Kermanshah, the capital of Kermanshah Province, is located 525 kilometres from Tehran in the western part of Iran. According to the 2011 census, its population is 851,405. A majority of the population speaks Southern Kurdish. Kermanshah has a mountainous climate. Kermanshah is the largest Kurdish-speaking city in Iran. Most of the inhabitants of Kermanshah are Shia Muslims, but there are minorities such as Sunni Muslims, Yarsanism and so on; because of its antiquity, attractive landscapes, rich culture and Neolithic villages, Kermanshah is considered one of the cradles of prehistoric cultures. According to archaeological surveys and excavation, the Kermanshah area has been occupied by prehistoric people since the Lower Paleolithic period, continued to Paleolithic periods till late Pleistocene period; the Lower Paleolithic evidence consists of some handaxes found in the Gakia area to the east of the city. The Middle Paleolithic remains have been found in various parts of the province in the northern vicinity of the city in Tang-e Kenesht, Tang-e Malaverd and near Taqwasan.
Neanderthal Man existed in the Kermanshah region during this period and the only discovered skeletal remains of this early human in Iran was found in three caves and rockshelter situated in Kermanshah province. The known Paleolithic caves in this area are Warwasi, Malaverd and Do-Ashkaft Cave; the region was one of the first places in which human settlements including Asiab, Sarab, Chia Jani, Ganj-Darreh were established between 8,000-10,000 years ago. This is about the same time that the first potteries pertaining to Iran were made in Ganj-Darreh, near present-day Harsin. In May 2009, based on a research conducted by the University of Hamedan and UCL, the head of Archeology Research Center of Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization announced that the one of the oldest prehistoric village in the Middle East dating back to 9800 B. P. was discovered in Sahneh, located west of Kermanshah. Remains of village occupations and early Bronze Age are found in a number of mound sites in the city itself.
In ancient Iranian mythology, construction of the city is attributed to Tahmuras, the third king of Pishdadian dynasty. It is believed that the Sassanids have constructed Kermanshah and Bahram IV gave his name to this city, it was a glorious city in Sassanid period about the 4th century AD when it became the capital city of Persian Empire and a significant health center serving as the summer resort for Sassanid kings. In AD 226, following a two-year war led by the Persian Emperor, Ardashir I, against "Kurdish" tribes in the region, the empire reinstated a local "Kurdish" prince, Kayus of Medya, to rule Kermanshah. At the time, the term "Kurd" was used as a social term, designating Iranian nomads, rather than a concrete ethnic group; the word became an ethnic identity in the 13th century. Within the dynasty known as the House of Kayus remained a semi-independent kingdom lasting until AD 380 before Ardashir II removed the dynasty's last ruling member. Kermanshah was conquered by the Arabs in AD 640.
Under Seljuk rule in the eleventh century, it became the major cultural and commercial center in western Iran and the southern Kurdish-inhabited areas as a whole. The Safavids fortified the town, the Qajars repulsed an attack by the Ottomans during Fath Ali Shah's rule. Kermanshah was occupied by Ottomans between 1723–1729 and 1731-1732. Occupied by the Imperial Russian army in 1914, followed by the Ottoman army in 1915 during World War I, it was evacuated in 1917 when the British forces arrived there to expel the Ottomans. Kermanshah played an important role in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution during the Qajar dynasty period and the Republic Movement in Pahlavi dynasty period; the city was harshly damaged during the Iran–Iraq War, although it was rebuilt, it has not yet recovered. After the revolution in 1979, the city was named Ghahramanshahr for a short period of time, the name of the city as well as the province changed to Bakhtaran due to the presence of the word "Shah" in the original name.
Bakhtaran means western, which refers to the location of the province within Iran. After the Iran–Iraq War, the city was renamed Kermanshah, as it resonated more with the desire of its residents, the Persian literature, the collective memory of the Iranians. Kermanshah has a climate, influenced by the proximity of the Zagros mountains, classified as a hot-summer Mediterranean climate; the city's altitude and exposed location relative to westerly winds makes precipitation a little bit high, but at the same time produces huge diurnal temperature swings in the rainless summers, which remain hot during the day. Kermanshah experiences rather cold winters and there are rainfalls in fall and spring. Snow cover is seen for at least a couple of weeks in winter. Kermanshah sights include Kohneh Bridge, Behistun Inscription, Temple of Anahita, Ganj Dareh, Essaqwand Rock Tombs, Sorkh Deh chamber tomb, Malek Tomb, Median dakhmeh, Parav cave, Do-Ashkaft Cave, Tekyeh Moaven al-molk, Dokan Davood Inscription, Sar Pol-e-Zahab, Tagh e gara, Patagh pass, Sarab Niloufar, Ghoori Ghale Cave, Khajeh Barookh's House, Chiyajani Tappe, Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex, Emad al doleh Mosque, Tekyeh Biglarbeigi, Hunters cave, Jamé Mosque of Kermanshah, Godin Tepe, Bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia, Anobanini bas relief.
Taghbostan is a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sass
Dehgolan is a city and capital of Dehgolan County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. The population of Dehgolan is Kurdish. At the 2017 census, its population was 45,386, in 9,920 families; the spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language, used in schools and offices is Persian, as the official language of Iran in which everyone in the city is fluent. Website for Dehgolan County
Bījār is a city and capital of Bijar County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 47,926, in 14,970 families. Ethnically the population is predominantly Shia Kurds. With an elevation of 1,940 metres, Bijar has been called the Roof of Iran; the term bijar could be the complete name of the city Bijar-e Garrus. Among other suggested etymologies for bijar is bid-zar, linguistically unlikely. Bijar is known internationally for its elegant and ancient rug designs. Bijar has been part of the Garrus administration unit. Before the creation of Zanjan province by the Pahlavi regime, the wider region of Garrus covered Suhreward, the birthplace of Shahab al-Din Suhrewardi, the famous Persian philosopher of illumination; the city was mentioned in the 15th century as a village belonging to Shah Ismail, the first ruler of the Safavid dynasty. During World War I it was besieged and occupied by Russian and Ottoman troops who, with the aid of the 1918 famine, halved the pre-war population of 20,000.
The historical fort of Qam Cheqay dates back to the Median era and is the oldest castle in the Kurdistan province. The castle had been used until the Sasanid era and it is an example of the ancient architecture of Kurdistan. Another historical building, Emamzadeh Aqil, located in Hasan Abad 45 km east of Bijar, is one of the remaining Seljuk buildings; this square building with a collapsed dome houses Islamic religious texts written in Kufic script. During the Mongol invasion of Iran in the 13th century, Genghis Khan occupied Bijar and built Genghis Castle near the city, it is now a ruin on the Bijar—Sanandaj road. Bijar's bazaar, with its unique design, is one of the attractions of the city; the roofed bazaar built in the Qajar era is much younger than the old Safavid-era bazaar of Sanandaj, the Kurdistan capital. The bazaar of Bijar consists of a main north–south roofed pathway, an eastern section and a western section. Bijar has enjoyed fame for its carpets since the Achaemenid era. Present day carpets and rugs have 100–200 Turkish knots per inch and are distinguished by their stiff and heavy wool foundation, created by "wet weaving" and beating the threads together with a special metal tool.
Bijar carpets are famously stronger and longer-lasting than any others. They are made by Kurdish women in the villages around the town; the loom is set vertically against the side of the house. The designs have never been out of fashion with overseas buyers. Nowadays dyes are high quality synthetics; the motifs are floral adaptations of classical Persian designs. Herati and boteh motifs are common, as are central medallions and sometimes representations of animals and willows; these are set against a dark background of red or green. In relation to the size of the carpet, borders are small, with up to eight bands; the Iranian Payame Noor University has opened a branch in Bijar-e Garrus and the Garrus Research Center is affiliated with the university. Prominent politicians and army officers in the Iranian army have come from Bijar. Amir Nezam Garrusi was born in Bijar to a Kabudvand family; as colonel of the Garrus Regiment, he took part in Muhammad Ali Shah's unsuccessful Herat Campaign. As a diplomat in Paris, he had dinners with Napoleon.
He acted as an Iranian diplomat to the Sublime Porte. General Garrusi joined in the 1880 suppression of the Kurdish uprising by the Sheikh Ubeydullah of Neri, he played a part in the murder of Cewer Agha, the predecessor of Simko, the Kurdish leader. The family of Rear Admiral Gholamali Bayandor came from Bijar. Among academic figures from Bijar is Dr Kamran Nejatollahi, a young civil engineering professor in the Polytechnic University of Tehran, he was killed during a peaceful sit-in at the university by Savak snipers. He is now regarded as an early martyr of the Islamic revolution and is buried among "political dissidents" in Behesht-e Zahra in Teheran; the poet Fazel-Khan Garrusi was born into a Bijar family before moving to Teheran. Abdollah Ramezanzadeh, the spokesman of the former Khatami government, was raised in Bijar, he was the governor of Kurdistan Province 1997–2001, but has been in prison since the disputed 2009 presidential election. Farhad Aslani the actor was born in Bijar. Other prominent Bijaris include bodybuilding champion Baitollah Abbaspour and footballer Eshaq Sobhani.
Mr Shahriari, the prominent Iranian TV personality, comes from Bijar. In June 2008, 21-year-old Hana Abdi, former student of Payame Noor University in Bijar and a member of the Azarmehr Organization of Women of Sanandaj, was sentenced to prison for five years but released after 15 months; the Iranian Revolutionary Court had charged her with "enmity against God" and "gathering and colluding to harm national security"
Kurdistan Province or Kordestan is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The province of Kurdistan is 28,817 km² in area which encompasses just one-fourth of the areas in Iran inhabited by Kurds, it is located in the west of Iran, in Region 3, bound by Iraq on the west, the province of West Azerbaijan to its north, Zanjan to the northeast, Hamedan to the east and Kermanshah to the south. The capital of Kurdistan Province is the city of Sanandaj. Other counties with their major cities are Marivan, Saqqez, Piranshahr, Kamyaran, Dehgolan and Sarvabad; the mountainous lands of this area first encouraged Iranian-speaking tribes to settle in this region after their immigration to Iran. It was from here where the first plan to overthrow the Assyrian Empire began, leading to their defeat in 612 BCE, setting the stage for the commence of the Median empire. During the next few hundred years, the area of present-day Kurdistan Province became the arena of conflict between various invaders, including the Mongols and Timurids.
Its steady decline began in the 16th century. Upon the order of Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh, a small town by the name of Soltanabad Chamchal was constructed in Bisotun region to function as the official and political center of Kurdistan in the Middle Ages, it remained the capital for nearly one-and-a-half centuries, until, in 1372 CE, the government moved to Hassanabad fort, 6 km south of Sanandaj. Around 14th century, people from Ardalan tribe established themselves in Sinne as the rulers of this region. According to Sharafnama written by Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi, the earliest known leader of the tribe, Bawa Ardalan, was a descendant of Ahmad bin Marwan, who ruled in Diyarbakır, he settled down among the Gorani people in Kurdistan and toward the end of the Mongol period took over the "Şare Zor" region, where he established himself as an absolute ruler. He is considered to be the founder of the Ardalan principality; the territories of Zardiawa, Khanaqin and Kifri, which were the homelands of the Goran-Kurds, all belonged to this principality.
The capital city of the principality was first in Sharazor, but was moved to Sinne on. During the reign of Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid dynasty, Sunni Kurds were supported by Ottoman against the Shi'ite government of the Safavids; when Soleiman Khan Ardalan came to power in 1630 CE, the throne was transferred to Sanandaj, from on, the rulers contributed to the flourishing and development of the area. The Ardalan Dynasty continued to rule the region until the Qajar monarch Nasser-al-Din Shah ended their rule in 1867 CE; the area of Kurdistan Province incorporates portions of the former Gerrus Province. Kurdistan Province is a mountainous region that can be topographically divided into a western and an eastern section at Sanandaj; as a result of its elevation and mountains, Kurdistan province has many rivers, lakes and caves, which render it rather picturesque. Kurdistan has always attracted a large number of tourists and fans of mountaineering and water-sports; the Zarrineh River, 302 km long, is one of the longest rivers of this province.
Its banks offer great opportunities for recreation and the river's plentiful water renders itself ideal for water sports. This river runs northwards and pours into Lake Urmia; the Sirvan River is another prominent river in this province. It runs over a long distance to join the Tigris in Iraq; the banks of this river are remarkably attractive. The Simineh River is an important river in this province. A large number of marine species and birds live on the banks of the province's numerous rivers which they seem to find ideal habitats. Lake Zarivar is the most beautiful water-way of the province, which lies at the feet to high mountains, providing a delightfully picturesque sight, its water is sparklingly fresh. The lake has an average depth of 3 m, it is surrounded by thick forests. The lake, the mountains and the forests create a scenic panorama; this lake, which has a length of 5 km and a maximum which width of 1.7 km, lies to the west of Marivan. Lake Vahdat's dam, to the north of Sanandaj, provides excellent opportunities for fishing and water-sports.
Kurdistan Province benefits from many resourceful mineral water springs. The most outstanding of these are: Govaz to the northwest of Kamyaran, Abetalkh close to Bijar and Baba Gorgor to the north of Qorveh. Cave Kereftoo, close to Divandarreh, is a unique natural and at the same time archeological site. Inside the cave there are a number of ancient buildings known as the Temple of Heraclius, because the name of this Greek god is carved on the ceiling of one of the halls. Cave Shoovi, 267 m long, is another prominent cave. Mount Charkhaln 3,330 m high, mount Chehelcheshmeh, 3,173 m, Mount Hossein Bak, 3,091 m, Mount Masjede Mirza, 3,059 m, are the other large mountains of Kurdistan. Kurdistan Province has vast forests and refuges, where many animals and birds live, safely from the harms of the human beings: the leopard, wild goat, jackal, fox, sable and such birds as the partridge, wild duck, stork and eagle. Kurdistan Province is one of the most mountainous regions in Iran and has a mild and quite pleasant climate throughout the spring and summer.
Winters are long and can be cold with heavy snowfalls. The population of the province in 1996 was 1,346,383 of which 52.42% were urban dwellers and 47.58% rural dwellers. According to National Census, in 2011 population
Hamadān or Hamedān is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families. Hamedan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities, it is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE. Hamedan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran; the city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located 360 kilometres southwest of Tehran; the major sights of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian. According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a old city, it may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is mentioned by Herodotus who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."Hamadan was established by the Medes.
It became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty. Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.. Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text; because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs. During the Buwayhids, the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan; the city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar, Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran.
Hamadan stands on the Silk Road, in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran. During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces, it was occupied by both armies, by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918. Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros; the vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are humid and bring rainfall; the west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region. Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer continental climate, in transition with a cold semi-arid climate, with snowy winters.
In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °C on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild and sunny. According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957. Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people; the majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris, a small group of Persian Jews. Hamadan is home to cultural celebrities; the city is said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather and carpets. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in Hamadan; the Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is believed by some to hold the remains of the biblical Esther and her uncle Mordechai. The scientist and writer Avicenna is interred here.
The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher is interred here. Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani, author of the Maqamat, was born here. PAS Hamedan F. C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F. C.. The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F. C. is in the Azadegan League. Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium, Shahid Mofatteh Stadium, Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan. Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution, education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan; some of the popular universities in Hamadan include: Bu-Ali Sina University Hamadan Medical University Hamadan University of Technology Islamic Azad University of Hamadan Abolhassa
Sanandaj pronunciation is the capital of Kurdistan Province in Iran. With a population of 414,069, Sanandaj is the twenty third largest city in Iran and the second largest Kurdish city. Sanandaj's founding is recent, yet under its short existence it has grown to become a center of Kurdish culture; the spoken language in the city is Kurdish, but the language, used in schools and offices is Persian, as the official language in Iran in which everyone in the city is fluent. The city of Sanandaj was called Saneh, because it was located near an important castle it was called Sanehdaj, meaning castle at the foot of a mountain; this turned into Sanandaj over time. The population of Sanandaj is Kurdish; the city had an Armenian minority who emigrated from the city. Until the Iranian Revolution, the city had a small Aramaic-speaking Jewish community of about 4,000 people; the city boasted a sizable Assyrian community. The economy of Sanandaj is based upon the production of carpets, processed hides and skins, milled rice, refined sugar, cotton weaving and cutlery.
Most of the people of Sanandaj follow the Shafi branch Sunni Islam. The Ardalani dialect of Kurdish is spoken in its surroundings. Ardalani dialect is distinct to Kurdistan province and is spoken in Sanandaj and other cities of Kurdistan province; the other important dialect of Sorani Kurdish is Mokriani, spoken in Mokrian region in Piranshahr & Mahabad in West Azerbaijan province. During the Iranian revolution, PDKI and Komalah took control over the city under a brief period of time. Sanandaj Sanandaj Online Community Islamic Azad University of sanandaj
Kani Sur is a city and capital of Namshir District, in Baneh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,131, in 239 families