Ahmed Khan bin Küchük
Ahmed bin Küchük was a Khan of the Great Horde between 1465 and 1481. In 1465, Ahmed Khan seized power in the Horde by rising against his brother Mahmud bin Küchük, its ruler since 1459. In 1472, Ahmed Khan entered into alliance with the Polish king Casimir IV against Ivan III of Russia. In 1476, Ahmed Khan suggested to Ivan III; however the situation of forces was not in the Horde's favour. In 1480, Ahmed Khan organized another military campaign against Muscovy, which would result in the great stand on the Ugra river, 150 miles from Moscow, they stood off shouting at one another on opposite banks for weeks before a conflict became inevitable. Panic set in, as both sides turned deciding to flee, rather than fight in the tradition of Genghis Khan; the Horde's retreat meant. The Mongols' last possessions were in Kazan and the Crimea. Ivan III, Russia's ruler freed himself from the Tatar-Mongol dependency. On 6 January 1481, Ahmed Khan and his men were killed by Siberian Khan, Ibak Khan of Tyumen and Nogays at the mouth of the Donets River.
Ahmed Khan's wife was the Timurid princess Badi' al-Jamal, a sister of Sultan Husayn Bayqara of Khorasan. Through this marriage he had two sons, Mahmud Khan and Bahadur Khan, as well as a daughter, Khanzada Khanum. However, Badi' al-Jamal left the Golden Horde and returned with her children to her brother's court in Herat. Genghis Khan Jochi Orda Khan Sartaqtay Köchü Bayan Sasibuqa Ilbasan Chimtay Urus Temur-Malik Temür Qutlugh Temur ibn Temur Qutlugh Küchük Muhammad Ahmed Khan bin Küchük Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz; the Crimean Khanate and Poland-Lithuania: International Diplomacy on the European Periphery: A Study of Peace Treaties Followed by Annotated Documents. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004191907
The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in the Russian North Caucasus region. Most are found in northern Dagestan and Stavropol Krai, as well as in Karachay-Cherkessia and Astrakhan Oblast, they speak the Nogai language and are descendants of various Mongolic and Turkic tribes who formed the Nogai Horde. There are two main groups of Nogais: the Ak Nogai and. In the 1990s, 65,000 were still living in the Northern Caucasus, divided into Aq Nogai and Qara Nogai tribal confederations. Nogais live in the territories of Dagestan, Stavropol district and Astrakhan Oblast. From 1928 there was a Nogaysky District, Republic of Dagestan and from 2007 a Nogaysky District, Karachay-Cherkess Republic. A few thousand Nogais live in Dobruja, in the town of Mihail Kogălniceanu and villages of Lumina, Valea Dacilor, Cobadin. An estimated 90,000 Nogais live in Turkey today settled in Ceyhan/Adana and Eskisehir provinces; the Nogai language is still spoken in some of the villages of Central Anatolia - around the Salt Lake, Eskişehir and Ceyhan.
To this day, Nogais in Turkey have maintained their cuisine: Üken börek, kasık börek, tabak börek, şır börek, köbete and Nogay şay. The Junior Juz, or the Lesser Horde of the Kazakhs, occupied the lands of the former Nogai Khanate in Western Kazakhstan. A part of Nogais joined Kazakhs in 17-18th centuries and formed separate clan or tribe called as Kazakh-Nogais, their estimated number is about 50,000. From the sixteenth century until their deportation in the mid-nineteenth century the Nogais living along the Black Sea northern coast were divided into the following sub-groups: Bucak Nogais inhabited the area from Danube to Dniester. Cedsan Nogais inhabited the land from Dniester to Southern Bug. Camboyluk Nogais inhabited in the lands from Bug to the beginning of Crimean Peninsula. Cedişkul Nogais inhabited the north of Crimean peninsula. Kuban Nogais inhabited the north of Sea of Azov around Prymorsk; the name Nogai derives from a general of the Golden Horde. The Mongol tribe called; the Nogai Horde supported the Astrakhan Khanate, after the conquest of Astrakhan in 1556 by Russians, they transferred their allegiance to the Crimean Khanate.
The Nogais protected the northern borders of the Crimean khanate, through organized raids to the Wild Fields inhibited Slavic settlement. Many Nogais migrated to the Crimean peninsula to serve as the Crimean khans' cavalry. Settling there, they contributed to the formation of the Crimean Tatars, they migrated seasonally in search of better pastures for their animals. Nogais were proud of their nomadic traditions and independence, which they considered superior to settled agricultural life; the recorded history of the Nogais first commenced when representatives of the Ottoman Empire reached the Terek–Kuma Lowland, where the Nogais were living as rogue clans and herders. There were two main chiefs: Ismail Mirza. Yusuf Mirza supported joining the Ottomans. However, his brother Ismail Mirza, allied with the Russians, ambushed Yusuf and declared his chiefdom under Russian rule. After that, the supporters of Yusuf Mirza migrated to Crimea and Yedisan, joining the Crimean Khanate. Supporters of Yusuf took the name Qara named by Crimeans as Kichi.
Those who remained in present-day West Kazakhstan and the North Caucasus took the name Uly. About 500,000 Nogais migrated to present-day Turkey around the 16th century, after the fall of the Nogai Horde, they settled in the following cities: Şanlıurfa, Gaziantep, Kırşehir, Eskişehir, Kahramanmaraş, Bursa. These Nogais do not speak the Nogai language anymore and some of them are not aware of their ancestry. At the beginning of the 17th century, the ancestors of the Kalmyks, the Oirats, migrated from the steppes of southern Siberia on the banks of the Irtysh River to the Lower Volga region. Various theories attempt to explain this move, but the accepted view is that the Kalmyks sought abundant pastures for their herds, they reached the Volga about 1630. That land, was not uncontested pasture, but rather the homeland of the Nogai Horde; the Kalmyks expelled the Nogais, who fled to the Northern Caucasian Plains and to the Crimean Khanate, areas under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Some Nogai groups sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan.
The remaining nomadic Turkic tribes became vassals of the Kalmyk khan. After the Russian annexation of Crimea in 1783, Slavic settlers occupied the Nogai pastoral land, since the Nogais did not have permanent residence. In the 1770s and 1780s Catherine the Great resettled 120,000 Nogais from Bessarabia and areas northeast of the Sea of Azov to the Kuban and the Caucasus. In 1790, during the Russo-Turkish war, Prince Grigory Potemkin ordered the resettlement of some Nogai families from the Caucasus to the north shore of the Sea of Azov. Through the 1792 Treaty of Jassy the Russian frontier was extended to the Dniester River and the Russian takeover of Yedisan was complete; the 1812 Treaty of Bucharest transferred Budjak to Russian control. After confiscating the land belonge
A Borjigin is a member of the sub-clan, which started with Yesugei, of the Kiyat clan. Yesugei's descendants were thus said to be Kiyat-Borjigin; the senior Borjigid provided ruling princes for Inner Mongolia until the 20th century. The clan formed the ruling class among the Mongols and some other peoples of Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Today, the Borjigid are found in most of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, although genetic research has shown that descent from Genghis Khan is common in Central Asia; the patrilineage began with Fallow Doe. According to The Secret History of the Mongols, their 11th generation descendant Dobu Mergen's widow Alan Gua the Fair was impregnated by a ray of light, her youngest son became the ancestor of the Borjigid. He was Bodonchar Munkhag. According to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, many of the older Mongolian clans were founded by members of the Borjigin — Barlas, Manghud, Chonos, etc; the first Khan of the Mongol was Bodonchar Munkhag's great-great-grandson Khaidu Khan.
Khaidu's grandsons Khabul Ambaghai Khan succeeded him. Thereafter, Khabul's sons, Hotula Khan and Yesugei, Khabuls grandson Temujin ruled the Khamag Mongol. By the unification of the Mongols in 1206 all of Temujin's uncles and first cousins had died, from on only the descendants of Yesugei Baghatur, his brother Daritai, nephew Onggur formed the Borjigid. According to Paul Pelliot and Louis Hambis, Rashid al-Din Hamadani once explained that "borčïqïn" designated "en turc" a man with dark-blue eyes, did so again without mentioning the said language, adding that Yesugei's children and the majority of their own children had had such eyes per coincidence recalling that the genie which had impregnated Alan Gua after her husband's death had had dark-blue eyes. Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur paraphrased Hamadani by relating that Yesugei's eyes were dark-blue, that the Mongols called such eyes "borǰïɣïn", that his sons and most of their descendants had had dark-blue eyes, that one recognized thus in Yesugei's lineage the characteristic sign of the genie which had visited Alan Gua and had "borǰïɣïn" eyes, adding that the Arabs called "ašhal" a man whose iris was black, cornea white, "la ligne foncée circulaire qui entoure l'iris" red.
Paul Pelliot and Louis Hambis have questioned these explanations. The Borjigin family ruled over the Mongol Empire from the 13th to 14th century; the rise of Genghis narrowed the scope of the Borjigid-Kiyad clans sharply. This separation was emphasized by the intermarriage of Genghis's descendants with the Barlas, Baarin and other branches of the original Borjigid. In the western regions of the Empire, the Jurkin and other lineages near to Genghis's lineage used the clan name Kiyad but did not share in the privileges of the Genghisids; the Borjigit clan had once dominated large lands stretching from Java to Iran and from Indo-China to Novgorod. In 1335, with the disintegration of the Ilkhanate in Iran, the first of numerous non-Borjigid-Kiyad dynasties appeared. Established by marriage partners of Genghisids, these included the Suldus Chupanids, Jalayirids in the Middle East, the Barulas dynasties in Chagatai Khanate and India, the Manghud and Onggirat dynasties in the Golden Horde and Central Asia, the Oirats in western Mongolia.
In 1368, under Toghun Temür, the Yuan dynasty was overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China but members of the family continued to rule over Mongolia homeland into the 17th century, known as the Northern Yuan dynasty. Descendants of Genghis Khan's brothers and Belgutei, surrendered to the Ming in the 1380s. By 1470 the Borjigin lines were weakened, Mongolia was in chaos. After the breakup of the Golden Horde, the Khiyat continued to rule the Crimea and Kazan until the late 18th century, they were annexed by the Chinese. In Mongolia, the Kublaids reigned as Khagan of the Mongols, descendants of Ögedei and Ariq Böke usurped the throne briefly. Under Dayan Khan a broad Borjigid revival reestablished Borjigid supremacy among the Mongols proper, his descendants proliferated to become a new ruling class. The Borjigin clan was the strongest of the 49 Mongol banners from which the Bontoi clan proper supported and fought for their Khan and for their honor; the eastern Khorchins were under the Hasarids, the Ongnigud, Abagha Mongols were under the Belguteids and Temüge Odchigenids.
A fragment of the Hasarids deported to Western Mongolia became the Khoshuts. The Qing dynasty respected the Borjigin family and the early emperors married the Hasarid Borjigids of the Khorchin. Among the pro-Qing Mongols, traces of the alternative tradition survived. Aci Lomi, a banner general, wrote his History of the Borjigid Clan in 1732–35; the 18th century and 19th century Qing nobility was adorned by the descendants of the early Mongol adherents including the Borjigin. Asian dynasties descended from Genghis Khan included the Yuan dynasty of China, the Ilkhanids of Persia, the Jochids of the Golden Horde, the Shaybanids of Siberia, the Astrakhanids of Central Asia; as a rule, the Genghisid descent played a crucial role in Tatar politics. For instance, Mamai had to exercise his authority through a succession of puppet k
History of Russia
The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples. The traditional beginning of Russian history is the establishment of Kievan Rus', the first united Eastern Slavic state, in 882; the state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Orthodox Slavic culture for the next millennium. Kievan Rus' disintegrated as a state due to the Mongol invasions in 1237–1240 along with the resulting deaths of about half the population of Rus'. After the 13th century, Moscow became a cultural center, by the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia had grown to become the Russian Empire, stretching from eastern Poland to the Pacific Ocean. Peasant revolts were common, all were fiercely suppressed. Russian serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants fared poorly and turned to revolutionary pressures. In the following decades, reform efforts such as the Stolypin reforms, the constitution of 1906, the State Duma attempted to open and liberalize the economy and political system, but the tsars refused to relinquish autocratic rule or share their power.
The Russian Revolution in 1917 was triggered by a combination of economic breakdown, war-weariness, discontent with the autocratic system of government. It brought to power a coalition of liberals and moderate socialists, but their failed policies led to seizure of power by the communist Bolsheviks on 25 October. Between 1922 and 1991, the history of Russia is the history of the Soviet Union an ideologically based state, conterminous with the Russian Empire before the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk; the approach to the building of socialism, varied over different periods in Soviet history, from the mixed economy and diverse society and culture of the 1920s to the command economy and repressions of the Joseph Stalin era to the "era of stagnation" in the 1980s. From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves, beginning in March 1918. By the mid-1980s, with the weaknesses of its economic and political structures becoming acute, Mikhail Gorbachev embarked on major reforms, which led to the overthrow of the communist party and the breakup of the USSR, leaving Russia again on its own and marking the start of the history of post-Soviet Russia.
The Russian Federation began in January 1992 as the legal successor to the USSR. Russia lost its superpower status. Scrapping the socialist central planning and state ownership of property of the socialist era, new leaders, led by President Vladimir Putin, took political and economic power after 2000 and engaged in an energetic foreign policy. Russia's recent annexation of the Crimean peninsula has led to severe economic sanctions imposed by the United States and the European Union. In 2006, 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus, demonstrating the presence of early humans in Russia from a early time. The discovery of some of the earliest evidence for the presence of anatomically modern humans found anywhere in Europe was reported in 2007 from the deepest levels of the Kostenki archaeological site near the Don River in Russia, dated to at least 40,000 years ago. Arctic Russia was reached by 40,000 years ago; that Russia was home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals was revealed by the discovery of the partial skeleton of a Neanderthal infant in Mezmaiskaya cave in Adygea, carbon dated to only 29,000 years ago.
In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a 40,000-year-old small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, which DNA analysis revealed to be a unknown species of human, named the Denisova hominin. During the prehistoric eras the vast steppes of Southern Russia were home to tribes of nomadic pastoralists. In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe was known as Scythia. Remnants of these long gone steppe cultures were discovered in the course of the 20th century in such places as Ipatovo, Sintashta and Pazyryk. In the part of the 8th century BCE, Greek merchants brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria. Gelonus was described by Herodotus as a huge earth- and wood-fortified grad inhabited around 500 BC by Heloni and Budini; the Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero.
At about the 2nd century AD Goths migrated to the Black Sea, in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies, was overwhelmed by successive waves of nomadic invasions, led by warlike tribes which would move on to Europe, as was the case with the Huns and Turkish Avars. A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas through to the 8th century. Noted for their laws and cosmopolitanism, the Khazars were the main commercial link between the Baltic and the Muslim Abbasid empire centered in Baghdad, they were important allies of the Byzantine Empire, waged a series of successful wars against the Arab Caliphates. In the 8th century, the Khazars embraced Judaism; some of the ancestors of the modern Russians were the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pripet Marshes.
The Early East S
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Hajji Tarkhan known as Hashtar Khan / Actarxan or Astrakhan, was a medieval city at the right bank of Volga, situated 12 km north of the modern city of Astrakhan. The first mention of the town was recorded in 1333. In the 13th and 14th centuries it was one of the main trade and political centres of the Golden Horde. In 1395 the city was sacked by Timur. Astrakhan was rebuilt afterwards and became the capital of the Khanate of Astrakhan in 1459. In 1547 the city was seized by the Crimean khan Sahib Giray. In 1556 Astrakhan was burned by Ivan the Terrible. Saqsin Atil "Хаҗитархан". Tatar Encyclopaedia. Kazan: The Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002