Chenopodium is a genus of numerous species of perennial or annual herbaceous flowering plants known as the goosefoots, which occur almost anywhere in the world. However, among the Amaranthaceae, the genus Chenopodium is the member of the subfamily Chenopodioideae. In Australia, the larger Chenopodium species are among the plants called bluebushes, chualar in California is named after a Native American term for a goosefoot abundant in the region, probably the California goosefoot. The species of Chenopodium are annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees and they are nonaromatic, but sometimes foetid. The young stems and leaves are densely covered by vesicular globose hairs. Characteristically, these trichomes persist and becoming cup-shaped, the branched stems grow erect, prostrate or scrambling. The alternate or opposite leaves are petiolate and their thin or slightly fleshy leaf blade is linear, rhombic or triangular-hastate, with entire or dentate or lobed margins. Inflorescences are standing terminal and lateral and they consist of spicately or paniculately arranged glomerules of flowers.
In monoecious plants flowers are dimorphic, bisexual or pistillate, flowers consist of 5 perianth segments connate. Basally or close to the middle, usually membranous margined and with a roundish to keeled back, almost always 5 stamens, in fruit, perianth segments become sometimes coloured, but mostly keep unchanged, somewhat closing over or spreading from the fruit. Pericarp membranous or sometimes succulent, adherent to or loosely covering the seed, the horizontally oriented seeds are depressed-globular to lenticular, with rounded to subacute margin. The black seed coat is almost smooth to striate, rugulose or pitted. These include white goosefoot, kañiwa and quinoa, on the Greek island of Crete, tender shoots and leaves of a species called krouvida or psarovlito are eaten by the locals, boiled or steamed. The Proto-Indo-Europeans of the eastern Yamna culture harvested white goosefoot as an apparent cereal substitute to round out an otherwise mostly meat, there is increased interest in particular in goosefoot seeds today, which are suitable as part of a gluten-free diet.
Quinoa oil, extracted from the seeds of C. quinoa, has similar properties, oil of chenopodium is extracted from the seeds of epazote, which is not in this genus anymore. Shagreen leather was produced in the past using the small, hard goosefoot seeds, C. album was one of the main model organisms for the molecular biological study of chlorophyllase. Goosefoot pollen, in particular of the widespread and usually abundant C. album, is an allergen to many people, the same species, as well as some others, have seeds which are able to persist for years in the soil seed bank. Many goosefoot species are significant weeds, and some have become invasive species
Asana is an archaeological site by the Asana River, a tributary of the Osmore River, in the south-central Andes of southern Peru. The site is situated at an elevation of 3,430 metres, with land use documented from 3, 000–4,800 metres. Asana was occupied over the course of 8,000 years, though the inhabitants were initially mobile foragers, Asana is located on the north bank of the Asana River in the flat fertile valley along 11,270 feet of the river. The geological and geomorphological features are factors for its unique setting. An archaeological study of the Asana river valley was conducted 1986–89, the area studied was along a river length of about 20 kilometres, between Tumilaca Molina and Cueva Quellaveco and from the origin of the minor tributary of the river Charoque to Tala village. The valley floors and hill slopes, covering an area of 4.8 square kilometres, led to the discovery of the Asana site and six rock shelters. One of the shelters, was discovered on the left bank of the river valley at an elevation of 3,000 metres, in a series of river terraces at an elevation range of 3.
Human habitation has been traced to 10,500 BP at Asana, excavations have revealed six stratigraphic zones from 10,500 BP to 3500 BP, before the site became abandoned in 3500 BP. During the settlement period and taruka were the local wild herbivores, over the centuries, the guanaco were domesticated. The Asana at the elevation had formed the base camp of the earliest settlers who were hunter gatherers, hunting guanaco. Up to 5000 BP, settlement became more permanent, the gradual change from forager over to the pastoral society was recorded between 4800 and 4400 BP. By Middle Halocene age, guanacos had been domesticated, if these limits increased they would establish new camps. Human settlement abruptly ended at Asana, lithic material found at the site attests to the shifting of camps and supports links existing between the settlements of the lower and upper elevations. Both residential and non-residential structures were found and indicated a type of growth. Structure were dated between 5500–3600 BP, a ceremonial structure was found in an open air pre-ceramic site during excavations conducted from 1989–90.
It is inferred that activities occurred at the site during a 250–500-year period. A feature identified as a ground, dated to 4800 BP, was thought to be used for feasts. Aldenderfer, Mark S. Montane Foragers and the South-Central Andean Archaic, Iowa City, University of Iowa Press
Chauchilla Cemetery is a cemetery that contains prehispanic mummified human remains and archeological artifacts, located 30 kilometres south of the city of Nazca in Peru. The cemetery was discovered in the 1920s, but had not been used since the 9th century AD, the cemetery includes many important burials over a period of 600 to 700 years. The start of the interments was in about 200 AD and it is important as a source of archaeology to Nazca culture. The cemetery has been plundered by huaqueros who have left human bones. Similar local cemeteries have been damaged to a greater extent, the site has been protected by Peruvian law since 1997 and tourists pay around seven U. S. dollars to take the two-hour tour of this ancient necropolis. The site is by the Poroma riverbed and can be accessed via a road from the Panamerican Highway. In 1997, the majority of the bones and plundered pottery were restored to the tombs. The bodies are so remarkably preserved due mainly to the dry climate in the Peruvian Desert, the bodies were clothed in embroidered cotton and painted with a resin and kept in purpose-built tombs made from mud bricks.
The resin is thought to have kept out insects and slowed bacteria trying to feed on the bodies, the nearby site of Estaquería may provide clues to the remarkable preservation of the numerous bodies in these cemeteries. At that site, archeologists found wooden pillars initially thought to have used for astronomical sightings. However, it is now believed that the posts were used to dry bodies in a mummification process and this may account for the high degree of preservation seen in thousand-year-old bodies which still have hair and the remains of soft tissue, such as skin. Chauchilla Cemetery is a prominent setting in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, though not called by name in the film, the cemetery is explicitly identified in the screenplay, promotional materials, and merchandise. This fictionalized version of the features a number of embellishments, including mask-wearing Nazcan guards. The cemetery is depicted as being built on a promontory overlooking the Nazca Valley, offering the characters a view of the famous Nazca Lines
The Puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America. It is considered one of the eight Natural Regions in Peru, the term puna encompasses diverse ecosystems of the high Central Andes above 3200–3400 m. The puna is found above the treeline at 3200–3500 m elevation and it extends from central Peru in the north, across the Altiplano plateau of Peru and Bolivia, and south along the spine of the Andes into northern Argentina and Chile. Other sources claim that it goes on Suni and from 4000 m to the line of Puna grassland. The puna is an ecosystem that comprises varied ecoregions labeled wet/moist puna, dry puna. This ecoregion is an elevation, montane grassland in the southern high Andes. The wet puna shares its border on the west with the Sechura desert, the characteristically mountainous landscape contains high lakes, mountain valleys, snow-covered mountains, and plateaux. The high elevation of the wet puna causes the area to have temperature differences between night and day.
The average annual temperature is low, ranging from 5 to 7 °C, temperatures shift from characteristic summer highs in the day and drop to winter lows at night. This extreme temperature shift has caused selective adaptation to occur and many plants such as the Culcitium, Perezia. The ecoregion contains snow-capped peaks, glacial lakes, and several rivers originate in the Cordilleras. The biggest lake in the ecoregion is Lake Titicaca, which is the highest navigable lake in the world, the Suches and Tiwanacu rivers in Bolivia are the lakes tributaries. The areas in the north surrounding Lake Titicaca have eight wet months, the average precipitation in this region ranges from 400 to 2000 mm. This ecoregion is a dry, high elevation montane grassland of the southern high Andes. It extends into northern Chile and Argentina and east into western Bolivia occurring above 3500 m between the tree and permanent snow lines, the vegetation of the dry puna consists of tropical alpine herbs with dwarf shrubs.
Within the dry puna are salt flats, high plateaus, snow-covered peaks, dry puna is distinguished from the other types of puna by its diminished annual rainfall. The dry puna has an 8-month long dry season and receives less than 400 mm of each year. The region lies at an elevation of 3500–5000 m above sea level, the dry puna is oligothermic as well
This article is about the archaeological site. Caral is the most ancient city of the Americas and a site of the Norte Chico civilization. Caral was inhabited roughly between the 26th and 20th centuries BCE, enclosing an area of more than 60 hectares. Caral was described by its excavators as the oldest urban center in the Americas, accommodating more than 3000 inhabitants, it is the best studied and one of the largest Norte Chico sites known. Ruth Shady further explored the 4, 000- to 4, 600-year-old city of temples in the Peruvian desert, with its complex of temples. The urban complex is spread out over 150 acres and contains plazas, Caral was a thriving metropolis at roughly the same time that Egypts great pyramids were being built. It is believed that Caral may answer questions about the origins of the Andean civilizations, among the artefacts found at Caral are a knotted textile piece that the excavators have labeled a quipu. Evidence has emerged that the quipu may have recorded logographic information in the way writing does.
Gary Urton has suggested that the quipus used a system which could record phonological or logographic data. The main temple complex is 150 meters long,110 meters wide and 28 meters high, the date of its construction is unknown. No trace of warfare has been found at Caral, no battlements, no weapons, ruth Shadys findings suggest it was a gentle society, built on commerce and pleasure. In one of the temples, they uncovered 32 flutes made of condor and pelican bones and 37 cornetts of deer, one find revealed the remains of a baby and buried with a necklace made of stone beads. Caral spawns 19 other temple complexes scattered across the 35 square miles area of the Supe Valley, the find of the quipu indicates that the Inca Empire preserved some cultural continuity from the Caral civilization. The date of 2627 BCE is based on carbon dating reed and these bags were used to carry the stones that were used for the construction of the temples. The material is an excellent candidate for dating, thus allowing for a high precision, the site may date even earlier as samples from the oldest parts of the excavation have yet to be dated.
The town had a population of approximately 3000 people, there are 19 other sites in the area, allowing for a possible total population of 20,000 people for the Supe Valley. All of these sites in the Supe valley share similarities with Caral and they had small platforms or stone circles. In 2000, Marco Machacuay and his colleague, Rocío Aramburú and this image, known as a geoglyph, is located on the desert floor just west of the main site at Caral
The El Brujo Archaeological Complex, just north of Trujillo, La Libertad Province, Peru, is an ancient archaeological site that was occupied from preceramic times. Huaca Prieta is the earliest part of the complex, the site was part of the Cupisnique culture and the Salinar culture. But the biggest constructions on the site belong to the Moche culture, in this area, there are the remains of the Lambayeque and Chimú. Huaca El Brujo and Huaca Cao Viejo were built by the Moche sometime between AD1 and 600, Huaca Cao Viejo is famous for its polychrome reliefs and mural paintings, and the discovery of the Señora de Cao, the first known governess in Peru. Both appeared in National Geographic magazine in July 2004 and June 2006, the site officially opened to the public in May 2006, and a museum exhibition was proposed for 2007. Archaeologists believe that the language was influenced by Quechua, an ancient tongue still spoken by millions of people across the Andes
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Lake Titicaca is a large, deep lake in the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Peru. By volume of water and by area, it is the largest lake in South America. Lake Maracaibo has a surface area, but it is a tidal bay. It is often called the highest navigable lake in the world, although this refers to navigation by large boats, it is generally considered to mean commercial craft. For many years the largest vessel afloat on the lake was the 2, 200-ton, today the largest vessel is most likely the similarly sized, but broader, train barge/float Manco Capac, operated by PeruRail. Numerous smaller bodies of water around the world are at higher elevations, the lake is located at the northern end of the endorheic Altiplano basin high in the Andes on the border of Peru and Bolivia. The western part of the lies within the Puno Region of Peru. The lake is composed of two nearly separate sub-basins connected by the Strait of Tiquina, which is 800 m across at the narrowest point, the larger sub-basin, Lago Grande, has a mean depth of 135 m and a maximum depth of 284 m.
The smaller sub-basin, Wiñaymarka, has a depth of 9 m. The overall average depth of the lake is 107 m, five major river systems feed into Lake Titicaca. In order of their flow volumes these are Ramis, Ilave, Huancané. More than twenty other smaller streams empty into Titicaca, the lake has 41 islands, some of which are densely populated. This only accounts for about 10% of the water balance. Evapotranspiration, caused by winds and intense sunlight at high altitude. It is nearly a closed lake, since 2000 Lake Titicaca has experienced constantly receding water levels. Between April and November 2009 alone the water level dropped by 81 cm and this drop is caused by shortened rainy seasons and the melting of glaciers feeding the tributaries of the lake. Water pollution is a concern because cities in the Titicaca watershed grow, sometimes outpacing solid waste. According to the Global Nature Fund, Titicacas biodiversity is threatened by water pollution, already in 2012, the GNF nominated the lake Threatened Lake of the Year
Coricancha, Qurikancha, or Quri Kancha was the most important temple in the Inca Empire. Originally named Inti Kancha or Inti Wasi, it was dedicated to Inti, mostly destroyed after the 16th century war with the Spanish conquistadors much of its stonework forms the foundation of the Santo Domingo church and convent. Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui rebuilt Cusco and the House of the Sun, enriching it with more oracles and edifices and he provided vases of gold and silver for the Mama-cunas, nuns, to use in the veneration services. Finally, he took the bodies of the seven deceased Incas, the walls were once covered in sheets of solid gold, and its adjacent courtyard was filled with golden statues. Spanish reports tell of its opulence that was fabulous beyond belief, when the Spanish required the Inca to raise a ransom in gold for the life of the leader Atahualpa, most of the gold was collected from Coricancha. The Spanish colonists built the Church of Santo Domingo on the site, demolishing the temple, construction took most of a century.
This is one of sites where the Spanish incorporated Inca stonework into the structure of a colonial building. Major earthquakes severely damaged the church, but the Inca stone walls, built out of huge, tightly-interlocking blocks of stone, nearby is an underground archaeological museum, which contains numerous interesting pieces, including mummies and sacred idols from the site. The site now includes the Church and Convent of Santo Domingo. Iperu, tourist information and assistance Tourism in Peru Media related to Qurikancha at Wikimedia Commons