead is on nurturing a basic conceptual understanding of what is going on in such calculations. Complex numbers are taught, for instance, by asking the reader to imagine that there are tiny clocks attached to subatomic particles.
The book was first published in 1985 by the Princeton University Press. In an acknowledgement Feynman wrote: This book purports to be a record of the lectures on quantum electrodynamics I gave at UCLA, transcribed and edited by my good friend Ralph Leighton; the manuscript has undergone considerable modification. Mr. Leighton's experience in teaching and in writing was of considerable value in this attempt at presenting this central part of physics to a wider audience. Much of Feynman's discussion springs from an everyday phenomenon: the way any transparent sheet of glass reflects any light shining on it. Feynman pays homage to Isaac Newton's struggles to come to terms with the nature of light. Feynman's lectures were given as the Sir Douglas Robb lectures at the University of Auckland, New Zealand in 1979. Videotapes of these lectures were made publicly available on a not-for-profit basis in 1996 and more have been placed online by the Vega Science Trust; the book is based on Feynman's delivery of the first Alix G. Mautner Memorial Lecture series for the general public at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1983.
The differences between the book and the original Auckland lectures were discussed in June 1996 in the American Journal of Physics. In 2006, Princeton University Press published a new edition with a new introduction by Anthony Zee, he introduces Feynman's peculiar take at explaining physics, cites: "According to Feynman, to learn QED you have two choices: you can go through seven years of physics education or read this book". 1. Photons - Corpuscles of Light In the first lecture, which acts as a gentle lead-in to the subject of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman describes the basic properties of photons, he discusses how to measure the probability that a photon will reflect or transmit through a reflective piece of glass. 2. Fits of Reflection and Transmission - Quantum Behaviour In the second lecture, Feynman looks at the different paths a photon can take as it travels from one point to another and how this affects phenomena like reflection and diffraction. 3. Electrons and Their interactions The third lecture describes quantum phenomena such as the famous double-slit experiment and Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, thus describing the transmission and reflection of photons.
It introduces his famous "Feynman diagrams" and how quantum electrodynamics describes the interactions of subatomic particles. 4. New Queries In the fourth lecture, Feynman discusses the meaning of quantum electrodynamics and some of its problems, he describes "the rest of physics", giving a brief look at quantum chromodynamics, the weak interaction and gravity, how they relate to quantum electrodynamics. Dean, Chris. "The Vega Science Trust - Richard Feynman - Science Videos". Www.vega.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-10-26. Dudley, J. M.. M. Kwan. "Richard Feynman's popular lectures on quantum electrodynamics: The 1979 Robb Lectures at Auckland University". American Journal of Physics. 64: 694–698. Bibcode:1996AmJPh..64..694D. Doi:10.1119/1.18234. Feynman, Richard. QED: The strange theory of light and matter. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08388-6. Feynman, Richard. QED: The strange theory of light and matter. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12575-9; the Douglas Robb Memorial Lectures Video of the four public lectures in New Zealand of which the four chapters of this book QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter are transcripts.
Feynman QED lectures in New Zealand - Vega Science Trust streaming video. The Strange Theory of Light - Computer programs inspired by the Czech translation of this book
Q. E. D. is an initialism of the Latin phrase "quod erat demonstrandum" meaning "what was to be shown" or "thus it has been demonstrated." Traditionally, the abbreviation is placed at the end of a mathematical proof or philosophical argument to indicate that the proof or argument is complete. The phrase, quod erat demonstrandum, is a translation into Latin from the Greek ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι. Translating from the Latin into English yields, "what was to be demonstrated", translating the Greek phrase ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι produces a different meaning. Since the verb "δείκνυμι" means to show or to prove, a better translation from the Greek would read, "The thing it was required to have shown."The Greek phrase was used by many early Greek mathematicians, including Euclid and Archimedes. During the European Renaissance, scholars wrote in Latin, phrases such as Q. E. D. were used to conclude proofs. The most famous use of Q. E. D. in a philosophical argument is found in the Ethics of Baruch Spinoza, published posthumously in 1677.
Written in Latin, it is considered by many to be Spinoza's magnum opus. The style and system of the book are, as Spinoza says, "demonstrated in geometrical order", with axioms and definitions followed by propositions. For Spinoza, this is a considerable improvement over René Descartes's writing style in the Meditations, which follows the form of a diary. There is another Latin phrase with a different meaning shortened but being less common in use. Quod erat faciendum, originating from the Greek geometers' closing ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι, meaning "which had to be done"; because of the difference in meaning, the two phrases should not be confused. Euclid used the phrase, Quod Erat Faciendum, to close propositions that were not proofs of theorems, but constructions. For example, Euclid's first proposition showing how to construct an equilateral triangle, given one side, is concluded this way. Q. E. D. has acquired many translations in various languages, including: There is no common formal English equivalent, although the end of a proof may be announced with a simple statement such as "this completes the proof", "as required", "hence proved", "ergo", or by using a similar locution.
WWWWW or W5 – an abbreviation of "Which Was What Was Wanted" – has been used similarly. This is considered to be more tongue-in-cheek than the usual Halmos symbol or Q. E. D. Due to the paramount importance of proofs in mathematics, mathematicians since the time of Euclid have developed conventions to demarcate the beginning and end of proofs. In printed English language texts, the formal statements of theorems and propositions are set in italics by tradition; the beginning of a proof follows thereafter, is indicated by the word "proof" in boldface or italics. On the other hand, several symbolic conventions exist to indicate the end of a proof. While some authors still use the classical abbreviation, Q. E. D, it is uncommon in modern mathematical texts. Paul Halmos pioneered the use of a solid black square at the end of a proof as a Q. E. D symbol, a practice which has become standard, although not universal. Halmos adopted this use of a symbol from magazine typography customs in which simple geometric shapes had been used to indicate the end of an article.
This symbol was called the tombstone or Halmos symbol or a halmos by mathematicians. The Halmos symbol is drawn on chalkboard to signal the end of a proof during a lecture, although this practice is not so common as its use in printed text; the tombstone symbol appears in TeX as the character ◼ and sometimes, as a ◻. In the AMS Theorem Environment for LaTeX, the hollow square is the default end-of-proof symbol. Unicode explicitly provides the "End of proof" character, U+220E; some authors use other Unicode symbols to note the end of a proof, including, ▮, ‣. Other authors have adopted four forward slashes. In other cases, authors have elected to segregate proofs typographically by displaying them as indented blocks. In Joseph Heller's book Catch-22, the Chaplain, having been told to examine a forged letter signed by him, verified that his name was in fact there, his investigator replied, "Then you wrote it. Q. E. D." The chaplain said he didn't write it and that it wasn't his handwriting, to which the investigator replied, "Then you signed your name in somebody else's handwriting again."In the 1978 science-fiction radio comedy, in the television and novel adaptations of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, "Q.
E. D." is referred to in the Guide's entry for the babel fish, when it is claimed that the babel fish – which serves the "mind-bogglingly" useful purpose of being able to translate any spoken language when inserted into a person's ear – is used as evidence for existence and non-existence of God. The exchange from the novel is as follows: "'I refuse to prove I exist,' says God,'for proof denies faith, without faith I am nothing."But,' says Man,'The babel fish is a dead giveaway, isn't it? It could not have evolved by chance, it proves you exist, so therefore, by your own arguments, you don't. QED."Oh dear,' says God,'I hadn't thought of that,' and promptly vanishes in a puff of logic."In Neal Stephenson's 1999 novel Cryptonomicon, Q. E. D. is used as a punchline to several humorous anecdotes in which characters go to great lengths to prove something non-mathematical. Singer-songwriter Thoma