China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Qingdao is a major city in the east of Shandong Province on China's Yellow Sea coast. It is a major nodal city of the One Belt, One Road Initiative that connects Asia with Europe, it has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level, Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities; as of 2014, Qingdao had a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Qingdao is a major seaport, naval base, industrial centre; the world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. It is the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China. In 2018, Qingdao ranked 31st in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and China Development Institute, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Dalian.
In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness. In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit. Jiāo'ào:: former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao:: additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline. Tsingtao: Postal romanisation Tsingtau: German name during their concession period, written in German romanisation of Chinese. Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiautschou: romanisations of Jiaozhou. Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years; the Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the town of Jimo was established, the second largest one in the Shandong region.
The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891. In 1891, the Qing Empire decided to make coastal Tsingtao a defense base against naval attack and began to improve its fortifications. Imperial German naval officials observed and reported on this activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops occupied the fortification; the unmodernised and ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany the following year, the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the imperial province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanised as Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers.
Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east." Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of "Tsingtao" with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia at that time and later. The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic missions. Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy rather than the Imperial Colonial Office.
The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of III. Seebataillon were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway began on September 23, 1899, was completed in 1904. Before the outbreak of World War I, ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions; the fleet rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands to plan a transit back to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets. After a minor British naval attack on the German colony on Shandong in 1914, Japanese Empire troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. China protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but was not able to interfere in the military operations.
The decision of the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in Qingdao after the Great War triggered the May Fourth M
The Brantly B-2 is an American two-seat light helicopter produced by the Brantly Helicopter Corporation. After the failure of his first design, the Brantly B-1, Newby O. Brantly decided to design a simpler and less complicated helicopter for the private buyer; the B-2 had a single main rotor and an anti-torque tail rotor and first flew on 21 February 1953. This was followed by an improved second prototype that first flew on 14 August 1956; the B-2A was introduced with a modified cabin, the B-2B had a larger 180 hp fuel-injected engine. The B-2B has a three-bladed articulated main rotor and an all-metal fuselage, it can be operated with skid, wheel or float landing gear; the piston engine is fitted vertically in the fuselage behind the cabin. The basic design has remained in production for over 50 years; the United States Army order five B-2's to be evaluated in the Light Observation Helicopter competition in 1958, although it lost the bid, the Army operated the H-5T unmanned variant as target from 1986.
Introduced in the early 1970s, an improved larger version with five seats was designated the Brantly 305. Brantly B-2: Two-seat single-engined light utility helicopter. Brantly YHO-3: United States military designation for the B2. Brantly B-2A: Initial production version. Brantly B-2B: Improved version, fitted with new metal rotor blades, an uprated fuel-injected 180 hp Lycoming piston engine. Brantly 305: Larger five-seat version. H-2: Designation of the B-2B built by Brantly-Hynes between 1976 and 1979. Brantly B-2J10: Projected tandem-rotor version with longer and wider fuselage for carrying passengers and/or cargo. Unbuilt. V750 UAV: An UAV version developed by Qingdao Haili Helicopters Co. Ltd. a joint venture between Brantly International Inc, Qingdao Wenquan International Aviation Investment Co. Ltd, Qingdao Brantly Investment Consultation Co. Ltd. Maiden flight was completed in May 7, 2011, received an order from an unnamed customer The B-2 has had 21 fatal accidents between February 1964 and August 2009.
B-2 N2143U was flown by Dean Svec for all of its total of 2,108 hrs. It was retired in 2006 and is now on permanent public display at the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, Western Reserve Historical Society in Cleveland, Ohio. A B2B belonging to the Flying Gyrocopter and Old Aircraft museum at Midden-Zeeland, Netherlands was about to fly again November 2009. A Greek road-assistance company,named EXPRESS SERVICE based in Thessaloniki,operated a B2B Brantly-Hynes helicopter for several years; that helicopter started flying in 1978 and had the Greek registration number SX-AHH. First captain was the pilot Kaltekis Spyridon. B2 sn#18 is in Chino awaiting restoration after the 2005/2010 floods at Corona airport,a month underwater did little corrosive damage... a B2B acquired for spares to complete restoration (dual serial numbers found "spliced together bird" Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1976–77 General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 28 ft Rotor diameter: 23 ft 9 in Height: 6 ft 11 in Disc area: 442 ft² Empty weight: 1,020 lb Max.
Takeoff weight: 1,670 lb Powerplant: 1 × Avco Lycoming IVO-360-A1A air-cooled flat-four piston, 180 hp Performance Maximum speed: 100 mph at sea level Cruise speed: 90 mph Range: 250 miles Service ceiling: 10,800 ft Rate of climb: 1,900 ft/min Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States BibliographyFrawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Civil Aircraft. Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 1997. ISBN 1-875671-26-9. Harding, Stephen. U. S Army Aircraft since 1947. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife, 1990. ISBN 1-85310-102-8. Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. London: Orbis Publishing.'Aviation Week, 1965 "British-built Brantlys?" FLIGHT, 30 January 1959 Specs & Photo at Flugzeuginfo.net Brantly B-2J10 at Stingray's List of Rotorcraft
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
Brantly International Inc. is an American helicopter company with its engineering and administrative offices based Coppell, United States. Manufacturing of Brantly-designed helicopters is now carried out by Qingdao Haili Helicopters of China; the company started out 1945 as Brantly Helicopter Corporation in Philadelphia, founded by Newby O. Brantly. Brantly was so impressed with the Sikorsky VS-300. In 1946 his first helicopter, the Brantly B-1 with coaxial rotors made its first flight; the B-1 was not put into production. Using lessons learned from the B-1, he decided to build a two-seater with a simple rotor design; this helicopter, the Brantly B-2, made its first flight 1953. In 1957 the company moved to Frederick, where the B-2 was certified in 1959, he designed the Brantly 305, a five-seater which made its first flight 1964. It was certified by the FAA in 1965, the same year it entered production. Lear Jet acquired the Brantly Helicopter Corporation in 1966; the factory moved to Wichita, Kansas in 1969.
Aeronautical Research & Development Corporation bought all the rights to Brantly helicopters from Lear Jet in 1969, but they ended operations in early 1970. In 1972, the rights were acquired as Brantly Operators Inc. by Michael K. Hynes, he renamed the company in 1975 as Brantly-Hynes Helicopter Inc. That year, the Franklin Capital Corp, headed by F. Lee Bailey who owned Enstrom Helicopter Corporation at that time, purchased the company. Brantly-Hynes were just providing product support but placed the B-2 and 305 back into production; the new factory in Vernon was built 1989 by Japanese-American businessman James T. Kimura, who renamed the company as Brantly International. In 1994, the ownership was transferred to a Beijing-based company, FESCO. In 1996, they achieved an FAA production certificate. In 2007, Cheng Shenzong, referred to as the "helicopter king" in China, acquired a major interest in the company, a joint venture between Brantly International Inc, Qingdao Wenquan International Aviation Investment Co.
Ltd, Qingdao Brantly Investment Consultation Co. Ltd. was established. The factory at the Wilbarger County Airport closed at the end of 2010, engineering and administrative offices of Brantly moved to Coppell, Texas. Not many helicopters were sold in the last years of manufacturing in Texas; the Aerospace Industries Association statistic for US Civil Helicopter Shipments between 1981 and 2007 showed 12 delivered B-2Bs. Qingdao Haili Helicopters Co. Ltd. is now the only manufacturer of the B-2B helicopter. 1946 - Brantly B-1 1953 - Brantly B-2: pre-production version. Brantly B-2A: basic production version. Brantly B-2B: improved version of the B-2, fitted with new metal rotor blades and an uprated fuel-injected 180 hp Lycoming piston engine; this is the only version available. Brantly B-2J10: projected tandem-rotor version with longer and wider fuselage for carrying passengers and/or cargo. None built. 1964 – Brantly 305: an enlarged B-2. Aviation portal Brantly International website