Haiphong is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, third largest city overall in Vietnam. Hai Phong is the center of technology, culture, education and trade in the northern coast of Vietnam. Hai Phong city traces its origin to its 1887 founding as a seaport province by colonist of the French Colonial Empire. In 1888, the president of the French Third Republic Sadi Carnot promulgated a decree to establish Hai Phong city. From 1954 to 1975, Hai Phong served as the most important maritime city of North Vietnam, it became one of direct-controlled municipalities of a reunified Vietnam with Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh city in 1976. In the 21st century, Hai Phong has merged as a trading gateway, green industrial city of Viet Nam, oriented to become the third special-class city of Viet Nam in 2030 or by 2050 at the latest. Haiphong is the home of Lê Chân, one of the female generals under the command of the Trưng Sisters who rose against Chinese rule in 40 AD and ruled until their defeat in 43 AD.
Centuries under the Mạc Dynasty the area earned the appellation Hải tần Phòng thủ as it protected the eastern flank of Mac kings' home province. By the 19th century at the end of Nguyễn Emperor Tự Đức's reign, the Hang Kenh Communal House in what is now the city's Le Chan district was made the administrative seat of An Dương District, restoring its regional importance; the area by had developed into a sizable commercial port. At the eve of the French conquest in 1881, a devastating typhoon ravaged the area, killing around 300,000 people in and around Haiphong alone. Despite the damages, Haiphong was developed by the French to serve as Indochina's main naval base over the ensuing decades. Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, Vietnamese nationalists agitated for independence against the French return. French forces encountered resistance which killed three French soldiers. In retaliation the French ships, among them the cruiser Suffren, shelled the city, setting it ablaze and precipitating the First Indochina War.
French infantry forces under the command of Jean-Étienne Valluy entered the city, fighting house to house with the support of armored units and airplanes. Late in the Vietnam War, Haiphong was subjected to heavy bombing by US Navy and Air Force strike aircraft because it was North Vietnam's only major port. U. S. Admiral Thomas H. Moorer ordered the mining of Haiphong harbor on 8 May 1972 sealing the port; until it was lifted, the mining caused no casualty. Despite being targeted, the physical structure of the city was unaffected by the war as the US had a self-imposed prohibition zone for the city. After the war, the city recovered its role as a significant industrial center. Haiphong is a coastal city located at the mouth of the Cấm River, in Vietnam's north-eastern coastal area, 120 km east of Hanoi; the Bính Bridge connects the city with Thủy Nguyên District. It has a total natural area of 152,318.49ha. It borders Quảng Ninh Province to the north, Hải Dương Province to the west, Thái Bình Province to the south, the Gulf of Tonkin to the east.
Bach Long Vi island, Cat Ba Island and the Long Châu islands, located in the Gulf, are administered as part of the city. Haiphong features a humid subtropical climate, with warm, dry winters; the city is noticeably wetter from April through October. There is a noticeable difference in temperatures between the city's summers. Haiphong's coolest months and February, sees average high temperatures reach 20 °C and average low temperatures at around 14 °C, its warmest months and July, sees average high temperatures hover around 33 °C and average low temperatures at around 26 °C. Sea temperatures range from a low of 21 °C in February to a high of 30 °C during the months of July and August. Haiphong is subdivided into 15 district-level sub-divisions: They are further subdivided into 10 commune-level towns, 148 communes, 72 wards. Haiphong is a major economic center of the North in particular and Vietnam in general both. Under French domination, Haiphong was level 1 city, equal to Hanoi; the last years of the 19th century, the French had proposed to build Haiphong into the economic capital of Indochina.
Today, Haiphong is still one of the most important economic centers of Vietnam. In 2009, Haiphong state budget revenue reached 34,000 billion Vnd. In 2011, budget revenues in the city reached 47,725 billion, increase 19% compared to 2010. In 2015, total revenues of the city reached 56 288 billion. Government plans that to 2020, Haiphong's revenues will be over 80,000 billion and the domestic revenue reach 20.000 billion. In the ranking of the Provincial Competitiveness Index 2013 of Vietnam, Haiphong city ranked at No. 15/63 provinces. Haiphong has relationship of trading goods with more than 40 countries and territories around the world. Haiphong is striving to become one of the largest commercial centers of the country. Industry is a key sector in Haiphong including food processing, light industries and heavy industries. Major products include fish sauce, cigarettes, paper, plastic pipes, iron, electric fans, steel pipes and ships and out-sourcing software implementation. Most of these industries have been growing between 2000 and 2007, with the exceptions of the cigarette and pharmaceutical industries.
Shipbuilding, steel pipes, plastic pipes and textiles are am
Biên Hòa is a city in Đồng Nai Province, about 30 kilometres east of Hồ Chí Minh City, to which Biên Hòa is linked by Vietnam Highway 1. In 1989 the estimated population was 273,879. In 1999, the population was 435,400. 701,194 in 2009. In December 2012, the population of the city crossed the one million mark; the area around Biên Hòa was part of small kingdom prior to being annexed by Chenla. It was fishing region; the capture of Biên Hòa on December 16, 1861 was an important allied victory in the Cochinchina Campaign. This campaign, fought between the French and the Spanish on the one side and the Vietnamese on the other, began as a limited punitive expedition and ended as a French war of conquest; the war concluded with the establishment of the French colony of Cochinchina, a development that inaugurated nearly a century of French colonial dominance in Vietnam. Biên Hòa grew into a major suburb of Saigon. Following the First Indochina War, tens of thousands of refugees from the northern and central regions of Vietnam—a large portion of whom were Roman Catholics — resettled in Biên Hòa as part of Operation Passage to Freedom.
During the Vietnam War, the United States Air Force operated Bien Hoa Air Base near the city. Mortar attacks on U. S. and ARVN targets were staged from residential districts in Biên Hòa. Two of the better-known attacks took place during Tet of 1968 as well as 1969. Like most other areas of Vietnam, post-war Biên Hòa suffered a period of severe economic decline between 1975 and the second half of the 1980s. In part, because of its high concentration of former refugees and their descendants who had fled the Communist government of North Vietnam in the mid-1950s, Biên Hòa was the site of small-scale resistance to the Communist government in the months following the fall of the Republic of Vietnam. In the 1980s, the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam initiated the economic reform policy of Đổi Mới and Biên Hòa experienced an economic resurgence. Biên Hòa and the surrounding areas received large amounts of foreign investment capital, the area industrialized; as of 2005, Biên Hòa is now an industrial center of southern Vietnam, many factories and warehouses operate in the area surrounding the city.
Bien Hoa Sugar is located near the city. With regard to entertainment, the city includes several amusement parks and restaurants lining the Đồng Nai River. Construction has increased and the real estate market has experienced a series of boom cycles since the mid-1990s. Biên Hòa is the location of the Biên Hòa Military Cemetery, a large national cemetery for fallen soldiers and military officials of the former Republic of Vietnam; the cemetery today is now neglected by the current communist regime, many sections of the cemetery are either vandalized, or demolished for the construction of various building projects. Most of the time there was no proper reburial for the skeletal remains, this caused an outcry by Overseas Vietnamese, most of whom came from the South; the Vietnamese America Foundation, its program called "The Returning Casualty" are attempting to restore the cemetery and excavate a nearby mass grave. Bien Hoa is the central of Industry in South Viet Nam. About 6 industrial Zone Bien Hoa I Industrial Zone 335 ha Bien Hoa II Industrial Zone 365 ha Amata industrial park 674 ha The Long Binh Industrial Zone Development Agtex Long Binh Industrial Park - AGTEX 28: 43 ha Tam Phuoc Industrial Park 323 ha Hồ Chí Minh Bridge leads out of the south of the city.
Biên Hòa Railway Station on the North–South Railway is available. Vinh Trấn Biên Literature Temple Bien Hoa Air Base Đồng Nai Bridge HOABINHMINH
Quy Nhơn is a coastal city in Bình Định Province in central Vietnam. It is composed of 16 wards and five communes with a total of 284 km². Quy Nhơn is the capital of Bình Định Province; as of 2009 its population was 280,535 Historically, the commercial activities of the city focused on agriculture and fishing. In recent years, there has been a significant shift towards service industries and tourism. There is a substantial manufacturing sector; the town of Quy Nhơn was founded in the late 18th century, although its origins stretch back much further to the 11th-century Champa culture, the Tây Sơn dynasty and the 18th century seaport of Thị Nại. During the 1620s the town was host to Portuguese Jesuits. During the Ming treasure voyages of the 15th century, the Chinese fleet led by Admiral Zheng He would always make port at Qui Nhơn in Champa as their first destination after leaving China; the city is renowned as the birthplace of 18th century Vietnamese emperor Nguyễn Huệ and, more had a large American military presence during the Vietnam War.
Today the city is recognized as a first class city with a geo-economic priority and an urbanized infrastructure. The government describes it as one of the three commercial and tourism centres of the central southern coastal region. Quy Nhơn has a varied topography, being diversified with mountains and forests, fields, salt marshes, lagoons, rivers, shorelines and islands, its coastline is 42 km long with sandy beaches, abundant seafood resources and other natural products of economic value. The city has sixteen wards: Trần Hưng Đạo, Lê Lợi, Lê Hồng Phong, Trần Phú, Lý Thường Kiệt, Nguyễn Văn Cừ, Đống Đa, Thị Nại, Hải Cảng, Ngô Mây, Ghềnh Ráng, Quang Trung, Nhơn Bình, Nhơn Phú, Bùi Thị Xuân, Trần Quang Diệu, it has five villages of Nhơn Lý, Nhơn Hội, Nhơn Châu, Nhơn Hải and Phước Mỹ with a total area of 284.28 km² and a population of about 284,000 people. Quy Nhơn is served by Vietnam Airlines, Bamboo Airways, VietJet Air, Jetstar Pacific through Phu Cat Airport, with flights to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.
Quy Nhơn railway station could be reached by a branch off the main line of the North–South railway, but this line was suspended in May 2016. Reunification express trains stop only in Diêu Trì railway station, around 10 km west of Quy Nhơn. Quy Nhơn is one of the main industrial centres of the South Central Coast, behind only Da Nang and Nha Trang, it is the major industrial and service centre of Bình Định Province, including its largest industrial facilities at Phu Tai Industrial Park and Nhon Hoi Economic Zone. The city's economic activities include industries, export-imports, seaport services, aquatic product husbandry and tourism; the economic trend, at present, is service-based at the expense of agriculture and pisciculture. Cereals are cultivated on 2548ha of Quy Nhơn's land with an output of 13,021 tons as of 2009, just 2% of the province's total. Other crops included 10,891 tons of vegetables, 2795 tons of sugar-cane, as well as smaller amounts of coconuts and cashew nuts. Much of the city's industry is concentrated in and around Phu Tai Industrial Park in the west of the city along National Route 1A.
Quy Nhon is a major centre of garden furniture manufacturing. It has traditionally been relying on access to wood from Bình Định's forests as well as the Central Highlands provinces of Gia Lai and Kon Tum and as far as Cambodia's Ratanakiri and Laos' Attapeu Province. Most of the furniture factories are located in Phu Tai Industrial Park. Several chemical enterprises that supply the furniture and wood processing industry have been set up in the vicinity of the industrial park. Other industries in Quy Nhơn process agricultural and aquatic products, or produce construction materials and paper products. Bidiphar is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Quy Nhon, an exception to the city's general focus on basic and wood processing industries. Nhon Hoi Economic Zone is central to the city's and province's industrial development plans. However, as of late 2010 it was still in the early stages of development, with few factories completed. Quy Nhơn has seen only limited foreign investment; as of 2008, 13 foreign companies employed 1119 people in the city.
The economic structure of Quy Nhơn is a shift towards increasing the proportion of service industries, reducing the rate of agriculture and fisheries in GDP. The shares of agriculture and fisheries – industrial and construction – services in GDP in 2006 reached: 36.7% – 28% – 35.3%. Income per capita in 2010 was 1625 USD / person Quy Nhon has two universities: Quy Nhon University and Quang Trung University; as of 2009 they had a total teaching staff of 601 and 23,383 students, 13,704 of whom were female. There were 28,500 secondary school students. Xavier Le Pichon, French geophysicist Qui Nhơn travel guide from Wikivoyage
Vũng Tàu is the largest city and former capital of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in Vietnam. The city area is 140 square kilometres, consists of thirteen urban wards and one commune of Long Son Islet. Vũng Tàu was the capital of the province until it was replaced by the much smaller Bà Rịa city on 2 May 2012; the city is the crude oil extraction center of Vietnam. 16 wards: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, Thắng Nhất, Thắng Nhì, Thắng Tam, Nguyễn An Ninh, Rạch Dừa and 1 commune: Long Sơn. During 14th and 15th centuries, the cape that would become Vũng Tàu was a swamp which European trading ships visited regularly; the ships' activities inspired the name Vũng Tàu, which means "anchorage". The French Indochinese government named it Cap Saint-Jacques; the cliff of Vũng Tàu is now called Mui Nghinh Phong. Vũng Tàu was referred to as Tam Thắng in memory of the first three villages in this area: Thắng Nhất, Thắng Nhị, Thắng Tam, within the province of Biên Hòa under the Nguyễn Dynasty. Under the reign of king Gia Long, when Malay pirates built a base here and subsequently became a danger to traders in Gia Định city, the king sent his army to crack down on the pirates.
The pirates were ousted and the troops were given the land as a reward. 10 February 1859 marked the first use of cannons by Nguyễn's army, when they fired at French battleships from the fortress of Phước Thắng, located 100m from Vũng Tàu's Front Beach. This marked an important period in Vietnam's war against French invaders in South Vietnam. In 1876, according to a decree by the French government, Vũng Tàu was merged in Bà Rịa county per Saigon's administration. During the 1880s there were talks about moving Saigon's port facilities to Vũng Tàu, but this came to nothing due to Saigon's better infrastructure. On 1 May 1895, the governor of Cochinchina established by decree that Cap Saint Jacques would thereafter be an autonomous town. In 1898, Cap Saint Jacques was merged with Bà Rịa county once again, but re-divided in 1899. In 1901, the population of Vũng Tàu was 5,690, of which 2,000 persons were immigrants from North Vietnam. Most of the town's population made their living in the dancing industry.
On 4 April 1905, Cap Saint Jacques was made an administrative district of Bà Rịa province. In 1929, Cap Saint Jacques became a province, in 1934 became a city; the French governor of Indochina, Paul Doumer, built a mansion in Vũng Tàu, still a prominent landmark. During the Vietnam War, the 1st Australian Logistics Support Group was headquartered in Vũng Tàu – as were various United States military units at different times. Vũng Tàu became popular for R&R, amongst in-country US, Australian and New Zealand personnel. After the war, Vũng Tàu was a common launching place for the "Vietnamese boat people" fleeing the communists. On 30 May 1979, Vũng Tàu town was made the capital of Vũng Tàu-Côn Đảo Special Administrative Zone. On 12 August 1991, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province was founded and Vũng Tàu town became Vũng Tàu City; the city is located in the south of Vietnam, situated at the tip of a small peninsula. It has traditionally been a significant port during Vietnam's period of French rule. Today, the city's importance as a shipping port has diminished, but it still plays a significant role in Vietnam's offshore oil industry.
Vũng Tàu is the only petroleum base of Vietnam where crude oil and natural gas exploitation activities dominate the city's economy and contribute principal income to Vietnam's budget and export volume. Vũng Tàu shipyard's reconstruction is scheduled to be completed in 2008, supplied with up-to-date anchor handling supply vessels of Aker. PEB Steel operates several factories in Vũng Tàu, for constructing steel buildings to be erected around Asia. Vũng Tàu has extensive beaches, including Front Beach. A big resort project has just been licensed by the Saigon Atlantis. Upon completion, this entertainment project worth US$300 million in capital investment will include resorts and sailing; the investor of this project is proposing to raise the investment capital to USD $4 billion. Two other noteworthy entertainment projects awaiting licensing are Vũng Tàu Aquarium, which will cost USD 250 million, Bàu Trũng, a Disneyland-like entertainment park which will cost US$250 million; the project includes Landmark Tower, an 88-story skyscraper proposed to be built and completed by 2010 in Vũng Tàu by a USA-based company, Good Choice Import – Export Investment Inc, once built will be the highest building in Vietnam.
The project is under consideration for approval by the local provincial government. In Vũng Tàu, one of the most celebrated holidays is Lễ hội Cá Ông. Festivals in the region include the Kite Festival and World Food Festival Culture Australian tourists come to Vũng Tàu in August to mark the anniversary of the Battle of Long Tan; as in most provinces and cities in Vietnam, Buddhism is the predominant religion. Mahayana Buddhism, the dominant form of the religion in Vietnam, was brought to Ba Ria-Vũng Tàu by the Vietnamese settlers from the north at the beginning of the 17th century during the expansion of the Nguyễn lords; when they came bringing their original religion they built many Buddhist pagodas and statues in the city. The Thích Ca Phật Đài and Niết Bàn Tịnh Xá temple, both Buddhist sites, draw pilgrims from around the country. Before the area was settled by ethnic Vietnamese, the Khmer people practiced Theravada Buddhism; the a
Huế (Vietnamese: is a city in central Vietnam, the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls, it encompasses the Imperial City, with shrines. The city was the battleground for the Battle of Huế, one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War; the oldest ruins in Huế belong to the Kingdom of Lâm Ấp, date back to the 4th century AD. The ruins of its capital, the ancient city of Kandapurpura is now located in Long Thọ Hill, 3 kilometers to the west of the city. Another Champa ruin, the ancient city of Hóa Châu is dated back to the 9th century. In 1306, the King of Champa Chế Mân offered Vietnam two Chăm prefectures, Ô and Lý, in exchange for marriage with a Vietnamese princess named Huyền Trân; the Vietnamese King Trần Anh Tông accepted this offer. He took and renamed Ô and Lý prefectures to Thuận prefecture and Hóa prefecture with both of them referred to as Thuận Hóa region.
In 1592, the Mạc dynasty was forced to flee to Cao Bằng and the Lê emperors were enthroned as de jure Vietnamese rulers under the leadership of Nguyễn Kim, the leader of Lê Dynasty loyalists. Kim was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general which paved the way for his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, to take over the leadership. Kim's eldest son, Nguyễn Uông, was assassinated in order to secure Trịnh Kiểm's authority. Nguyễn Hoàng, another son of Nguyễn Kim, feared a fate like Nguyễn Uông's so he pretended to have mental illness, he asked his sister Ngoc Bao, a wife of Trịnh Kiểm, to entreat Kiểm to let Hoàng govern Thuận Hóa, the furthest south region of Vietnam at that time. Because Mạc dynasty loyalists were revolting in Thuận Hóa and Trịnh Kiểm was busy fighting the Mạc dynasty forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyễn Hoàng went south. After Hoàng pacified Thuận Hóa, he and his heir Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên serectly made this region loyal to the Nguyễn family. Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyễn lords and the clan of the Trịnh lords.
The Nguyễn lords chose a northern territory of Thuận Hóa, as their family seat. In 1687 during the reign of Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Trăn, the construction of a citadel was started in Phú Xuân, a village in Thừa Thiên Province; the citadel was a power symbol of Nguyễn family rather than a defensive building because the Trịnh lords' army could not breach Nguyễn lords' defense in the north regions of Phú Xuân. In 1744, Phú Xuân became the capital of central and southern Vietnam after Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát proclaimed himseft Võ vương. Among westerners living in the capital at this period was the Portuguese Jesuit João de Loureiro from 1752 onwards. However, Tây Sơn rebellions broke out in 1771 and occupied a large area from Quy Nhơn to Bình Thuận, thereby weakening the authority and power of the Nguyễn lords. While the war between Tây Sơn rebellion and Nguyễn lord was being fought, the Trịnh lords sent south a massive army and captured Phú Xuân in 1775. After the capture of Phú Xuân, the Trịnh lords' general Hoàng Ngũ Phúc made a tactical alliance with Tây Sơn and withdrew all troops to Tonkin and left some troops in Phú Xuân.
In 1786, Tây Sơn rebellion occupied Phú Xuân. Under the reign of emperor Quang Trung, Phú Xuân became Tây Sơn dynasty capital. In 1802, Nguyễn Ánh, a successor of the Nguyễn lords, recaptured unified the country. Nguyễn Ánh rebuilt the citadel and made it the Imperial City capital of all of Vietnam; the city's current name is a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of the Chinese 化, as in the historical name Thuận Hoá. In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam, thereby making Huế the national capital. Minh Mạng was the second emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841, he was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. Minh Mạng was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, for his rigid Confucian orthodoxy. During the French colonial period, Huế was in the protectorate of Annam, it remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and the DRV government was established with its capital at Hà Nội, in the north.
While Bảo Đại was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949, his new capital was Sài Gòn, in the south. During the Republic of Vietnam period, Huế, being near the border between the North and South, was vulnerable in the Vietnam War. In the Tết Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Huế, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, the massacre at Huế committed by the communist forces. After the war's conclusion in 1975, many of the historic features of Huế were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime". There has since been a change of polic
Hanoi is Vietnam's capital and second largest city by population. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 105 km west of Haiphong. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam, it was eclipsed by the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty. In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina; the French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, public buildings, luxury villas, but they destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as most of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese empire. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam; the Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city; the Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a 6.5 km ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion. On July 16, 1999, the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization presented the title “City for Peace” to Hanoi. Hanoi had many unofficial names throughout history. During the Chinese occupation of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên Tống Bình and Long Đỗ. Long Biên gave its name to the famed Long Biên Bridge, built during French colonial times, more to a new district to the east of the Red River. Several older names of Hanoi feature long, linked to the curved formation of the Red River around the city, symbolized as a dragon. In 866, it was named Đại La.. This gave it the nickname La Thành. Both Đại La and La Thành are names of major streets in modern Hanoi; when Lý Thái Tổ established the capital in the area in 1010, it was named Thăng Long.
Thăng Long became the name of a major bridge on the highway linking the city center to Noi Bai Airport, the Thăng Long Boulevard expressway in the southwest of the city center. In modern time, the city is referred to as Thăng Long – Hà Nội, when its long history is discussed. During the Hồ dynasty, it was called Đông Đô. During the Minh dynasty, it was called Đông Quan. During the Lê dynasty, Hanoi was known as Đông Kinh; this gave the name to Gulf of Tonkin. A square adjacent to the Hoàn Kiếm lake was named Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục after the reformist Tonkin Free School under French colonization. After the end of the Tây Sơn had expanded further south, the city was named Bắc Thành. Minh Mạng renamed the city Hà Nội in 1831; this has remained its official name until modern times. Several unofficial names of Hanoi include: Kẻ Chợ, Tràng An, Hà Thành, Thủ Đô. Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC; the Cổ Loa Citadel in Dong Anh district served as the capital of the Âu Lạc kingdom founded by the Thục emigrant Thục Phán after his 258 BC conquest of the native Văn Lang.
In 197 BC, Âu Lạc Kingdom was annexed by Nanyue, which ushered in more than a millennium of Chinese domination. By the middle of the 5th century, in the center of ancient Hanoi, the Liu Song Dynasty set up a new district called Songping, which became a commandery, including two districts Yihuai and Suining in the south of the Red River with a metropolis in the present inner Hanoi. By the year 679, the Tang dynasty changed the region's name into Annan, with Songping as its capital. In order to defeat the people's uprisings, in the half of the 8th century, Zhang Boyi, a Tang dynasty viceroy, built Luocheng. In the earlier half of the 9th century, it was further called Jincheng. In 866, Gao Pian, the Chinese Jiedushi and named it Daluocheng, the largest citadel of ancient Hanoi at the time. In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long – a name still used poetically to this day.
Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa known as Tây Đô, the "Western Capital". Thăng Long became Đông Đô, the "Eastern Capital." In 1408, the Chinese Minh Dynasty attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to Dongguan, or Đông Quan in Sino-Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi, who founded the Lê Dynasty and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh or Tonkin. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (北城