Öljeitü, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit known as Muhammad Khodabandeh, was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran. His name "Ölziit" means "blessed" in the Mongolian language, he was the son of the Ilkhan ruler Arghun and successor of Mahmud Ghazan, great-grandson of the Ilkhanate founder Hulagu. Oljeitu was the son of the Christian Uruk Khatun. Oljeitu was baptised as a Christian and received the name Nikolya after Pope Nicholas IV. During his youth he converted to Buddhism and to Sunni Islam along with his brother Ghazan, he converted to Shi'a Islam after coming into contact with Shi'a scholars, although another source indicates he converted to Islam through the persuasions of his wife. He changed his first name to the Islamic name Muhammad; some of his relatives and companions gave him a nickname of Khutabanda. Rashid al-Din wrote that he adopted the name Oljeitu following Yuan emperor Oljeitu Temür enthroned in Dadu, but some Muslim source mentions that it rained when he was born, delighted Mongols called him Mongolian name Öljeitu, meaning auspicious.
After succeeding his brother, Öljeitu became influenced by Shi'a theologians Al-Hilli and Maitham Al Bahrani. In 1306, Oljeitu founded the city of Soltaniyeh, upon Al-Hilli's death, Oljeitu transferred his teacher's remains from Baghdad to a domed shrine he built in Soltaniyeh. Alienated by the factional strife between the Hanafis and the Shafis, Oljeitu changed his sect to Shi'a Islam in 1310, believing it to be the true version of Islam. In 1309, Öljeitu founded a Dar al-Sayyedah in Shiraz and endowed it with an income of 10,000 Dinars a year, he died near Zanjan, in 1316, having reigned for twelve years and nine months. Afterwards, Rashid al-Din Hamadani was accused of having caused his death by poisoning and was executed. Oljeitu was succeeded by his son Abu Sa'id, his magnificent tomb in Soltaniyeh, 300 km west of Tehran, remains the best known monument of Ilkhanid Persia. Trading contacts with European powers were active during the reign of Öljeitu; the Genoese had first appeared in the capital of Tabriz in 1280, they maintained a resident Consul by 1304.
Oljeitu gave full trading rights to the Venetians through a treaty in 1306. According to Marco Polo, Tabriz was specialized in the production of gold and silk, Western merchants could purchase precious stones in quantities. After his predecessor Arghun, Öljeitu continued diplomatic overtures with the West, re-stated Mongol hopes for an alliance between the Christian nations of Europe and the Mongols against the Mamluks though Öljeitu himself had converted to Islam. In April 1305, he sent a Mongol embassy led by Buscarello de Ghizolfi to the French king Philip IV of France, Pope Clement V, Edward I of England; the letter to Philip IV, the only one to have survived, describes the virtues of concord between the Mongols and the Franks: "We, Sultan Oljaitu. We speak. We, who by the strength of the Sky, rose to the throne, we, descendant of Genghis Khan. In truth, there cannot be anything better than concord. If anybody was not in concord with either you or ourselves we would defend ourselves together.
Let the Sky decide!" He explained that internal conflicts between the Mongols were now over: "Now all of us, Timur Khagan, Toctoga and ourselves, main descendants of Gengis-Khan, all of us, descendants and brothers, are reconciled through the inspiration and the help of God. So that, from Nangkiyan in the Orient, to Lake Dala our people are united and the roads are open." This message reassured the European nations that the Franco-Mongol alliance, or at least attempts towards such an alliance, had not ceased though the Khans had converted to Islam. Another embassy was sent to the West in 1307, led by Tommaso Ugi di Siena, an Italian described as Öljeitu's ildüchi; this embassy encouraged Pope Clement V to speak in 1307 of the strong possibility that the Mongols could remit the Holy Land to the Christians, to declare that the Mongol embassy from Öljeitu "cheered him like spiritual sustenance". Relations were quite warm: in 1307, the Pope named John of Montecorvino the first Archbishop of Khanbalik and Patriarch of the Orient.
European nations accordingly were delayed. A memorandum drafted by the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers Guillaume de Villaret about military plans for a Crusade envisaged a Mongol invasion of Syria as a preliminary to a Western intervention. A corps of Frank mangonel specialists is known to have accompanied the Ilkhanid army in the conquest of Herat in 1307. Mongols besieged the castle in Gilan for so long, that epidemic and lack of food supply forced Gilans to submit to them, he punished Kartids in Herat as well. Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II gave a daughter in marriage to Oljeitu and asked ilkhan's assistance against growing power of the Ottomans. In 1305, Oljeitu promised his father in law 40,000 men, in 1308 dispatched 30,000 men to recover many Byzantine towns in Bithynia and the Ilkhanid army crushed a detachment of Osman I. On April 4, 1312, a Crusade was promulgated by Pope Clement V at the Council of Vienne. Another embassy was sent by Oljeitu to the West and to Edward II in 1313.
That same year, the French king Philippe le Bel "took the cross", making the vow to go on a Crusade in the Levant, thus responding to Clement V's call for a Crusade. He w
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name, they ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE. The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon; the Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah. Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, they began patronage of artists and scholars. Baghdad became a centre of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam. Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali and Iranian bureaucrats.
They were forced to cede authority over al-Andalus to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya to the Aghlabids in 800 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969. The political power of the caliphs ended with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, who captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055, respectively. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian domain; the Abbasids' period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim religious authority until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517; the Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan.
The Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported by Arabs the aggrieved settlers of Merv with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali"; the Abbasids appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign in Persia for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of Khorasan though the governor opposed them, the Shia Arabs, he achieved considerable success, but was captured in the year 747 and died assassinated, in prison.
On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim, rising from Khorasan initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslim's command when the hostilities began in Merv. General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Gorgan, the Battle of Nahāvand and in the Battle of Karbala, all in the year 748; the quarrel was taken up by Ibrahim's brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who defeated the Umayyads in 750 in the battle near the Great Zab and was subsequently proclaimed caliph. After this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt; the remainder of his family, barring one male, were eliminated. After their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas; the noble Iranian family Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the world's first recorded paper mill in the city, thus beginning a new era of intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain.
As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions; the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. This was to both appease as well to be closer to the Persian mawali support base that existed in this region more influenced by Persian history and culture, part of the Persian mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762. A new position, that of the vizier, was established to delegate central authority, greater authority was delegated to local emirs; this meant that many Abbasid caliphs were relegated to a more ceremonial role than under the Umayyads, as the viziers began to exert greater influence, the role of the old Arab aristocracy was replaced by a Persian bureaucracy. During Al-Mansur's time control of Al-Andalus was lost, the Shia revolted and were defeated a year at the Battle of Bakhamra.
The Abbasids had depended on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, Al-Mansur welcomed non-Arab Musli
Timur, sometimes spelled Taimur and best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in southwestern Central Asia, thus becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an islamized and iranized society", not steppe nomadic. Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana on 9 April 1336, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western and Central Asia, the Caucasus and southern Russia, emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, the declining Delhi Sultanate. From these conquests, he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death. Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and according to Gérard Chaliand, saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir. Though not a Borjigid or a descendent of Genghis Khan, he sought to invoke the legacy of the latter's conquests during his lifetime. According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, "in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights, he justified his Iranian and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers." To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam", patronized educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. Timur decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi. By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, the Golden Horde, attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China.
Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia and Europe, sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time, he was the grandfather of the Timurid sultan and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for over three centuries, from 1526 until 1857. Timur is considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru. Through his father, Timur claimed to be a descendant of Tumanay Khan, a male-line ancestor he shared in common with Genghis Khan. Tuminai's great-great grandson Karachar Noyan was a minister for the Emperor and was transferred to assist his second son Chagatai in the governorship of Transoxiana. Though there are not many mentions of Karachar in 13th and 14th century records Timurid sources emphasised his role in the early history of the Mongol Empire.
These histories state that Genghis Khan "established the bond of fatherhood and sonship" by marrying Chagatai's daughter to Karachar. Through his descent from this marriage, Timur claimed kinship with the Chagatai Khans; the origins of Timur's mother, Tekina Khatun are less clear. The Zafarnama states her name without giving any information regarding her background. Writing in 1403 Jean, Archbishop of Sultaniyya claimed; the Mu'izz al-Ansab, written decades say that she was related to the Yasa'uri tribe, whose lands bordered that of the Barlas. Ibn Khaldun recounted that Timur himself described to him his mother's descent from the legendary Persian hero Manuchehr. Ibn Arabshah suggested; the 18th century Books of Timur identify her as the daughter of'Sadr al-Sharia', believed to be referring to the Hanafi scholar Ubayd Allah al-Mahbubi of Bukhara. Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh, some 80 kilometres south of Samarkand, part of what was the Chagatai Khanate, his name Temur means "Iron" in his mother-tongue.
He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe, turkified in many aspects. His father, Taraghai was described as a minor noble of this tribe. However, historian Beatrice Forbes Manz believes that Timur may have understated the social position of his father, so as to make his own successes appear more remarkable, she states that though he is not believed to have been powerful, Taraghai was reasonalbly wealthy and influential. This is shown by Timur returning to his birthplace following the death of his father in 1360, suggesting concern over his estate. Taraghai's social significance is further hinted at by Arabshah, who described him as a magnate in the court of Amir Husayn Qara'unas. In addition to this, the father of the great Amir Hamid Kereyid of Moghulistan is stated as a friend of Taraghai's. Timurid dynastic histories claim that Timur was born on 8 April 1336, but most sources from his lifetime give ages that are consistent with a birthdate in the late 1320s. Manz suspects the 1336 date was designed to tie Timur to the legacy of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, the last ruler of the Ilkh
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death, he was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989. Khomeini was born in 1902 in what is now Iran's Markazi Province, his father was murdered in 1903. He began studying the Quran and the Persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother. Khomeini was a marja in Twelver Shia Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih and author of more than 40 books, but he is known for his political activities.
He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists; this principle, was appended to the new Iranian constitution after being put to a referendum. According to The New York Times, Khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution. Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be democratic is disputed, he was Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1979 for his international influence, Khomeini has been described as the "virtual face of Shia Islam in Western popular culture". In 1982, he survived one military coup attempt. Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis, his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and Soviet Union as the "Lesser Satan."
Khomeini has been criticized for human rights violations of Iranians. He has been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity", a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars, who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias, a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy. Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran and by his supporters internationally, he is referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others. In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehrān's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his adherents, he is considered "inviolable", with Iranians punished for insulting him. Ruhollah Khomeini's ancestors migrated towards the end of the 18th century from their original home in Nishapur, Khorasan Province, in northeastern part of Iran, for a short stay, to the kingdom of Awadh – a region in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh, India – whose rulers were Twelver Shia Muslims of Persian origin.
During their rule they extensively invited, received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, jurists and painters. The family settled in the small town of Kintoor, near Lucknow, the capital of Awadh. Ayatollah Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi, was born in Kintoor, he left Lucknow in 1830, on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Imam Ali in Najaf, Ottoman Iraq and never returned. According to Moin, this migration was to escape from the spread of British power in India. In 1834 Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi visited Persia, in 1839 he settled in Khomein. Although he stayed and settled in Iran, he continued to be known as Hindi, indicating his stay in India, Ruhollah Khomeini used Hindi as a pen name in some of his ghazals. There are claims that Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi departed from Kashmir, instead of Lucknow. Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose first name means "spirit of Allah", was born on 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province, he was raised by his mother, Hajieh Agha Khanum, his aunt, following the murder of his father, Mustapha Musavi, five months after his birth in 1903.
Ruhollah began to study the Qur'an and elementary Persian at the age of six. The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned religion, noheh khani, other traditional subjects. Throughout his childhood, he continued his religious education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far, his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh. After World War I arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak, he was placed under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi. In 1920, Khomeini commenced his studies; the following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred to the Islamic seminary in the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. Khomeini's studies included Islamic law and jurisprudence, but by that time, Khomeini had acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy.
So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philos
Karaj is the capital of Alborz Province, a suburb of Tehran. Although the county hosts a population around 1.97 million, as recorded in the 2016 census, most of the 1,419 sq km county is rugged mountain, the urban area is the fourth-largest in Iran, after Tehran and Isfahan. Eshtehard County and Fardis County were split off from Karaj county since the previous census; the earliest records of Karaj date back to 30th century BC. The city was developed under the rule of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, is home to historical buildings and memorials from those eras; until the second half of the 20th century, it used to be known as a summer resort. Today, it is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles and alcohol. Karaj has been hosting communities since 3000 years BC; the Khurvin region of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, the Kelak region on the left bank of Karaj River since the Iron Age. The stone built Takht-e Rostam, located on a mount in the west of Shahriar County, was built in the Parthian era as a Zoroastrian fire temple.
Until the late 20th century, the city was crossed into by a stone bridge built in the Safavid era. The stone built Shah-Abbasi Caravansary, located at the southeast of Towhid Square, was built in the same era, under the rule of Šāh Esmāil. In the 1810s, the Palace of Soleymaniye, which included four towers surrounded by gardens and walls, was built as a summer resort by the order of Shahzaden Soleyman, an old prince governor of Kermānšāh. Granted in the Pahlavi era by Rezā Šāh Pahlavi, it is now housing the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Tehran; the Morvārid Palace was constructed during the Pahlavi era. It was designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation on instructions from Shams Pahlavi, elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Majority of the structure is now controlled by the Basij Organization, some sections of it are open to public under the operation of Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. Other historical sites of the city include the Mausoleum of Šāhzāde Soleymān, Emāmzāde Rahmān, Emāmzāde Zeyd, Palang Ābād e Eštehārd.
Karaj is situated 20 kilometres west at the foothills of the Alborz mountains. Built on a wide plain with some gentle hills, the city is located north of the agricultural plain of Šahriār and east of the plains of Sāvoj Bolāq and Haštgerd; the downtown of Karaj is referred to Karaj Square, located hundred of meters to the west of Karaj River and the old Karaj Bridge. The villages Hesārak, Gowhar Dašt, Šahrak e Azimie are located in the northern Greater Karaj. Mehršahr, an abortive residential luxury resort, Šahrak e Fardis, a popular modern quarter close to the industrial facilities, were designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in the late 1960s. Meškin Dašt, a large agricultural area between Mehršahr and Fardis, lies outside the municipal limits of Karaj; the following table includes the major districts of the city: Open space recreational areas of Karaj include Irānzamin Park, Pārk e Xānvāde, Tennis Park, Pārk e Mādar, Tāleqān Gardens, Kordān Gardens, Jahānšahr Gardens, Pardis e Golhā, the Tulip Garden of Gačsār.
The climate of Karaj is a bit cooler than Tehran's, it receives 260 mm of rain annually. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies the city's climate as cold semi-arid. Amir Kabir Dam and some other small lakes are based in Karaj; the city is a starting point for a drive along road forced north through the Alborz mountain to the Caspian Sea. The majority of the residents of Karaj are Persian-speaking people, with Azerbaijanis making up the second major ethno-linguistic group of the city. Kurds, Gilaks and Lurs include the other ethnicities among the population of Karaj. Karaj is connected by railway and highways to Tehran 40 km east and Qazvin 100 km northwest, by commuter rail to the subway system of Tehran; the city is served by an urban railway organization established on 21 December 2001. It is served by the Karaj Metro Station, established on 7 March 1999, is located in the south-eastern Karaj, near Tehran-Qazvin Freeway; the highway system of Karaj includes Tehran-Karaj Highway, Karaj Special Road, the old road of Karaj.
Bākeri Expressway is one of the main north-to-south routes in west Tehran, connected to the Tehran-Karaj Highway. Tehran-Karaj Highway is one of the busiest sections in Iran with AADT of 217084. Karaj-Qazvin has an AADT of 79606; the aerial transport of Karaj is served by the Payam International Airport, established in 1990, was opened in 1997. The economic base of Karaj is its proximity to Tehran, it is due to the transportation of products between the Caspian Sea. Chemicals and processed agricultural goods are produced in the city. Karaj is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles and alcohol, it has become a major area for middle class migrants from Tehran. This is due to the cheaper housing conditions. Zowb Āhan, the avenue leading to an industrial plant, is located at the south of Ostandar Square. Zowb e Āhan or Zowb Āhan "steel mill", was a contract between the Pahlavi government and a consortium from Nazi Germany; the establishment of the factory Zowb Āhan e Karaj was halted by the beginning of the Second World War, it was never launched.
Šahrak e Jahānšahr was the first modern private industrial and housing complex of Karaj, built in the 1960s. The factories Jahān Čit, Rowqan Nabāti e Jahān (oil f
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia from 1789 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was known as the Sublime State of Persia; the Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia; the Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz or "Black-Eye" sect of the Qajars, who themselves were members of the Qajars or "Black Hats" lineage of the Oghuz Turks. Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids.
The Safavids "left Arran to local Turkic khans", and, "in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, whose family came to govern Karabakh in southern Arran". Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16–17th centuries for the Safavids; the Qajars were resettled by Shah Abbas I throughout Iran. The great number of them settled in Astarabad near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea, it would be this branch of Qajars that would rise to power; the immediate ancestor of the Qajar dynasty, Shah Qoli Khan of the Quvanlu of Ganja, married into the Quvanlu Qajars of Astarabad. His son, Fath Ali Khan was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Sultan Husayn and Tahmasp II, he was killed on the orders of Shah Nader Shah in 1726. Fath Ali Khan's son Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar was the father of Mohammad Khan Qajar and Hossein Qoli Khan, father of "Baba Khan," the future Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Mohammad Hasan Khan was killed on the orders of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty.
Within 126 years between the demise of the Safavid state and the rise of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the Qajars had evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Persia into a Persian dynasty with all the trappings of a Perso-Islamic monarchy. "Like every dynasty that ruled Persia since the 11th century, the Qajars came to power with the backing of Turkic tribal forces, while using educated Persians in their bureaucracy". In 1779 following the death of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, Mohammad Khan Qajar, the leader of the Qajars, set out to reunify Iran. Mohammad Khan was known as one of the cruelest kings by the standards of 18th-century Iran. In his quest for power, he razed cities, massacred entire populations, blinded some 20,000 men in the city of Kerman because the local populace had chosen to defend the city against his siege; the Qajar armies at that time were composed of Turkomans and Georgian slaves. By 1794, Mohammad Khan had eliminated all his rivals, including Lotf Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty.
He reestablished Persian control over the territories in the entire Caucasus. Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy. In 1796, he was formally crowned as shah. In 1797, Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in Shusha, the capital of Karabakh Khanate, was succeeded by his nephew, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. In 1744, Nader Shah had granted the kingship of Kartli and Kakheti to Teimuraz II and his son Erekle II as a reward for their loyalty; when Nader Shah died in 1747, they capitalized on the chaos that had erupted in mainland Iran, declared de facto independence. After Teimuraz II died in 1762, Erekle II assumed control over Kartli, united the two kingdoms in a personal union as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia in three centuries. At about the same time, Karim Khan Zand had ascended the Iranian throne. In 1783, Erekle II placed his kingdom under the protection of the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Georgievsk.
In the last few decades of the 18th century, Georgia had become a more important element in Russo-Iranian relations than some provinces in northern mainland Persia, such as Mazandaran or Gilan. Unlike Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, the then-ruling monarch of Russia, viewed Georgia as a pivot for her Caucasian policy, as Russia's new aspirations were to use it as a base of operations against both Iran and the Ottoman Empire, both immediate bordering geopolitical rivals of Russia. On top of that, having another port on the Georgian coast of the Black Sea would be ideal. A limited Russian contingent of two infantry battalions with four artillery pieces arrived in Tbilisi in 1784, but was withdrawn, despite the frantic protests of the Georgians, in 1787 as a new war against Ottoman Turkey had started on a different front; the consequences of these events came a few years when a strong new Iranian dynasty under the Qajars emerged victorious in the protracted power struggle in Persia. Their head, Agha Mohammad Khan, as his first objective, resolved to bring the Caucasus again under the Persian orbit.
For Agha Mohammah Khan, the resubjugat