Thừa Thiên-Huế Province
Thừa Thiên-Huế is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam in the centre of the country. It borders Quảng Trị Province to the north and Đà Nẵng to the south, Laos to the west and the East Sea to the east; the province has 22,000 ha of lagoons and over 200,000 ha of forest. There is an extensive complex of imperial tombs and temples in Huế; the region's history dates back some 2,800 years according to archaeological findings from the Sa Huynh Culture as well as from relics in the region. Đại Việt became an independent nation around 938 BC of which territorial conflict lasts for about four centuries between the Đại Việt and the Champa. The two provinces changed their names to Thanh and Hóa. In 1307, Đoàn Nhữ Hài was appointed by Trần Anh Tông, to administer the area; the people from the north integrated with the people of the Kingdom of Champa. During this time, had the settlement of Hoa Chau Province began, which included the area of present-day Thừa Thiên. Between the settlement of Thuận Hóa to the founding of Phú Xuân, there were conflicts and uncertainties for the local people, which including the fall of the Trần Dynasty to the renaissance of the Hồ dynasty.
Thuận Hóa and Phú Xuân became the location of the Đại Việt kingdom once Nguyễn Hoàng was appointed head of Thuận Hóa. Lord Nguyễn Hoàng established bases at Ai Tu, Tra Bat and Dinh Cat, while his lords moved palaces to Kim Long, where they would base their operations in Phú Xuân; the Nguyễn lords ruled the area until it taken over the Trinh clan in 1775. The farmers movement led by the Tây Sơn brothers gained momentum in 1771; the Tây Sơn insurgent army won the battle in Phú Xuân to take over the Nguyễn capital in 1786, where they continued north and overthrew the Trinh Dynasty. In Phú Xuân, Nguyễn Huế appointed himself king, with internal differences with the Tây Sơn Movement and the death of Nguyễn Huế, Nguyễn Ánh took advantage of the situation and took over Gia Định with the support of foreign forces. Nguyễn Huế attached to the Tây Sơn movement and took over Phú Xuân and the throne, thereby choosing the dynasty title of Gia Long. Phú Xuân was again chosen as the capital of Vietnam until 1945's August Revolution.
Prior to 1975, the province was known as Thừa Thiên. The province is known as an area of heavy fighting during the Vietnam War, as it was the second-most northerly province of the South Vietnam, close to the North Vietnamese border at the 17th parallel. More U. S. soldiers died in this province than in any other province in Vietnam. The Massacre at Huế occurred here. Thừa Thiên-Huế province saw a large influx of North Vietnamese settlers soon after the Vietnam War ended, as with the rest of the former South; this province and neighbouring Quảng Nam Province suffered from flooding in November 1999. Thừa Thiên-Huế Province borders Quảng Trị Province to the north, the city of Đà Nẵng to the east, Quảng Nam Province to the south, the Savannakhet and Sekong provinces of Laos to the west; the Perfume River passes through the province. The province accommodates the Tam Giang Cầu Hai Lagoon, the largest lagoon in Southeast Asia, 68 kilometres long with a surface area of 220 square kilometres; the province comprises four different zones: a mountainous area, hills and lagoons separated from the sea by sandbanks.
It has 128 kilometres of beaches. The mountains, covering more than half the total surface of the province, are along the west and southwest border of the province, their height varying from 500 metres to 1,480 metres; the hills are lower, between 20 metres and 200 metres, with some points at 400 metres, occupy about a third of the province's area, between the mountains and the plains. The plains account for about a tenth of the surface area, with a height of only up to 20 metres above sea level. Between the hills are the lagoons which occupy the remaining five per cent of the province's surface area. Bạch Mã National Park is a protected area near the city of Hué, it covers 220 square kilometres and comprises three zones: a protected core area, an administrative area and a buffer zone. The climate is similar to central Vietnam in general: a tropical monsoon climate. In the plains and in the hills, the average annual temperature is 25 °C, but in the mountains only 21 °C; the cool season is from November to March with cold northeasterly winds.
The lowest average monthly temperature is in January: 20 °C. In the cool season temperatures can fall to 12 °C in the plains and the relative humidity is high, between 85 and 95 per cent. Follows a warmer period from April to September with average monthly temperatures up to 29 °C in July, reaching up to 41 °C at times, it is humid in July but relative humidity is lower, sometimes down to 50 per cent. The annual precipitation in the province is 3,200 millimetres but there are important variations. Depending on the year the annual average may be 2,500 millimetres to 3,500 millimetres in the plains and 3,000 millimetres to 4,500 millimetres in the mountains. In some years the rainfall may be much higher and reach more than 5,000 millimetres in the mountains; the rainy season is from September to December—about 70 per cent of the precipitation occurring in those months. Rainfall occurs in short heavy burs
The Annamite Range or the Annamese Mountains is a mountain range of eastern Indochina. It extends 1,100 km through Laos, a small area in northeast Cambodia; the mountain range is referred to variously as Annamese Range, Annamese Mountains, Annamese Cordillera, Annamite Mountains and Annamite Cordillera. The highest points of the range are 2,819 m high Phou Bia, 2,720 m high Phu Xai Lai Leng and Ngọc Linh, 2,598 m; the latter is located in central Vietnam. Important passes are the Mụ Giạ Pass; the Annamite Range runs parallel to the Vietnamese coast, in a gentle curve which divides the basin of the Mekong River from Vietnam's narrow coastal plain along the South China Sea. Most of the crests are on the Laotian side; the eastern slope of the range rises steeply from the plain, drained by numerous short rivers. The western slope is more gentle, forming significant plateaus before descending to the banks of the Mekong; the range itself has three main plateaus, from north to south: Phouane Plateau, Nakai Plateau and Bolaven Plateau.
Laos lies within the Mekong basin, west of the divide, although most of Houaphan Province and a portion of Xiangkhoang Province lie east of the divide. Most of Vietnam lies east of the divide, although Vietnam's Tây Nguyên region lies west of the divide, in the Mekong basin. "An-nam" means in Chinese "to pacify the south", referring to the region's location relative to China. The Annamite mountains now form an important tropical seasonal forest global ecoregion, the Annamite Range Moist Forests Ecoregion, which consists of two terrestrial ecoregions, the Southern Annamites montane forests and the Northern Annamites moist forests; the range is home to rare creatures such as the discovered Annamite rabbit and the antelope-like saola, the Douc langur, the large gaur, the Chinese pangolin and the Indochinese tiger. Most of the highlands like the Annamite Range and the Central Highlands were populated by ethnic minorities who were not Vietnamese during the 20th century's start; the demographics were drastically transformed with the mass colonization of 6 million settlers from 1976 to the 1990s, which led to ethnic Vietnamese Kinh outnumbering the native ethnic groups in the highlands.
List of Ultras of Southeast Asia BBC In Pictures: Uncovering Viet Nam's secret wildlife Cat Tien National Park Paleoanthropology in mainland Southeast Asia.
The Hoa are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese. They are referred to as Chinese Vietnamese, Vietnamese Chinese, Sino-Vietnamese, or ethnic Chinese in/from Vietnam by the general Vietnamese populace, Overseas Vietnamese and other ethnic Chinese; the Hoa constitute one group of the Chinese diaspora and contain one of the largest Overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. During the time that Vietnam was a Chinese colony, there was an attempt by Imperial China to assimilate the Vietnamese. During this time, the Hoa people played an important role in the development of Vietnamese culture. And, despite the achievement of Vietnamese sovereignty, Vietnam to this day remains a part of the cultural Sinosphere. From the late 19th century, the Hoa played a leading role in Vietnam's private business sector before the Fall of Saigon in 1975, they were a well-established middle class ethnic group and made up a high percentage of Vietnam's upper class. Despite their small numbers, the Hoa were disproportionately dominant in the Vietnamese economy having started an estimated 70 to 80 per cent of pre-fall of Saigon's owned and operated businesses.
Many Hoa had their businesses and property confiscated by the Communists after 1975, many fled the country as boat people due to persecution by the newly established Communist government. Hoa persecution intensified in the late 1970s, one of the underlying reasons for the Sino-Vietnamese War. At present, the Sino-Vietnamese comprise a small percentage in the modern Vietnamese economy with the share now held in indigenous Kinh hands; the Vietnamese government's post-1988 shift to economic liberalization has revived the entrepreneurial presence of the predominantly urban Chinese minority, allowing them to reassert and regain much of their previous economic clout in the Vietnamese economy. According to old Vietnamese historical records Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, An Dương Vương was a prince of the Chinese state of Shu, sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin Dynasty.
Some modern Vietnamese believe. After assembling an army, he defeated King Hùng Vương XVIII, the last ruler of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, around 257 BC, he proclaimed himself An Dương Vương. He renamed his newly acquired state from Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê in the present-day Phú Thọ town in northern Vietnam, where he tried to build Cổ Loa Citadel, the spiral fortress ten miles north of that new capital. Han Chinese migration into Vietnam dates back to the 2nd Century BC when the Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang first placed Tonkin under Qin rule, an influx of Qin Chinese soldiers and fugitives from Central China settled en masse into Tonkin from this time onwards, introduced Chinese influences to the ancient Viet people; the Chinese military leader Zhao Tuo founded the Trieu dynasty which ruled Nanyue in southern China and northern Vietnam. The Qin Governor of Canton advisted Zhao to found his own independent Kingdom since the area was remote and there were many Chinese settlers in the area.
A century the powerful Han dynasty conquered and annexed Nanyue into the Han Empire and was ruled as a province of China for the next several hundred years. Han imperial control proceeded to expand further southwestward by military means after the conquest. Sinification of Nanyue was brought about by a combination of Han imperial military power, regular settlement and an influx of Han Chinese refugees, scholars, bureaucrats and prisoners of war; the conquest made it possible to extend the Han Empire's power projection and maritime influence to further develop trade relations with the various kingdoms in Southeast Asia. The Chinese prefect of Jiaozhi Shi Xie ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by Vietnamese Emperors. Shi Xie was the leader of the elite ruling class of Han Chinese families who immigrated to Vietnam and played a major role in infusing Vietnam's culture with Chinese influences. Many Chinese fled to the Vietnamese part of the Red River Valley from Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces during the tumult which occurred during the transition from the Western to Eastern Jin Dynasty, when northern China was plunged into anarchy.
The Chinese rulers encouraged the immigration of Han Chinese into Tonkin, implemented a policy of systematic assimilation with the ancient Viet people. This policy was continually enforced over the next 1,000 years of Chinese rule of Vietnam until the Ngô Dynasty when the Vietnamese regained their independence from China; the Vietnamese emperors deported some 87,000 Chinese nationals, although a large minority applied for permanent residency in Vietnam. Chinese who chose to remain in Vietnam chose to assimilate. Vietnamese women were wedded by new Chinese gentry migrants. A revolt against China was mounted by Ly Bon; the founder of the Early Lý Dynasty, Emperor Lý Bôn, who rebelled against the Liang Dynasty came from a family of Chinese descent, the ancestors of his family were Chinese who fled to Vietnam from Wang Mang's seizure of power during the interregnum between the Western and Eastern Han dynasties. Cham people bought a y
First Battle of Quảng Trị
The First Battle of Quảng Trị resulted in the first major victory for the People's Army of Vietnam during the Easter Offensive of 1972. Quảng Trị Province was a major battleground for the opposing forces during the Vietnam War; as South Vietnamese soldiers were replacing their American counterparts, North Vietnam's General Văn Tiến Dũng was preparing to engage three of his divisions in the province. Just months before the battle, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam deployed its newly formed 3rd Division to the areas along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone to take over former US bases. North Vietnamese forces deployed against the inexperienced ARVN 3rd Division included the PAVN 304th, 308th and 324B Divisions; the battle for Quảng Trị began on 30 March with preparatory artillery barrages on the key areas of the province. Meanwhile, infantry assaults firebases; the lightning speed of the PAVN attacks on those positions delivered a great shock to the soldiers of the ARVN, who were unprepared for the onslaught.
In 1972 Camp Carroll was occupied by the ARVN 56th Regiment, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Pham Van Dinh. During the first hours of the Easter Offensive, Camp Carroll was one of the first targets to come under the PAVN artillery barrage; the PAVN deployed a full artillery regiment against Camp Carroll with supporting infantry units, showing their full intention to take the camp. Throughout February and March 1972, the North and South Vietnamese armies exchanged artillery fire, but South Vietnamese resistance was worn down as ARVN artillerymen began seeking shelter against the PAVN's devastatingly accurate 130mm guns. By Easter, the morale of the ARVN had dropped after suffering heavy casualties, as a result Lieutenant Colonel Dinh informed his American advisors that what was left of the 56th Regiment would surrender to the PAVN; as the senior advisor to the ARVN 56th Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel William Camper refused to go through with the surrender, so he decided to leave Camp Carroll along with three officers.
Six 175mm M107 guns were captured by PAVN. On 2 April 1972, Camp Carroll was surrendered to the PAVN, with a white flag raised over the main gate of the camp. Following the surrender, a B-52 strike was ordered against Camp Carroll. However, it was too late as the PAVN had moved the M107 guns out of the camp. On 30 March 1972 the 258th Marine Brigade was deployed to Đông Hà to support the 3rd Division. By 1 April the PAVN had broken through the ARVN defensive positions along the DMZ and north of the Cam Lo River and fragmented ARVN units and terrified civilians began withdrawing to Đông Hà. By 11:00 on 2 April the ARVN 20th Tank Battalion moved forward to Đông Hà to support the 3rd Marine Battalion and 25th Marine Brigade in and around the town and defend the crucial road and rail bridges across the Cua Viet River. Marine ANGLICO units called in naval gunfire to hit PAVN forces near the bridges on the north bank of the river and destroyed 4 PT-76 amphibious tanks east of Đông Hà. More tanks were hit by a Republic of Vietnam Air Force A-1 Skyraider.
At midday PAVN tanks attempted to force the road bridge, but 6 tanks were destroyed by fire from the ARVN 20th Tank's M48s. At 13:00 Captain John Ripley an adviser to the Vietnamese Marines swung under the road bridge and spent 3 hours installing demolition charges to destroy the bridge; the bridge was blown up at 16:30 and the damaged railway bridge was destroyed around the same time temporarily halting the PAVN advance. Naval gunfire and a B-52 strike were soon directed at PAVN forces gathered on the northern bank. At 18:00 a USAF EB-66 was shot down west of Đông Hà and a no-fire zone was imposed around the area allowing the PAVN to capture the Cam Lo Bridge intact. Over the next two weeks PAVN forces kept up a barrage of artillery and small arms fire on the ARVN positions and infiltrated small units across the river in boats. On 7 April the Marines withdrew from Đông Hà leaving the defense to the 1st ARVN Armored Brigade, 20th Tank Battalion, the 4th and 5th Ranger Groups and the 57th Regiment.
On 18 April the PAVN 308th Division attacking from the southwest attempted to outflank Đông Hà but were repulsed. On 28 April the commander of the 20th Tank Battalion withdrew from Đông Hà to deal with a PAVN force threatening the Ái Tử Combat Base, seeing the tanks leaving the soldiers of the 57th Regiment panicked and abandoned their positions leading to the collapse of the ARVN defensive line; the VNMC 7th Battalion was sent to Ái Tử to help defend the base. At 02:00 on 29 April the PAVN attacked the ARVN positions north and south of the base and the ARVN defenses began to crumble, by midday on 30 April the 3rd Division commander ordered a withdrawal from Ái Tử to a defensive line along the south of the Thạch Hãn River and the withdrawal was completed late that day. On 1 May General Giai decided that any further defense of the city was pointless and that the ARVN should withdraw to a defensive line along the My Chanh River; as the 3rd Division headquarters departed the city in an armored convoy, the U.
S. advisors remained in the Quảng Trị Citadel, however the command element finding Highway 1 blocked by refugees and PAVN ambushes soon returned to the Citadel and requested helicopter evacuation. By late afternoon USAF helicopters from the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron and Army helicopters evacuated all remaining forces in the Citadel. By 2 May all of Quảng Trị Province had fallen to the PAVN and they were threatening Huế; the fall of Quảng Trị gave North Vietnam its first major victory of the 1972 offensive. The North Vietnamese imposed their authority in the province, as collective farms were set up and strict rules were forced on the villagers
Quảng Bình Province
Quảng Bình Tiên Bình under the reign of Lê Trung Hưng of the Lê Dynasty, is a province along Vietnam's north-central coast. The province has an area of 8,065.8 square kilometers and population of 857,818 inhabitants The province is bordered by the Laotian Khammouane Province to the west, the North Pacific Ocean to the east, Hà Tĩnh Province to the north and Quảng Trị Province to the south. This region belonged to Văn Lang and the kingdom of Champa, it was claimed by both the Đại Việt and Champa and annexed into Đại Việt by Lý Thường Kiệt, a Lý Dynasty general. The site of present-day Quảng Bình was battlefields between Champa and Vietnam until the Vietnamese territory was expanded further south by subsequent dynasties. Quảng Bình's importance expanded after Nguyễn Hoàng, a prince of Nguyễn lords was sent to the south by a king of the Lê Dynasty. Hoàng built his estate and turned it into Đàng Trong, a rival of the de facto Trịnh-controlled Đàng Ngoài. Quảng Bình became an important front to defend Đàng Trong from attack by Đàng Ngoài.
Under French rule, this province was part of Annam. During the Vietnam War, this province was part of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, only 20 km from the DMZ; this province was devastated by bombing from U. S. B-52s; this province is home to the World Heritage Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park. The province is home to several famous Vietnamese persons, including revered Senior General Võ Nguyên Giáp, poet Hàn Mặc Tử, writer Bảo Ninh and the family of former South Vietnamese president Ngô Đình Diệm. Coordinates 16 ° 55' to 18 ° 105 ° 37' to 107 ° 00' East, it borders Hà Tĩnh Province on the north with the Ngang mountain pass as the natural frontier, Quảng Trị province to the south, Laos to the west, faces the Dong Sea to the east. The narrowest part from east to west is just 40 km; the provincial topography is characterized by a general slope, higher in the west and lower in the east, with hilly and mountainous areas accounting for 85% of the total area. The Annamite Range is the natural border between Quảng Bình province and Laos with peaks ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 m, the summit of, peak Phi Co Pi with the height of 2,017 m.
In the east of the province are lower hills and several narrow plains and river deltas. The seaside sand dunes belt is a natural dam; the provincial land area is 8,037.9 km2 and divided as follows: Inhabited land: 41.45 km2 Agriculture: 1635.46 km2 Forest: 4912.62 km2 Specific usage: 199.36 km2 Unused: 26.01 km2Sand area accounts for 5.9% of the land, alluvial soil accounts for only 2.8% of the land. The province's east coastline is 116.04 km long and the western borderline with Laos is 201.81 km long. The province owns 4866.88 km2 of forests, of which 4478.37 km2 is natural jungle, 388.54 km2 is reforestation. The province is located at the coordinates: The northernmost point: 180 5'12 N The southernmost point: 170 5'02 N The westernmost point: 106 59'37 E The westernmost point: 105 36'55 EThe coastline is 116.04 km on the east, the borderline with Laos is 201.87 km on the west. There are five major rivers in this province, as follows: Gianh River Ron River Nhật Lệ River Ly Hoa River Dinh River Kiến Giang River, Lệ Thủy District Son River, Phong Nha-Kẻ BàngMost of the rivers originate in the Truong Son Range and empty into South China Sea.
River and stream density is 1.1 km/km2. There are some 160 natural and man-made lakes with total water deposit of 234.3 million cubic meter of fresh water, Quảng Bình Province's sea area includes continental shelf and special economic area up to 20,000 km2. Off the sea, there lie Hòn La islet, Hòn Gió islet, Hòn Nồm islet, Hòn Cỏ islet, Hòn Chùa islets with the total fishery capacity of 100,000 metric tonnes. Hòn La bay is a 4-square-km marine bay with the depth up to 15 m and a surrounding land of 4 km2 suitable to develop sea deep-water port and industrial park; the Hoành Sơn Mountains run through the northeastern part of the province. Many mount summits concentrate in Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng area with over 1,000 metres height. Noteworthy peaks are the Peak Co Rilata with ta height of 1,128 m and the Peak Co Preu with a height of 1,213 m. Mountains in karstic area of the park rise at typical height of above 800 m constitute a continuous range along Laotian-Vietnamese borderline, of which notable summits above 1000 m are: Phu Tạo, Co Unet, Phu Canh, Phu Mun, Phu Tu En, Phu On Chinh, Phu Dung, Phu Tu Ôc, Phu Long, Phu Ôc, Phu Dong.
Inserting into these summits are 800–1000 m high summits of Phu Sinh, Phu Co Tri, Phu On Boi, Phu Tu, Phu Toan, Phu Phong, Ma Ma. There are four separate seasons here: in spring, it is warm with slight rains and the temperature around 18 to 25 degrees Celsius. In the summer, it is hot, dry with little downpours, the temperature may reach up to 35 to 36 degrees Celsius. In the fall, it is rainy, cool with temperature around 22 to 28 degrees Celsius. In the winter, it is slight rain with temperature about 12 to 16 degrees Celsius. Annual average precipitation is around 2,000-2,300 mm. Heaviest rainy season is from September to November. From April to August is the dry season; the hottest months are from June to August. Quảng Bình Province is endowed with biodiversity typ
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
Annam (French protectorate)
Annam was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam. Before the protectorate's establishment, the name Annam was used in the West to refer to Vietnam as a whole. Vietnamese people were referred to as Annamites; the protectorate of Annam became in 1887 a part of French Indochina. Two other Vietnamese regions, Cochinchina in the South and Tonkin in the North, were units of French Indochina; the region had a dual system of Vietnamese administration. The Nguyễn Dynasty still nominally ruled Annam, with a puppet emperor residing in Huế. In 1948, the protectorate was merged in the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, replaced the next year by the newly established State of Vietnam; the region was divided between communist North Vietnam and anti-communist South Vietnam under the terms of the Geneva Accord of 1954. Annam means "Pacified South" in the toponym being derived from the Chinese An Nan. In the history of Vietnam, the designation is one of several given by the Chinese to the Tonkin, the core territory of modern-day Vietnam surrounding the city of Hanoi, which included land from the Gulf of Tonkin to the mountains which surround the plains of the Red River.
The name has been applied to the Annamite Range, a 1,100 km mountain range with a height ranging up to 2,958 metres that divides Vietnam and Laos. The Vietnamese language or its central dialects were called "Annamese", as in the seminal dictionary Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum. An Nam is considered offensively demeaning to Vietnamese people, used in sarcastic manners. Trung Kỳ is used instead in formal contexts. Meanwhile, Annamiticum in the dictionary's name is translated as Việt. Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew the Nguyễn lords, but one of its members, Gia Long, by the aid of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of present-day Vietnam; this force was procured for him by Pigneau de Béhaine, titular bishop of Adran, who saw in the political condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence in Indochina and counterbalancing the English power in India. Before this, in 1787, Gia Long had concluded a treaty with Louis XVI, whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French.
That treaty marks the beginning of French influence in Indochina. After conquering Cochinchina in 1858–1862, the French resumed in 1883 their expansion in Southern Asia; the first protectorate treaty was signed in 1883, although it was replaced the next year by a milder treaty. With the treaty of Tientsin, China recognised the French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin and implicitly abandoned her own claims to suzerainty over Vietnam. Annam and Tonkin became part of French Indochina in 1887. On 9 May 1889, they were split in two Résidences supérieures, each subordinated to the Governor-General of French Indochina; the Nguyễn dynasty still nominally ruled over both protectorates. Tonkin was de facto ruled directly by the French, while the imperial government maintained some degree of authority over Annam. On 27 September 1897, the Vietnamese imperial council in Annam was replaced by a council of ministers, presided de jure by the French representative. Annam comprised a sinuous strip of territory measuring between 750 and 800 miles in length, with an approximate area of 52,000 square miles.
It had a rich, well-watered soil which yields tropical crops, was rich in occurring minerals. The country consisted chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast to a narrow band of plains varying between 12 and 50 miles in breadth; the mountains are cut transversely by short narrow valleys, through which run rivers, most of which are dry in summer and torrential in winter. The Song Ma and the Song Ca in the north, the Song Ba, Don Nai and Se Bang Khan in the south, are the only rivers of any size in the region; the chief harbour is. South of this point, the coast curves is broken by peninsulas and indentations. In Annam, the rainy season begins during September and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northeastern monsoon and with a period of typhoons. During the rains the temperature varies from 59 degrees Fahrenheit to 75 °F. June and August are the hottest months, the thermometer reaching 85 °F or 90 °F, though the heat of the day is to some extent compensated by the freshness of the nights.
The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation. During the French period there was little industry; the economy was an agricultural one based on: the cultivation of rice, which grows in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops a year. Fishing, fish salting and the preparation of fish sauceSilk spinning and weaving were carried on in what the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition called "antiquated lines...silkworms reared in a desultory fashion". Other crops were tea, cotton, precious woods and rubber. Coffee, pepper and jute were cultivated to a minor extent; the exports comprised tea, raw silk and small quantities of cotton, rice and su