click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Blakesburg, Iowa

Blakesburg is a city in Wapello County, United States. The population was 296 at the 2010 census. Blakesburg was laid out in 1852, it was named for one of Theophilus Blake. Blakesburg's longitude and latitude coordinatesin decimal form are 40.962817, -92.636044. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.27 square miles, all of it land. The ZIP code for Blakesburg is 52536; as of the census of 2010, there were 296 people, 145 households, 84 families living in the city. The population density was 1,096.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 169 housing units at an average density of 625.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 0.3 % from two or more races. There were 145 households of which 22.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.1% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.60. The median age in the city was 48.2 years. 18.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.4 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 374 people, 166 households, 105 families living in the city; the population density was 1,408.9 people per square mile. There were 177 housing units at an average density of 666.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.66% White, 0.53% Asian, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.53% of the population. There were 166 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 29.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.78. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,500, the median income for a family was $35,417. Males had a median income of $27,813 versus $20,313 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,962. About 13.5% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. Airpower Museum Located 3 miles northeast of Blakesburg, the Airpower Museum features 25 pre-World War II aircraft on display as well as the Library of Flight, early flight simulators, propellers and original art. A fly-in of vintage aircraft is held each year; the Eddyville-Blakesburg-Fremont Community School District serves the community. It has one school building—Blakesburg Elementary Attendance Center—located in the community. Students grades 7-12 attend the Eddyville-Blakesburg Junior-Senior High School in neighboring Eddyville.

The district was formed by the 2012 merger of the Eddyville-Blakesburg Community School District and the Fremont Community School District. The former was formed in 1994 by the merger of the Eddyville Community School District and the Blakesburg Community School District. City-Data Comprehensive statistical data and more about Blakesburg

H. A. Prichard

Harold Arthur Prichard cited as H. A. Prichard, was an English philosopher, he was born in the eldest child of Walter Stennett Prichard and his wife Lucy. Harold Prichard was a scholar of Clifton College from where he won a scholarship to New College, Oxford, to study mathematics, but after taking first-class honours in mathematical moderations in 1891, he studied Greats taking first-class honours in 1894. He played tennis for Oxford against Cambridge. On leaving Oxford he spent a brief period working for a firm of solicitors in London, before returning to Oxford where he spent the rest of his life, first as Fellow of Hertford College and of Trinity College, he took early retirement from Trinity in 1924 on grounds of ill health, but recovered and was elected White's Professor of Moral Philosophy in 1928 and became a fellow of Corpus Christi College. He retired in 1937. Prichard gave an influential defence of ethical intuitionism in his "Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a Mistake?", wherein he contended that moral philosophy rested chiefly on the desire to provide arguments, starting from non-normative premises, for the principles of obligation that we pre-philosophically accept, such as the principle that one ought to keep one's promises or that one ought not steal.

This is a mistake, he argued, both because it is impossible to derive any statement about what one ought to do from statements not concerning obligation, because there is no need to do so since common sense principles of moral obligation are self-evident. The essay laid a groundwork for ethical intuitionism and provided inspiration for some of the most influential moral philosophers, such as John Rawls. Prichard attacks Utilitarianism as not being capable of forming obligation, he states that one cannot justify an obligation by pointing to the consequences of the obligated action because pointing to the consequences only shows that the action is desirable or advisable, not that it is obligatory. In other words, he claims that, while Utilitarianism may encourage people to do actions which a moral person would do, it cannot create a moral obligation to do those actions. H. A. Prichard is an ethical intuitionist, meaning he believed that it is through our moral intuitions that we come to know right and wrong.

Further, while he believes that moral obligations are justified by reasons, he does not believe that the reasons are external to the obligation itself. For instance, if a person is asked why he ought not torture chipmunks, the only satisfying answer that could be given is that he ought not torture chipmunks. Prichard, along with other intuitionists, adopts a foundationalist approach to morality. Foundationalism is a theory of epistemology which states that there are certain fundamental principles which are the basis for all other knowledge. In the case of ethics, foundationalists hold that certain fundamental moral rules are their own justification. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong explains: The deepest challenge in moral epistemology, as in general epistemology, is raised by a skeptical regress argument: Someone is justified in believing something only if the believer has a reason, expressible in an inference with premises that the believer is justified in believing; this requires a chain of inferences that must continue infinitely, close into a circle, or stop arbitrarily.

Academic skeptics reject all three options and conclude that there is no way for anyone to be justified in believing anything. The same regress arises for moral beliefs... The simplest way to stop this regress is to stop. If a believer can work back to a premise that the believer is justified in believing without being able to infer that premise from anything else there is no new premise to justify, so the regress goes no further; that is. Moral intuitionists apply foundationalism to moral beliefs as a way to stop the skeptical regress regarding moral beliefs. Therefore, Prichard concludes that just as observation of other people necessitates that other people exist, the observation of a moral obligation necessitates that the obligation exists. Prichard finishes his essay by answering a few obvious problems. Most notably, he explains. Observations can be misleading. For instance, if someone sees a pencil in water, he may conclude that the object in the water is bent. However, when he pulls the pencil from the water, he sees.

The same can occur with moral intuition. If one begins to doubt one's intuition, one should try to imagine oneself in the moral dilemma related to the decision. If the intuition persists the intuition is accurate. Prichard further supports these claims by pointing out how it is illegitimate to doubt believed moral intuitions: With these considerations in mind, consider the parallel which, as it seems to me, is presented though with certain differences by Moral Philosophy; the sense that we ought to do certain things arises in our unreflective consciousness, being an activity of moral thinking occasioned by the various situations in which we find ourselves. At this stage our attitude to these obligations is one of unquestioning confidence, but the appreciation of the degree to which the execution of these obligations is contrary to our interest raises the doubt whether after all these obligations are obligatory, i.e. whether our sense that we ought not to do certain things is not illusion. We want to have it proved to us that we ought to do so, i.e. to be convinced of this by a process which, as an argume

Kenneth Balfour

Lieutenant-Colonel Kenneth Robert Balfour was a British Conservative Party politician. Balfour purchased Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour in 1891. Following the introduction of electric lighting, the castle was gutted by fire in 1896, it was rebuilt - with modern fire hydrants - and in 1901 Balfour put the island up for sale. Balfour was commissioned in the 1st Dragoons, where he was appointed a lieutenant on 6 May 1885, promoted captain on 1 August 1892, he was placed on the reserve list, volunteered for service with the Imperial Yeomanry following the outbreak of the Second Boer War in late 1899. He was appointed second in command of the 11th battalion Imperial Yeomanry, with the temporary rank of major in the Army, on 10 February 1900, left Liverpool for South Africa on the SS Cymric in March 1900, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. Balfour and Thomas Brassey, 2nd Earl Brassey plain Thomas Allnut Brassey, stood for election as the Member of Parliament for Christchurch in the October 1900 general election.

At first Brassey seemed to have won by a slim majority of just 3 votes, but there were 11 spoiled votes which had not been marked properly by the presiding officers, 8 of them for Brassey and only 3 for Balfour, which reversed the result. Brassey alleged that there were electoral irregularities, although he stopped short of claiming corruption by Balfour, he did say that there were instances of impersonation and of voting by aliens, he lodged a court petition to overturn the result, but withdrew the allegations. The constituency of Christchurch at this time included the Borough of Bournemouth, which in 1901 expanded to include the parish of Winton and Moordown. To avoid duplication of road names, some of the roads in the added parish had to be changed, in commemoration of the resolution of the electoral dispute, an unnamed lane marking the boundary between Winton and Moordown became Balfour Road, the adjoining Church Road became Brassey Road. Balfour remained MP for Christchurch until 1906.

Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Kenneth Robert Balfour

Worker-priest

Worker-priest was a missionary initiative by the French Catholic Church in particular for priests to take up work in such places as car factories to experience the everyday life of the working class. A worker-priest was any priest, "freed from parochial work by his bishop, lived only by full-time labor in a factory or other place of work, was indistinguishable in appearance from an ordinary workingman". Although the movement did spread to many other countries such as Belgium and Italy, the French were always the most prominent; the movement was an attempt to "rediscover the masses" of industrial class workers who had become disaffected with the church. Father Jacques Loew, who began working in the docks of Marseilles in 1941 started the worker-priest movement. Loew had been sent by his Dominican Father Lebret to "study the condition of the working classes" but not to join the workers. In 1944, the first worker-priest missions were set up in Paris under Emmanuel Célestin Suhard, later in Lyons and Marseille.

The Church hoped, by "putting young priests into secular clothes and letting them work in factories, to regain the confidence of the French working class, which completely abandoned the Catholic faith." In 1945, Pope Pius XII "approved the daring social experiment of the French worker-priests." However, in the early 1950s, the worker-priest movement fell out of favor with the Vatican due to their role in left-wing politics and perceived abandonment of the traditional priesthood. The Worker-Priest movement was "severely constrained by a series of measures taken by the church in the 1950s". In 1950, Pius XII in an apostolic exhortation on the priestly life expressed "reservations and suspicions of the worker-priests …" Loew's May 1951 report defending the movement, written to Giovanni Montini, the assistant Cardinal Secretary of State, was not well received. Many of the priests joined in campaigns for improved pay and conditions and the movement became prominent in the industrial unrest of 1952 and 1953.

This resulted in the factory owners complaining to the Catholic Church that the priests were being divisive by supporting the unions. The French bishops informed the worker-priests. About 50, chose to stay on at their work. Moreover, by 1953, of some 90 priests, 10 had married, about 15 were working with the communists. "the Pope sent verbal orders that the movement be suppressed, but the French cardinals managed to persuade the Pope to allow the worker-priests to continue'in principle,' after some major changes in the setup."In November 1953, all worker priests were recalled and required to leave their work and unions. In 1954, Loew quit his job. Loew travelled to Africa worked in the favelas of São Paulo, Brazil from 1964 to 1969, established the School of Faith in Fribourg, Switzerland; the theology of the Worker-Priest is in part contained within Loew's publications: Les dockers de Marseille, En mission prolétarienne, Les Cieux ouverts: chronique de la mission Saints Pierre et Paul, Face to Face with God: the Bible's Way to Prayer.

In 1963, priests were allowed to return to the industrial workplaces, in the 1990s there were about 2,000 priests of the workers mission in France, although they were aging in line with the wider population of Catholic priests in that country. However, the worker priests had gained certain insights about the alienation of the Church from the modern world and the poor from their experience as workers; these had been shared with many others including the Bishops by means of letters, newsletters and meetings and the Papal Nuncio to France, Archbishop Angelo Roncalli. When Roncalli became Pope John XXIII in 1958, he called the Second Vatican Council, at least as a result of what the worker priests had revealed. During that Council, the French and Belgian Bishops in particular were influential in shaping its direction towards renewal and engagement with the modern world. On the advice of his mentor Cardinal Sapieha, Karol Wojtyla and a fellow Polish priest studying in Italy, Stanislaw Starowieyski, travelled to France and Belgium to acquaint themselves with the worker-priest movement.

Wojtyla, who had performed hard labor during his time as a seminarian admired the worker-priests. On his return in 1947, Wojtyla wrote a piece on the worker-priests for the Tygodnik Powszechny. Wojtyla wrote: "Father Loew came to the conclusion that the white habit by itself does not say anything any more today."A similar movement emerged in the Church of England in the 1960s. It is somewhat common, though not the rule or norm, for religious brothers and sisters, for some religious order priests some in contemplative life, to have learned and to practice, to a greater or lesser degree, some trade or profession besides the sacred sciences like philosophy or theology; some diocesan priests in the West and East do this, either full-time or part-time. Any such training and work is carried out with the advice of the spiritual director and confessor, with the consent and advice, or, if applicable, the command or request, of the pastor and the Ordinary, or the local male or female religious order superior.

If the religious or the cleric is still in formation, the rector and the vocation director would need to give their consent, as well. The place whe

John James (footballer, born 1948)

John Brian James is an English former footballer who played as a striker. He played in the English Football League for Port Vale and Tranmere Rovers, making 381 appearances in the process, played in the North American Soccer League for the Chicago Sting, he won promotions out of the Fourth Division with Port Vale and Tranmere. James began his career in his native Staffordshire with Port Vale, turning professional in April 1966, he became a first team regular from September 1967 and went on to make more than 200 league appearances for Vale, including 43 in the club's promotion season from Division Four in 1969–70. His goals were crucial to the club, top scorer in both 1969–70 and 1970–71 with 17 and 15 goals respectively, he missed much of the 1971–72 campaign due to a cartilage injury requiring two separate operations. After returning to the squad in February 1972 he was much less effective and lost his first team spot. In February 1973, James moved to Chester for £5,000, playing his first game alongside fellow home debutant Reg Matthewson in a 5–0 win over Darlington, that saw James amongst the scorers.

The following season saw James net 21 league goals, the highest tally by a Chester player since Gary Talbot in 1968–69, but his most memorable campaign would follow in 1974–75. James struck 13 times as Chester won promotion from the Fourth Division, but he was to enjoy national fame thanks to his goalscoring exploits in the League Cup during the same season. After wins over Walsall and Preston North End, Chester were drawn at home to First Division champions Leeds United. On a momentous night, Chester recorded, he followed it up by scoring the winning goal in the quarter-finals against another top-flight side, Newcastle United, to set up a semi–final tie with Aston Villa. James found the net in the second leg to level the aggregate score at 4–4, only for Brian Little to grab a late Villa winner and break Chester's hearts. Despite his contribution to Chester's success, James played just two first–team games for Chester after promotion and joined neighbours Tranmere Rovers in part-exchange for Paul Crossley in September 1975.

Once more promotion from the Fourth Division was enjoyed, with James netting 19 times in 38 league games. After a spell playing for Chicago Sting in the North American Soccer League, he returned to Prenton Park and remained at the club before joining non–league Stafford Rangers in 1978. Speaking in 2016, a Port Vale supporter who remembered seeing James play compared him to a Duracell battery due to his high stamina levels. "John James did everything wrong. He wasn't quick, he couldn't beat people and he couldn't shoot, but he'd hold the ball up all day, he disproved the coaching manual." James moved to Torquay to run a newsagents. Source: Port ValeFootball League Fourth Division promotion: 1969–70 ChesterFootball League Fourth Division promotion: 1974–75 League Cup semi-finalist: 1974–75Tranmere RoversFootball League Fourth Division promotion: 1975–76