Romance of the Three Kingdoms
The story – part historical, part legend, and part mythical – romanticises and dramatises the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han dynasty or restore it. The novel deals with the plots and military battles, Romance of the Three Kingdoms is acclaimed as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, it has a total of 800,000 words and nearly a thousand dramatic characters in 120 chapters. The novel is among the most beloved works of literature in East Asia and it is arguably the most widely read historical novel in late imperial and modern China. Myths from the Three Kingdoms era existed as oral traditions before written compilations, with their focus on the history of Han Chinese, the stories grew in popularity during the reign of the Mongol emperors of the Yuan dynasty. During the succeeding Ming dynasty an interest in plays and novels resulted in further expansions, the earliest written work to combine these stories was a pinghua, Sanguozhi Pinghua, published sometime between 1321 and 1323.
This version combined themes of legend and morality to appeal to the common people, elements of reincarnation and karma were woven into this version of the story. It was first printed in 1522 as Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi in an edition which bore a perhaps spurious preface date 1494, the text may well have circulated before either date in handwritten manuscripts. The novel includes material from Tang dynasty poetic works, Yuan dynasty operas and his own interpretation of elements such as virtue. The author combined this knowledge with a gift for storytelling to create a rich tapestry of personalities. Several versions of the expanded Sanguozhi are extant today, luo Guanzhongs version in 24 volumes, known as the Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi, is now held in the Shanghai Library in China, Tenri Central Library in Japan, and several other major libraries. Various 10-volume, 12-volume and 20-volume recensions of Luos text, made between 1522 and 1690, are held at libraries around the world. However, the standard text familiar to readers is a recension by Mao Lun.
Scholars have long debated whether the Maos viewpoint was anti-Qing or pro-Qing, the famous opening lines of the novel, The empire, long divided, must unite, long united, must divide. Thus it has ever been, long understood to be Luos introduction, none of the earlier editions contained this phrase. In addition, Mao added Yang Shens The Immortals by the River as the introductory poem. One of the greatest achievements of Romance of the Three Kingdoms is the complexity of its stories. The novel contains numerous secondary stories, the following consists of a summary of the central plot and some well-known highlights in the story. In the final years of the Eastern Han dynasty, treacherous eunuchs and villainous officials deceived the emperor, the government gradually became extremely corrupt on all levels, leading to widespread deterioration of the Han Empire
Campaign against Dong Zhuo
The Campaign against Dong Zhuo was a punitive expedition initiated by a coalition of regional officials and warlords against the warlord Dong Zhuo in 190 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The members of the claimed that Dong had the intention of usurping the throne by holding Emperor Xian hostage. They justified their campaign as to remove Dong from power, the campaign led to the evacuation of the capital Luoyang and the shifting of the imperial court to Changan. It was a prelude to the end of the Han dynasty and, the two scenes are often reenacted in Chinese opera along with other famous scenes from the novel. Both incidents however, are fictional, Hua was killed in a battle against Sun Jian, Liu and Zhang were not active in the campaign. Instead, they were fighting remnants of the Yellow Turban rebels in the north and thus did not duel with Lü Bu, following the death of Emperor Ling in 189, General-in-Chief He Jin summoned the frontier general Dong Zhuo from the northwest into the capital city of Luoyang.
Dong was ordered to lead his troops into the city to aid He in eliminating the eunuch faction. However, before Dong Zhuos arrival, He Jins plan was revealed and he Jins associates led by Yuan Shao stormed the palace after the assassination and started massacring eunuchs. The young Emperor Shao and his brother, the Prince of Chenliu, were brought out of the palace by the surviving eunuchs during the chaos. The emperor lost the Imperial Seal during his escape and they were eventually discovered by a search party and escorted back to the palace safely by Dong Zhuo and his men. Subsequently, the warlord Ding Yuan was killed by his subordinate Lü Bu for opposing Dong Zhuos decision to depose Emperor Shao, Lü defected to Dongs side. In 190, Dong Zhuo deposed Emperor Shao and installed the Prince of Chenliu on the throne, the prince became historically known as Emperor Xian. Dong appointed himself as Chancellor of State, an official post abolished almost 200 years ago, on March 26 in the same year, Dong had the Prince of Hongnong and Empress Dowager He killed.
Since then, Dong Zhuo had established an influence in the imperial court. He was authoritarian and showed no regard for the monarchy as he made the final decisions on policies without consulting or seeking approval from the emperor. He eliminated several of his opponents in the court to further strengthen his grip over the apparatus of state. Yuan Shao fled from Luoyang after openly disagreeing with Dong Zhuos decision to depose Emperor Shao, Dong Zhuo feared that Yuan Shao might rise in revolt against him as Yuan was an influential figure in politics as well. Dong heeded his advisors suggestions and proposed to the emperor to appoint Yuan as Grand Administrator of Bohai as an act of appeasement, while in Bohai, Yuan Shao was not appeased by Dong Zhuos proposal to appoint him as Grand Administrator
Emperor Xian of Han
Emperor Xian of Han, personal name Liu Xie, courtesy name Bohe, was the last emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in ancient China. He reigned from 28 September 189 until 10 December 220, Liu Xie was a son of Liu Hong and was a younger half-brother of his predecessor, Liu Bian. In 189, at the age of eight, he became emperor after the warlord Dong Zhuo, the newly enthroned Liu Xie, historically known as Emperor Xian, was in fact a puppet ruler under Dong Zhuos control. After Dong Zhuos assassination in 192, Emperor Xian fell under the control of Li Jue and Guo Si, the various regional warlords formally acknowledged Emperor Xians legitimacy but never took action to save him from being held hostage. In 195, Emperor Xian managed to escape from Changan and return to the ruins of Luoyang, where he soon became stranded. A year later, the warlord Cao Cao led his forces into Luoyang, received Emperor Xian, took him under his protection, and escorted him to Xu, although Cao Cao paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian, he was actually the de facto head of the central government.
He skilfully used Emperor Xian as a card to bolster his legitimacy when he attacked and eliminated rival warlords in his quest to reunify the Han Empire under the central governments rule. Cao Caos success seemed inevitable until the winter of 208–209, when he lost the decisive Battle of Red Cliffs against the southern warlords Sun Quan, the battle paved the way for the subsequent emergence of the Three Kingdoms later. In late 220, some months after Cao Caos death, Cao Caos successor, Cao Pi, forced Emperor Xian to abdicate the throne to him. He established the state of Cao Wei with himself as the new emperor – an event marking the end of the Han dynasty. The dethroned Emperor Xian received the noble title Duke of Shanyang from Cao Pi and spent the rest of his life in comfort and he died in 234 at the age of 53,14 years after the fall of the Han dynasty. Liu Xie was born in 181 to Emperor Ling and his Consort Wang, during her pregnancy, Consort Wang, fearful of Emperor Lings Empress He, had taken drugs that were intended to induce an abortion, but was not successful in her attempt.
Soon after she gave birth to Liu Xie, the jealous Empress He poisoned her by putting poison in her food, Emperor Ling was enraged and wanted to depose her, but the eunuchs pleaded on her behalf, and she was not deposed. Liu Xie was raised personally by Emperor Lings mother Empress Dowager Dong and he Jin found out, and preemptively declared Liu Bian the new emperor. Later that year, Emperor Shao granted Liu Xie the title Prince of Bohai, after Liu Bian became emperor, He Jin became the most powerful official in the imperial court, and he and his advisor Yuan Shao quickly entered into a conspiracy to exterminate the eunuchs. One of these warlords was Dong Zhuo, who saw this as an opportunity to control the central government and he Jins plan was discovered by the eunuchs, who laid a trap for him and killed him. Yuan Shao led his forces into the palace and killed the majority of the eunuchs, the remaining eunuchs initially took the young emperor and Liu Xie hostage, but were eventually forced to commit suicide when the battle turned against them.
Dong Zhuo murdered Empress Dowager He and the former Emperor Shao, in the spring of 190, a number of local officials, loosely forming a coalition led by Yuan Shao, quickly rose up against Dong Zhuo
Henan is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is 豫, named after Yuzhou, a Han Dynasty state that parts of Henan. Although the name of the province south of the river, approximately a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou which literally means central plain land or midland, although the name is applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained Chinas cultural, numerous heritages have been left behind including the ruins of Shang Dynasty capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Anyang, with an area of 167,000 km2, Henan covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China Plain. Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Hebei, Anhui, Henan is Chinas third most populous province with a population of over 94 million.
If it were a country by itself, Henan would be the 12th most populous country in the world, behind Mexico, Henan is the 5th largest provincial economy of China and the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to eastern and central provinces. The economy continues to depend on its dwindling aluminum and coal reserves, as well as agriculture, heavy industry, high-tech industry and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou and Luoyang. Widely regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces, Henan is known for its historical prosperity, the economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its location means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China. In addition, the floods of the Yellow River have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow Rivers silt seven times due to flooding, archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture and Longshan Culture were active in what is now northern Henan since the Neolithic Era.
The more recent Erlitou culture has been identified with the Xia Dynasty. Virtually the entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan, the Xia Dynasty collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around todays Shangqiu in eastern Henan. The Shang Dynasty was the first literate dynasty of China and its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing was created, in the 11th century BC, the Zhou Dynasty of Shaanxi arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang Dynasty
The Three Kingdoms was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei, and Wu, following the Han dynasty and preceding the Jin dynasty. The term Three Kingdoms itself is something of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed not by a king, the term Three Kingdoms has become standard among sinologists. Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers to the period between the foundation of the state of Wei in 220 AD and the conquest of the state of Wu by the Jin dynasty in 280. The earlier, unofficial part of the period, from 184 to 220, was marked by infighting between warlords in various parts of China. The middle part of the period, from 220 and 263, was marked by a more militarily stable arrangement between three states of Wei, and Wu. The part of the era was marked by the conquest of Shu by Wei, the usurpation of Wei by the Jin dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period is one of the bloodiest in Chinese history. While the census may not have been particularly accurate due to a multitude of factors of the times, technology advanced significantly during this period.
Shu chancellor Zhuge Liang invented the wooden ox, suggested to be a form of the wheelbarrow. Wei mechanical engineer Ma Jun is considered by many to be the equal of his predecessor Zhang Heng, although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly romanticized in the cultures of China, Japan and Vietnam. It has been celebrated and popularized in operas, folk stories, novels and in recent times, television. The best known of these is Luo Guanzhongs Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the authoritative historical record of the era is Chen Shous Records of the Three Kingdoms, along with Pei Songzhis annotations of the text. There is no set time period for the era, and many definitions are given. The strictest rule of dating would be to deem the era to be from the point where all three states coexisted as independent states up until the downfall of the Shu-Han states. Mao Zonggang, a commentator on the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, mentions in his commentary on Chapter 120 of the novel that, the Han royal house declined when the eunuchs abused the sovereign and officials subverted the government.
In doing so, he suggests that the historiography of the Three Kingdoms should begin at the rise of the Ten Eunuchs to power. He further argues that the Romance of the Three Kingdoms defines the end of the era as 280, to end the tale before Hans enemy had itself met its fate would be to leave the reader unsatisfied. The novel could have ended with the fall of Wei, to end the tale before Hans ally had fallen would be to leave the reader with an incomplete picture. So the tale had to end with the fall of Wu, the power of the Eastern Han dynasty went into depression and steadily declined from a variety of political and economic problems after the death in 105 of Emperor He
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Korea, Singapore and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or lineage names, and shi or clan names, Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children. Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong, traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous. The colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean ordinary folks, prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was a difference between clan names or xing and lineages names or shi, Xing were surnames held by the noble clans. They generally are composed of a nü radical which has taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou, the female radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe.
This combination seems to designate specifically a female and could mean lady of such or such clan, prior to the Qin Dynasty China was largely a fengjian society. In this way, a nobleman would hold a shi and a xing, after the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames gradually spread to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred. Many shi surnames survive to the present day, according to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24. The following are some of the sources, These were usually reserved for the central lineage of the royal family. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their form to modern days as frequently occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang, state name, Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity. These are some of the most common Chinese surnames, name of a fief or place of origin, Fiefdoms were often granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used.
An example is Di, Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang, there are some two hundred examples of this identified, often of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor, Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples,200 of which are two-character surnames, often an ancestors courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the character of his grandfathers courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames, seniority within the family, In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family
End of the Han dynasty
The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynastys last ruler, Emperor Xian. During this period, the country was thrown into turmoil by the Yellow Turban Rebellion, one of those warlords, Cao Cao, was able to gradually reunify the empire, ostensibly under Emperor Xians rule, but the empire was actually controlled by Cao Cao himself. Cao Caos efforts to reunite the Han empire were rebuffed at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 /209. The Han dynasty formally ended in 220 when Cao Caos son and heir, Cao Pi, Cao Pi became the emperor of a new state, Cao Wei. A year later, in response to Cao Pis usurpation of the Han throne, Liu Bei declared himself emperor of Shu Han, and in 229, Sun Quan followed suit, declaring himself emperor of Eastern Wu. The period from Emperor Xians abdication in 220 to the reunification of China under the Jin dynasty in 265 was known as the Three Kingdoms era in Chinese history.
Towards the end of the reign of Emperor Ling of Han, Emperor Ling, convinced by Liu Yan, changed the Inspectors titles to Governor and granted them the authority to levy taxes and command armed forces within the borders. Liu Yan was commissioned as the Governor of Yi Province, while other important officials became Governors, including Liu Yu. The increased influence of these provincial governors formed the basis on which warlords would control large regions of the Han empire, Emperor Ling died in 189 and was succeeded by his 13-year-old son, Liu Bian, who became known as Emperor Shao. Empress He, now empress dowager, became regent to the emperor, while her older brother, General-in-Chief He Jin. He Jin and Yuan Shao plotted to exterminate all the Ten Attendants, a group of ten influential eunuch officials in the court, after the eunuchs discovered He Jins plot, they lured him into the palace and murdered him. In response, Yuan Shao led the guards on an indiscriminate massacre of the palace eunuchs.
Dong Zhuo arrived on the scene and found Emperor Shao and the Prince of Chenliu, the young emperor appeared nervous and fearful, while the prince remained calm and composed, and gave orders to Dong Zhuo to escort them back to the palace. Dong Zhuo used the opportunity to control of state power. Not long later, Dong Zhuo deposed Emperor Shao and replaced him with the Prince of Chenliu, in the spring of 190, several provincial officials and warlords formed a coalition against Dong Zhuo, claiming that he was set on usurping the throne and had effectively kidnapped Emperor Xian. Yuan Shao, Administrator of Bohai, was nominated to be the leader of the coalition, the coalition armies was stationed at Henei and appeared to be ready to move on the capital Luoyang. However, the coalition was actually rather disorganized, and Yuan Shao did not have command over the entire alliance. Besides, the members were hesitant to directly confront Dong Zhuo
Dong Zhuo, courtesy name Zhongying, was a politician and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Dong Zhuo subsequently deposed Emperor Shao and instated Emperor Xian, Dong Zhuo rose to power in the Han imperial court and ruled the nation with tyranny and cruelty for a brief period of time. The following year, a coalition of officials and warlords launched a punitive campaign against Dong, forcing him to move the capital to Changan. Dong Zhuo was assassinated in 192 by his foster son Lü Bu as part of an orchestrated by Interior Minister Wang Yun. Dong Zhuo was born in Lintao, Longxi Commandery and was said to be a youth who was excellent in horseback archery in his early days. He travelled around the Qiang region and befriended many men of gallantry, when he grew up, he returned and started farming in the countryside, where he incidentally excavated a blade, which had obscure inscription fading from it which said slash the kings like logging. When he took the sabre to the famed scholar Cai Yong for appraisal, as a physically adept man with a good background, Dong became an imperial guard, and joined Zhang Huans campaign against Qiang rebels in Bing Province as a Major.
He was rewarded with 9,000 rolls of silk for his performance. Dong was sent to quell the Yellow Turban Rebellion in the early 180s after a few subsequent promotions but he was defeated by the rebels and demoted. When the tribes of Qiang and Hu rebelled with local gentries Han Sui and Bian Zhang in Liang Province, Dong was reinstated as Knight General, during a battle with the Qiang tribes, Dong Zhuos army was outnumbered and a river sealed his retreat route. To prevent his army from being routed by the enemy, Dong ordered his troops to dam the river and he sent his men to cross the drained lower stream and break the dam in order to thwart any subsequent pursuits by the enemy. Despite failing the campaign, Dongs unit was the only unscathed unit of the Han forces, Dong Zhuo was henceforth promoted to General of the Van and Inspector of Bing Province. However, he refused to accept his new post as he was unwilling to leave his troops, realizing the Han authority was declining from its failure in subjugating the Qiang tribe, Dong focused on building his power in Liang.
At the time, a Han military officer, Sun Jian, suggested to his superior that Dongs arrogance and insubordination to the court warranted a death sentence, but his advice was not heeded. Following the death of Emperor Ling in 189, General-in-Chief He Jin ordered Dong Zhuo to lead troops into Luoyang to aid him in eliminating the eunuch faction, before Dongs arrival, He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs and the capital city fell into a state of turmoil. The eunuchs took Emperor Shao hostage and fled from Luoyang, Dong Zhuos army intercepted the eunuchs and brought the emperor back to the palace. At the same time, He Jins half-brother, General of Chariots and he Jin and He Miaos forces were without a leader and came under Dong Zhuos command when the latter led his ferocious Liang Province troops into the city. Lü became Dongs adopted son and trusted aide, and assisted Dong to take control of the imperial capital of Luoyang
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Records of the Three Kingdoms
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period. It is widely regarded as the official and authoritative text for that period. Written by Chen Shou in the century, the work combines the smaller histories of the rival states of Cao Wei, Shu Han. The Records of the Three Kingdoms provided the basis for the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century and it contains 65 volumes and about 360,000 Chinese characters which are broken into three books. The Book of Wei contains 30 volumes, the Book of Shu 15 volumes, each volume is organised in the form of one or more biographies. The amount of space a biography takes up is dictated by the importance of the figure, the original author was Chen Shou, who was born in present-day Nanchong, Sichuan, in the state of Shu. After the fall of Shu in 263, he became a historian under the government of the Jin dynasty.
After the fall of Wu in 280, his work received the acclaim of the senior minister Zhang Hua. Prior to the Jin dynasty, both the states of Wei and Wu already had their histories, such as the Book of Wei by Wang Chen, the Weilüe by Yu Huan. Chen Shou created the Records of the Three Kingdoms with these works as a foundation. The Records of the Three Kingdoms used the year 220 AD — which marked the end of the Han dynasty — as the year in which the state of Wei was established. The Records of the Three Kingdoms referred the rulers of Wei as Emperors, the romantic and historical traditions for the Three Kingdoms period have been so confused over the centuries that the Records of the Three Kingdoms is often regarded as an invaluable resource. Although it contains errors, it is more historically accurate than the embellishments of writers in periods. In its nature, the work is indeed a chronicle, much like those of early Medieval Europe written much later, the text is bland and little more than a collection of historical facts.
A rough translation of an extract from Guan Yus biography is as follows, In the 24th year, the Former Lord became the King of Hanzhong. In the same year, Yu led his men to attack Cao Ren at Fan, Lord Cao sent Yu Jin to aid Ren. In autumn, great rains caused the Han River to flood, from this, we can establish reasonably accurately the flow of events and how history unfolded but almost nothing about society or elements of institutions or policies. The amount of creative imagination used in ancient Chinese historical narratives — of fictionalising — is impossible to estimate precisely