The Waldensians are an ascetic movement within Christianity, reputedly founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173. The Waldensian movement first appeared in Lyon in the late 1170s and spread to the Cottian Alps in what is today France and Italy. True to its historic roots, the Waldensian movement today is centred on Piedmont in Northern Italy, small communities are found in Southern Italy, Brazil, the United States, Uruguay. Today the two biggest Waldensian congregations are the Union of Waldensian and Methodist Churches and the Evangelical Waldensian Church of Río de la Plata; the movement originated in the late twelfth century as the Poor Men of Lyon, a band organized by Peter Waldo, a wealthy merchant who gave away his property around 1173, preaching apostolic poverty as the way to perfection. Waldensian teachings came into conflict with the Catholic Church. By 1215, the Waldensians were declared subject to intense persecution. In the era of the Reformation, the Waldensians influenced early Swiss reformer Heinrich Bullinger.
Upon finding the ideas of other reformers similar to their own, they merged into the larger Protestant movement. With the Resolutions of Chanforan on 12 September 1532, they formally became a part of the Calvinist tradition. In the 16th century, Waldensian leaders embraced the Protestant Reformation and joined various local Protestant regional entities; as early as 1631, Protestant scholars and Waldensian theologians themselves began to regard the Waldensians as early forerunners of the Reformation, who had maintained the apostolic faith in the face of Catholic oppression. Modern Waldensians share core tenets with Calvinists, including the priesthood of all believers, congregational polity and a "low" view of certain sacraments such as Communion and Baptism, they are members of the Community of Protestant Churches in its affiliates worldwide. The main denomination within the movement was the Waldensian Evangelical Church, the original church in Italy. In 1975, it merged with the Methodist Evangelical Church to form the Union of Methodist and Waldensian Churches—a majority Waldensian church, with a minority of Methodists.
Congregations continue to be active in Europe, South America, North America. Organizations such as the American Waldensian Society maintain the history of this movement and declare they take as their mission "proclaiming the Christian Gospel, serving the marginalized, promoting social justice, fostering inter-religious work, advocating respect for religious diversity and freedom of conscience." Most modern knowledge of the medieval history of the Waldensians originates exclusively from the records and writings of the Roman Catholic Church, the same body, condemning them as heretics. Because of "the documentary scarcity and unconnectedness from which we must draw the description of Waldensian beliefs," much of what is known about the early Waldensians comes from reports like the Profession of faith of Valdo of Lyon. Earlier documents that provide information about early Waldensian history include the Will of Stefano d'Anse. There are the two reports written for the Inquisition by Reinerius Saccho, a former Cathar who converted to Catholicism, published together in 1254 as Summa de Catharis et Pauperibus de Lugduno.
Waldensians preached a number of truths as they read from the Bible. These included: The atoning death and justifying righteousness of Christ The Godhead The fall of man The incarnation of the Son A denial of purgatory as the "invention of the Antichrist" The value of voluntary povertyThey rejected a number of concepts that were held in Christian Europe of the era. For example, the Waldensians held that temporal offices and dignities were not meant for preachers of the Gospel, they were accused, moreover, of having scoffed at the doctrine of transubstantiation, of having spoken blasphemously of the Catholic Church as the harlot of the Apocalypse. They rejected what they perceived as the idolatry of the Catholic Church and considered the Papacy as the Antichrist of Rome; the "La nobla leyczon", written in the Occitan language, gives a sample of the medieval Waldensian belief. It was believed that this poem dated between 1190 and 1240, but there is evidence that it was written in the first part of the fifteenth century The poem exists in four manuscripts: two are housed at University of Cambridge, one at Trinity College in Dublin, another in Geneva.
It was once held that the Waldenses were first taught by Paul the Apostle who visited Spain and allegedly traveled on to the Piedmont. As the Catholic Church indulged in excesses in the time of Constantine - the account tells - the Waldenses held true to their apostolic faith of poverty and piety; these claims were discounted in the nineteenth century. There were other claims that the Waldensians predated Peter Waldo's activities in the late 12th century. In his A History of the Vaudois C
Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha and theology. It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah. Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation; as a result, Karaite Jews do not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud. When interpreting the Tanakh, Karaites strive to adhere to the plain or most obvious meaning of the text. By contrast, Rabbinic Judaism relies on the legal rulings of the Sanhedrin as they are codified in the Midrash and other sources to indicate the authentic meaning of the Torah. Karaite Judaism holds every interpretation of the Tanakh to the same scrutiny regardless of its source, teaches that it is the personal responsibility of every individual Jew to study the Torah, decide its correct meaning.
Karaites may consider arguments made in the Talmud and other works without exalting them above other viewpoints. According to Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud, in his Sefer HaQabbalah, the Karaite movement crystallized in Baghdad in the Gaonic period under the Abbasid Caliphate in what is present-day Iraq; this is the view universally accepted among Rabbinic Jews. However, some Arab scholars claim that Karaites were living in Egypt in the first half of the 7th century, based on a legal document that the Karaite community in Egypt had in its possession until the end of the 19th century, in which the first Islamic governor ordered the leaders of the Rabbinite community against interfering with Karaite practices or the way they celebrate their holidays, it was said to have been stamped by the palm of'Amr ibn al-'As, the first Islamic governor of Egypt, was dated 20 AH. Historians have argued over whether Karaism has a direct connection to anti-Rabbinic sects and views, such as those of the Sadducees, dating back to the end of the Second Temple period, or whether Karaism represents a novel emergence of similar views.
Karaites have always maintained that, while there are some similarities to the Sadducees, due to the rejection of Rabbinical authority and the Oral Law, there are major differences. The ancestors of the Karaites were a group called Benei Ṣedeq during the Second Temple period. Karaites at one time made up a significant proportion of the Jewish population. Estimates of the Karaite population are difficult to make because they believe on the basis of Genesis 32 that counting Jews is forbidden. In the 21st century, some 30,000–50,000 are thought to reside in Israel, with smaller communities in Turkey and the United States. Another estimate holds that, of the 50,000 worldwide, more than 40,000 descend from those who made aliyah from Egypt and Iraq to Israel; the largest Karaite community today resides in the Israeli city of Ashdod. Arguments amongst Jewish sects regarding the validity of the Oral Law date back to the 1st and 2nd centuries BCE. Accordingly, some scholars trace the origin of Karaism to those who rejected the Talmudic tradition as an innovation.
Judah Halevi, an 11th-century Jewish philosopher and rabbi, wrote a defense for Judaism entitled Kuzari, placing the origins of Karaism in the first and second centuries BCE, during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BCE: After him came Judah b. Tabbāi and Simon b. Shētaḥ, with the friends of both. At this period arose the doctrine of the Karaites in consequence of an incident between the Sages and King Jannai, a priest, his mother was under suspicion of being a'profane' woman. One of the Sages alluded to this, saying to him:'Be satisfied, O king Jannai, with the royal crown, but leave the priestly crown to the seed of Aaron.' His friends prejudiced him against the Sages, advising him to browbeat and scatter or kill them. He replied:'If I destroy the Sages what will become of our Law?"There is the written law,' they replied, whoever wishes to study it may come and do so. He followed their advice and expelled the Sages and among them Simon b. Shētaḥ, his son-in-law. Rabbinism was laid low for some time.
The other party tried to establish a law built on their own conception, but failed, till Simon b. Shētaḥ returned with his disciples from Alexandria, restored tradition to its former condition. Karaism had, taken root among people who rejected the oral law, called all kinds of proofs to their aid, as we see to-day; as regards the Sādōcaeans and Boēthosians, they are the sectarians who are anathemised in our prayer. Abraham Geiger, a 19th-century German scholar who founded Reform Judaism, posited a connection between the Karaites and a remnant of the Sadducees, the 1st-century Jewish sect that followed the Hebrew Bible and rejected the Pharisees' notion of an Oral Torah before it was written. Geiger's view is based on comparison between Karaite and Sadducee halakha: for example, a minority in Karaite Judaism do not believe in a final resurrection or after-life, a position held by the Sadducees; the British theologian John Gill noted, In the times of John Hyrcanus, Alexander Janneus his son, sprung up the sect of the Karaites, in oppositio
The Jade Emperor in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god. In Daoist theology he is the assistant of Yuanshi Tianzun, one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao, he is the Cao Đài of Caodaism known as Ngọc Hoàng Thượng đế. In Buddhist cosmology he is identified with Śakra. In Korean mythology he is known as Haneullim; the Jade Emperor is known by many names, including Heavenly Grandfather, which meant "Heavenly Duke", used by commoners. There are many stories in Chinese mythology involving the Jade Emperor; the world started with wuji according to the Chinese creation myth. The Jade Emperor was the head of the pantheon, but not responsible for creation. In another creation myth, the Jade Emperor fashioned the first humans from clay and left them to harden in the sun. Rain deformed some of the figures, which gave rise to physical abnormalities. In another myth, Nüwa fashions men out of the mud from the Yellow River by hand.
Those she made became the richer people of the earth. After getting lazy, she swung it around; the drops that fell from the scarf became the poorer humans. In the popular novel by Wu Cheng'en, the Jade Emperor is featured many times. In another story, popular throughout Asia and with many differing versions, the Jade Emperor has a daughter named Zhinü, she is most represented as responsible for weaving colorful clouds in the heaven. In some versions she is the Goddess Weaver, daughter of the Jade Emperor and the Celestial Queen Mother, who weaves the Silver River, which gives light to heaven and earth. In other versions, she is a seamstress; every day Zhinü descended to earth with the aid of a magical robe to bathe. One day, a lowly cowherd named. Niu Lang fell in love with her and stole her magic robe which she had left on the bank of the stream, leaving her unable to escape back to Heaven; when Zhinü emerged from the water, Niu Lang carried her back to his home. When the Jade Emperor heard of this matter, he was furious but unable to intercede, since in the meantime his daughter had fallen in love and married the cowherd.
As time passed, Zhinü began to miss her father. One day, she came across a box containing her magic robe, she decided to visit her father back in Heaven, but once she returned, the Jade Emperor summoned a river to flow across the sky, which Zhinü was unable to cross to return to her husband. The Emperor took pity on the young lovers, so once a year on the seventh day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar, he allows them to meet on a bridge over the river; the story refers to constellations in the night sky. Zhinü is the star Vega in the constellation of Lyra east of the Milky Way, Niu Lang is the star Altair in the constellation of Aquila west of the Milky Way. Under the first quarter moon of the seventh lunar month, the lighting condition in the sky causes the Milky Way to appear dimmer, hence the story that the two lovers are no longer separated on that one particular day each year; the seventh day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar is a holiday in China called Qixi Festival, a day for young lovers much like Valentine's Day in the West.
In Japan, it is called Tanabata. In Korea, it is called Chilseok. In Vietnam, it is called Thất Tịch and if it rains on that day, it is said to be Zhinü crying tears of happiness for being reunited with her husband. There are several stories as to. In one, the Jade Emperor, although having ruled Heaven and Earth justly and wisely for many years, had never had the time to visit the Earth personally, he grew curious as to. Thus, he asked all the animals to visit him in heaven; the cat, being the most handsome of all animals, asked his friend the Rat to wake him on the day they were to go to Heaven so he wouldn't oversleep. The Rat, was worried that he would seem ugly compared to the cat, so he didn't wake the cat; the cat missed the meeting with the Jade Emperor and was replaced by the Pig. The Jade Emperor so decided to divide the years up amongst them; when the cat learned of what had happened, he was furious with the Rat and that, according to the story, is why cats and Rats are enemies to this day.
The Cat however, does have a place in the Vietnamese zodiac. Once a great drought had spread across the land. Four dragons from the sea noticed the plight of the people and traveled to beseech The Jade Emperor in the Heavenly Palace to bring the rains to the people, he was busy ruling the heavens and sea and distractedly agreed to the send the rains on the next day if they would return to the sea, but soon after the dragons departed, he forgot his promise. After ten days, the rains still did not come and the people began to die of starvation; the dragons could not stand by and do nothing, so they decided to use their bodies to capture great masses of water from the sea, taking it upon themselves to bring the rain. The peop
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Coming of age
Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult. It continues through the teenage years of life; the certain age at which this transition takes place changes in society, as does the nature of the change. It can be a simple legal convention or can be part of a ritual or spiritual event, as practiced by many societies. In the past, in some societies today, such a change is associated with the age of sexual maturity menarche and spermarche. In others, it is associated with an age of religious responsibility. In western societies, modern legal conventions which stipulate points in late adolescence or early adulthood are the focus of the transition. In either case, many cultures retain ceremonies to confirm the coming of age, stories that are told in film are called coming-of-age films, and there are coming-of-age comics. Turning 15, the "age of maturity," as the Baha'i faith terms it, is a time when a child is considered spiritually mature. Declared Baha'is that have reached the age of maturity are expected to begin observing certain Baha'i laws, such as obligatory prayer and fasting.
Theravada boys just under the age of 20 years, undergo a Shinbyu ceremony, where they are initiated into the Temple as Novice Monks. They will stay in the monastery for between 3 days and 3 years, most for one 3-month "rainy season retreat", held annually from late July to early October. During this period the boys experience the rigors of an orthodox Buddhist monastic lifestyle – a lifestyle that involves celibacy, formal voluntary poverty, absolute nonviolence, daily fasting between noon and the following day's sunrise. Depending on how long they stay, the boys will learn various chants and recitations in the canonical language – the Buddha's more famous discourses and verses – as well as Buddhist ethics and higher monastic discipline. If they stay long enough and conditions permit, they may be tutored in the meditative practices that are at the heart of Buddhism's program for the self-development of alert tranquillity and divine mental states. After living the novitiate monastic life for some time, the boy, now considered to have "come of age," will either take higher ordination as a ordained monk or will return to lay life.
In Southeast Asian countries, where most pracitioners of Theravada Buddhism reside, women will refuse to marry a man who has not ordained temporarily as a Samanera in this way at some point in his life. Men who have completed this Samanera ordination and have returned to lay life are considered primed for adult married life and are described in the Thai language and the Khmer language by terms which translate as "cooked," "finished," or "cooled off" in English, as in meal preparation/consumption. Thus, one's monastic training is seen to have prepared one properly for familial and civic duty and/or one's passions and unruliness of the boy are seen to have "cooled down" enough for him to be of use to a woman as a proper man. According to the Grand Historian, Zhou Gongdan or the Duke of Zhou wrote the Rite of Zhou in about 3000 years ago, which documented fundamental ceremonies in ancient China, the Coming of Age rite was included. Confucius and his students wrote the Book of Rites, which introduced and further explained important ceremonies in Confucianism.
When a man turned 20, his parents would hold a Guan Li. These rites were considered the representatives of a person being mature and was prepared to get married and start a family; the main dates and procedures may differ in different historical periods or geology. During this rite of passage, the young person receives his/her style name. In many Western Christian churches, a young person celebrates his/her Coming of Age with the Sacrament of Confirmation; this is done by the Bishop laying his hands upon the foreheads of the young person, marking them with the seal of the Holy Spirit. In some denominations during this sacrament, the child adopts a confirmation name, added onto their Christian name. In Christian denominations that practice Believer's Baptism, the ritual can be carried out after the age of accountability has arrived; some traditions withhold the rite of Holy Communion from those not yet at the age of accountability, on the grounds that children do not understand what the sacrament means.
In the 20th century, Roman Catholic children began to be admitted to communion some years before confirmation, with an annual First Communion service - a practice, extended to some paedobaptist Protestant groups - but since the Second Vatican Council, the withholding of confirmation to a age, e.g. mid-teens in the United States, early teens in Ireland and Britain, has in some areas been abandoned in favour of restoring the traditional order of the three sacraments of initiation. In some denominations, full membership in the Church, if not bestowed at birth must wait until the age of accountability and is granted only after a period of preparation k
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Samaritan religion, known as Samaritanism is the national religion of the Samaritans. The Samaritans follow the Samaritan Torah, which the Samaritans believe to be the original unchanged Torah, as opposed to the Torah used by Jews. In addition to the Samaritan Torah, Samaritans revere their version of the Book of Joshua and recognize some of the Biblical figures such as Eli. Samaritanism is internally described as the religion that began with Moses, unchanged over the millennia that have since passed. Samaritans believe Judaism, as well as the Jewish Torah, has been corrupted by time and thus is no longer serving the duties God mandated on Mount Sinai. Additional differences with Judaism center on the place of worship which in Samaritanism is recognized as Mount Gerizim in Samaria, as opposed to Mount Moriya in Judea within Judaism. Samaritanism holds that the summit of Mount Gerizim is the true location of God's Holy Place, as opposed to the Foundation Stone on the Temple Mount as Judaism teaches.
As such, Samaritans trace their history as a separate entity from the Jews back to the time of Moses, where they believe Joshua laid the foundation for their temple. Samaritan historiography traces the schism itself to the High Priest Eli abandoning Moses' Tabernacle in favor of Mount Gerizim following Joshua's death. Abu l-Fath, who in the 14th century wrote a major work of Samaritan history, comments on Samaritan origins as follows: A terrible civil war broke out between Eli son of Yafni, of the line of Ithamar, the sons of Pincus, because Eli son of Yafni resolved to usurp the High Priesthood from the descendants of Pincus, he used to offer sacrifices on an altar of stones. He was 50 years old, endowed with wealth and in charge of the treasury of the Children of Israel.... He offered a sacrifice without salt, as if he were inattentive; when the Great High Priest Ozzi learned of this, found the sacrifice was not accepted, he disowned him. Thereupon he and the group that sympathized with him, rose in revolt and at once he and his followers and his beasts set off for Shiloh.
Thus Israel split in factions. He sent to their leaders saying to them, Anyone who would like to see wonderful things, let him come to me, he assembled a large group around him in Shiloh, built a Temple for himself there. He built an altar, omitting no detail—it all corresponded to the original, piece by piece. At this time the Children of Israel split into three factions. A loyal faction on Mount Gerizim. Further, the Samaritan Chronicle Adler, or New Chronicle, believed to have been composed in the 18th century using earlier chronicles as sources states: And the Children of Israel in his days divided into three groups. One served other gods. Samaritanism emerged as an independent ethnic culture following its survival of the Assyrian captivity in the 8th century BC. Jewish sources attest their own narrative of the origins of the Samaritans. From here there are conflicting proposals, including the Samaritans being the people of Kutha described in the Talmud; the traditional Jewish narrative of 2 Kings and Josephus, details the people of Israel were removed by the king of the Assyrians to Halah, to Gozan on the Khabur River and to the towns of the Medes.
The king of the Assyrians brought people from Babylon, Avah and Sepharvaim to place in Samaria. Because God sent lions among them to kill them, the king of the Assyrians sent one of the priests from Bethel to teach the new settlers about God's ordinances; the eventual result was that the new settlers worshiped both the God of the land and their own gods from the countries from which they came. However, genetic studies showed the Samaritans are definitely descendants of the historical Israelite population, albeit isolated given the people's reclusive history; this casts doubt into, if not disproves, this historical theory that Samaritans originated from Assyria. Furthermore, the Dead Sea scroll 4Q372, which recounts the hope that the northern tribes will return to the land of Joseph, remark that the current dwellers in the north are fools, an enemy people, but they are not explicitly referred to as foreigners, it goes on to say that these people, the Samaritans, mocked Jerusalem and built a temple on a high place to provoke Israel.
Conflict between the Samaritans and the Jews were numerous between the end of the Assyrian diaspora and to the Bar Kokhba revolt. The Tanakh describes multiple instigations from the Samaritan population against the Jews and disparages them, Jesus' Parable of the Good Samaritan gives evidence of conflict; the destruction of Mount Gerizim's Samaritan temple is attributed to the High Priest John Hyrcanus. Following the failed revolts, Mount Gerizim was rededicated with a new temple, again destroyed during the Samaritan Revolts. Persecution of Samaritans was common in the following centuries; the principle beliefs of Samaritanism are as follows: There is one God, YHWH, the same God recognized by the Hebrew prophets. Faith is in the unity of the Creator, absolute unity, it is the cause of the causes, it fills the entire world. His nature can not be understood by human beings, but according to his actions and according to his revelation to his people and the kindness he showed them; the Torah is the only true holy book, was given by