Mantua is a city and comune in Lombardy and capital of the province of the same name. In 2016, Mantua became Italian Capital of Culture. In 2017, Mantua was the European Capital of Gastronomy, included in the Eastern Lombardy District. In 2007, Mantua's centro storico and Sabbioneta were declared by UNESCO to be a World Heritage Site. Mantua's historic power and influence under the Gonzaga family has made it one of the main artistic and musical hubs of Northern Italy and the country as a whole. Mantua is noted for its significant role in the history of opera, it is the place where the composer Monteverdi premiered his opera L'Orfeo and where Romeo was banished in Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. It is the nearest town to the birthplace of the Roman poet Virgil, commemorated by a statue at the lakeside park "Piazza Virgiliana". Mantua is surrounded on three sides by artificial lakes, created during the 12th century, as the city's defence system; these lakes receive water from the Mincio River, a tributary of the Po River which descends from Lake Garda.
The three lakes are called Lago Superiore, Lago di Mezzo, Lago Inferiore. A fourth lake, Lake Pajolo, which once served as a defensive water ring around the city, dried up at the end of the 18th century; the area and its environs are important not only in naturalistic terms, but anthropologically and historically. These dated, without interruption, from Neolithic times to the Bronze Age and the Gallic phases, ended with Roman residential settlements, which could be traced to the 3rd century AD. In 2017, Legambiente ranked Mantua as the best Italian city for the quality of the life and environment. Mantua was an island settlement, first established about the year 2000 BC on the banks of River Mincio, which flows from Lake Garda to the Adriatic Sea. In the 6th century BC, Mantua was an Etruscan village which, in the Etruscan tradition, was re-founded by Ocnus; the name may derive from the Etruscan god Mantus. After being conquered by the Cenomani, a Gallic tribe, Mantua was subsequently fought between the first and second Punic wars against the Romans, who attributed its name to Manto, a daughter of Tiresias.
This territory was populated by veteran soldiers of Augustus. Mantua's most famous ancient citizen is the poet Virgil, or Publius Vergilius Maro, born in the year 70 BC at a village near the city, now known as Virgilio. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire at the hands of Odoacer in 476 AD, Mantua was, along with the rest of Italy, conquered by the Ostrogoths, it was retaken by the Eastern Roman Empire in the middle of the 6th century following the Gothic war but was subsequently lost again to the Lombards. They were in turn conquered by Charlemagne in 774, thus incorporating Mantua into the Frankish Empire. Partitions of the empire in the Treaties of Verdun and Prüm led to Mantua passing to Middle Francia in 843 the Kingdom of Italy in 855. In 962 Italy was invaded by King Otto I of Germany, Mantua thus became a vassal of the newly formed Holy Roman Empire. In the 11th century, Mantua became a possession of Boniface of marquis of Tuscany; the last ruler of that family was the countess Matilda of Canossa, according to legend, ordered the construction of the precious Rotonda di San Lorenzo in 1082.
The Rotonda still exists today and was renovated in 2013. After the death of Matilda of Canossa, Mantua became a free commune and strenuously defended itself from the influence of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries. In 1198, Alberto Pitentino altered the course of River Mincio, creating what the Mantuans call "the four lakes" to reinforce the city's natural protection. Three of these lakes still remain today and the fourth one, which ran through the centre of town, was reclaimed during the 18th century. Podesteria Rule From 1215, the city was ruled under the podesteria of the Gallic-Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. During the struggle between the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, Pinamonte Bonacolsi took advantage of the chaotic situation to seize power of the podesteria in 1273, he was declared the Captain General of the People. The Bonacolsi family ruled Mantua for the next two generations and made it more prosperous and artistically beautiful. On August 16, 1328, Luigi Gonzaga, an official in Bonacolsi's podesteria, his family staged a public revolt in Mantua and forced a coup d'état on the last Bonacolsi ruler, Rinaldo.
Ludovico Gonzaga, Podestà of Mantua since 1318, was duly elected Captain General of the People. The Gonzagas renovated the city in the 14th century. During the Italian Renaissance, the Gonzaga family softened their despotic rule and further raised the level of culture and refinement in Mantua. Mantua became a significant center of humanism. Marquis Gianfrancesco Gonzaga had brought Vittorino da Feltre to Mantua in 1423 to open his famous humanist school, the Casa Giocosa. Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, married Fra
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the project is considered its primary output; the creation and growth of OSM has been motivated by restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world, the advent of inexpensive portable satellite navigation devices. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the predominance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since it has grown to over 2 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, other free sources; this crowdsourced data is made available under the Open Database License. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, a non-profit organisation registered in England and Wales; the data from OSM is available for use in both traditional applications, like its usage by Facebook, OsmAnd, MapQuest Open, JMP statistical software, Foursquare to replace Google Maps, more unusual roles like replacing the default data included with GPS receivers.
OpenStreetMap data has been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, although in 2009 data quality varied across the world. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004 focusing on mapping the United Kingdom. In the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like the Ordnance Survey created massive datasets but failed to and distribute them; the first contribution, made in the British city of London in 2005, was thought to be a road by the Directions Mag. In April 2006, the OpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share. In December 2006, Yahoo! confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production. In April 2007, Automotive Navigation Data donated a complete road data set for the Netherlands and trunk road data for India and China to the project and by July 2007, when the first OSM international The State of the Map conference was held, there were 9,000 registered users.
Sponsors of the event included Yahoo! and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset. In December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. Ways to import and export data have continued to grow – by 2008, the project developed tools to export OpenStreetMap data to power portable GPS units, replacing their existing proprietary and out-of-date maps. In March, two founders announced that they have received venture capital funding of €2.4 million for CloudMade, a commercial company that uses OpenStreetMap data. In November 2010, Bing changed their licence to allow use of their satellite imagery for making maps. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Chief among these were Foursquare and Craigslist, which adopted OpenStreetMap, Apple, which ended a contract with Google and launched a self-built mapping platform using TomTom and OpenStreetMap data.
Map data is collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using tools such as a handheld GPS unit, a notebook, digital camera, or a voice recorder. The data is entered into the OpenStreetMap database. Mapathon competition events are held by OpenStreetMap team and by non-profit organisations and local governments to map a particular area; the availability of aerial photography and other data from commercial and government sources has added important sources of data for manual editing and automated imports. Special processes are in place to avoid legal and technical problems. Editing of maps can be done using the default web browser editor called iD, an HTML5 application using D3.js and written by Mapbox, financed by the Knight Foundation. The earlier Flash-based application Potlatch is retained for intermediate-level users. JOSM and Merkaartor are more powerful desktop editing applications that are better suited for advanced users. Vespucci is the first full-featured editor for Android.
StreetComplete is a new, easy Android app launched in 2016, which allows users without any OpenStreetMap knowledge to answer simple quests for existing data in OpenStreetMap, thus contribute data. Maps.me is a mobile application offering offline maps which includes a limited OSM data editor. Go Map!! is an iOS app that lets you edit information in OpenStreetMap. Pushpin is another iOS app; the project has a geographically diverse user-base, due to emphasis of local knowledge and ground truth in the process of data collection. Many early contributors were cyclists who survey with and for bicyclists, charting cycleroutes and navigable trails. Others are GIS professionals. Contributors are predominately men, with only 3–5% being women. By August 2008, shortly after the second The State of the Map conference was held, there were over 50,000 registered contributors. In April 2012, OpenStreetMap cleared 600,000 registered contributors. On 6 January 2013, OpenStreetMap reached 1 million registered users.
Around 30% of users have contributed at least one point to the OpenStreetMap database. Ground surveys are performed on foot, bicycle, or in a car, motorcycle or boat. Map data are
Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Apostle was, according to the Christian Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists. Among the early followers and apostles of Jesus, Matthew is mentioned in Matthew 9:9 and Matthew 10:3 as a publican or tax collector who, while sitting at the "receipt of custom" in Capernaum, was called to follow Jesus, he is listed among the twelve, but without identification of his background, in Mark 3:18, Luke 6:15 and Acts 1:13. In passages parallel to Matthew 9:9, both Mark 2:14 and Luke 5:27 describe Jesus' calling of the tax collector Levi, the son of Alphaeus, but Mark and Luke never explicitly equate this Levi with the Matthew named as one of the twelve. Levi was the son of Alphaeus; as a tax collector he would have been literate in Greek. His fellow Jews would have despised him for what was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force. After his call, Matthew invited Jesus home for a feast. On seeing this, the Scribes and the Pharisees criticized Jesus for eating with tax collectors and sinners.
This prompted Jesus to answer, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, was one of the witnesses of the Resurrection and the Ascension of Jesus. Afterwards, the disciples withdrew to an upper room in Jerusalem; the disciples proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah. In the Babylonian Talmud "Mattai" is one of five disciples of "Jeshu". Church fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, before going to other countries. Ancient writers are not agreed as to; the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr, although this was rejected by the gnostic heretic Heracleon as early as the second century. The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the second century; the tradition that the author was the disciple Matthew begins with the early Christian bishop Papias of Hierapolis, cited by the Church historian Eusebius, as follows: "Matthew collected the oracles in the Hebrew language, each one interpreted them as best he could."On the surface, this has been taken to imply that Matthew's Gospel itself was written in Hebrew or Aramaic by the apostle Matthew and translated into Greek, but nowhere does the author claim to have been an eyewitness to events, Matthew's Greek "reveals none of the telltale marks of a translation".
Scholars have put forward several theories to explain Papias: Matthew wrote two gospels, now lost, in Hebrew, the other our Greek version. The consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, it is accepted that Matthew was written in Greek, not in Aramaic or Hebrew. In the 3rd-century Jewish–Christian gospels attributed to Matthew were used by Jewish–Christian groups such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites. Fragments of these gospels survive in quotations by Jerome and others. Most academic study follows the distinction of Gospel of the Nazarenes, Gospel of the Ebionites, Gospel of the Hebrews found in Schneemelcher's New Testament Apocrypha. Critical commentators regard these texts as having been composed in Greek and related to Greek Matthew. A minority of commentators consider them to be fragments of a lost Aramaic or Hebrew language original; the Infancy Gospel of Matthew is a 7th-century compilation of three other texts: the Protevangelium of James, the Flight into Egypt, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.
Origen said. This Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and translated into Greek, but the Greek copy was lost; the Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea. The Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for Jerome. Matthew's Gospel was called the Gospel according to the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles and it was once believed that it was the original to the Greek Matthew found in the Bible. However, this has been challenged by modern biblical scholars such as Bart Ehrman and James R. Edwards. Jerome relates that Matthew was supposed by the Nazarenes to have composed their Gospel of the Hebrews though Irenaeus and Epiphanius of Salamis consider this a revised version canonical Gospel; this Gospel has been preserved in the writings of the Church Fathers, said to have been written by Matthew. Epiphanius does not make his own the claim about a Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew, a claim that he attributes to the heretical Ebionites. Matthew is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican churches.
His feast day is celebrated on 21 September in 16 November in the East. (For those churches which follow the traditional Julian
Verona Villafranca Airport
Verona Villafranca Airport known as Valerio Catullo Airport or Villafranca Airport, is located 10 km southwest of Verona, Italy. The airport is situated next to the junction of A4 A22 Modena-Brenner motorways, it serves a population of more than 4 million inhabitants in the provinces of Verona, Brescia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Villafranca Air Base was a military airport during the First World War, it became open to civil traffic in the early 1910s with daily scheduled connections to Rome and charter flights to destinations in northern Europe. Towards late 1970s, under the first community project by the Province of Verona, Comune of Verona and the local Chamber of Commerce, Villafranca Airport constructed a passenger terminal and handling facilities; the managing society, "Aeroporto Valerio Catullo di Verona Villafranca S. P. A.", was established in December 1978. Ownership is shared between provincial governments from Veneto, Lombardy and Alto Adige/Südtirol. In 1990, the passenger terminal was expanded in order to cope with the growing air traffic.
The aircraft apron and car-parking areas were enlarged. In 1995, the airport has reached a record of handling one million passengers per annum. In 1999, the airport became Italy's second-grade airport in the'Special Classification of Charter Traffic' and ranked after Milan Malpensa Airport and Rome Fiumicino Airport. During the Bosnian War, the airport was used by NATO aircraft as a staging area. Passenger numbers continued to grow: 2 million per year in 2001 and 3 million per year in 2006. In response to the strong demand in patronage, the airport has undertaken a significant expansion programme on its services and facilities. In May 2006, a new arrivals terminal, Terminal 2, was opened by the Vice-Minister of Transport, Cesare De Piccoli, Vice-President of Veneto Region, Luca Zaia; this additional terminal is situated next to the original building, now known as Terminal 1. As a result of the expansion programme, the airport's capacity has doubled. Hence Terminal 1 is used for departures and Terminal 2 for arrivals.
Air traffic has continued to grow during the 2010s with 3,385,794 passengers recorded in 2011. After a European Union investigation into high subsidies being granted to Ryanair on their scheduled routes, the airline pulled out of Villafranca Airport in 2012; this caused a reduction in passenger traffic in 2013. In 2015, Ryanair reintroduced services to the airport with scheduled flights to Palermo, London Stansted and Brussels. Several airlines have switched their charter routes to regular services during the Winter Season 2015-16: Finnair flies between Verona and Helsinki and AirBaltic flies between Verona and Riga; the route between Paris and Verona, as operated by Air France, ceased operation in late October 2015, having been replaced with flights operated by its low-cost subsidiary, Transavia. Verona-Villafranca Airport is equipped with a fog-dispersal device, which remains the best solution available in Italy and abroad to date, so that flight operations could continue during times of low visibility.
This system allows pilots to land in visibility as low as 75 m. The runway is certified for ILS Category IIIb approach; the two terminals and arrivals, are situated next to each other. The departures hall hosts check-in facilities at the eastern side; the lounge is located on the first floor's eastern wing. The main bus stand is located directly outside the arrivals hall. A shuttle bus service, Aerobus operated by ATV, connects Verona-Villafranca Airport directly with Verona Porta Nuova station. During the summer months, ATV buses 164, 183 and 184 additionally provide hourly connections between Verona-Villafranca Airport en route to comunes along Lake Garda/Lago di Garda. Media related to Verona Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for LIPX at NOAA/NWS Accident history for VRN at Aviation Safety Network
Dossobuono is a town in the Veneto, in northeast Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Villafranca di Verona, in the province of Verona, it has a population of around 6400. Air Dolomiti, a regional airline and Lufthansa subsidiary, maintains its head office in Dossobuono. At one time the airline's registered office was in Dossobuono, while the airline's executive headquarters were in Ronchi dei Legionari
Province of Verona
The Province of Verona is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. The eastern bank of Lake Garda is near the province, its capital is the city of Verona. The city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the province is cosmopolitan in nature. It is bordered by Province of Vicenza and Province of Padua in the east. Province of Rovigo and Province of Mantua in south and Lake Garda in the west. From north to south the maximum extent of the province is 50 miles while it is 25 miles from east to west; the province has a total population of about 0.9 million. There are 98 comuni in the province. Important comuni include Bovolone, Bussolengo, Isola della Scala, Negrar, Peschiera del Garda, San Bonifacio, San Giovanni Lupatoto, San Martino Buon Albergo, Sona, Valeggio sul Mincio and Villafranca di Verona. William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet takes place in Verona, as do some scenes in his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona; the Casa di Giulietta is an important local visitor attraction. Verona attracts a large number of tourists every year.
Due to its important role in history the province boasts of a large number of castles, hermitages, monasteries and old Romanesque parishes. A regional park is located in Lessinia. Valpolicella is popular for its wines. Europe's biggest natural bridge-Ponte di Veja is located in the province; the northern part of the province is hilly. Several rivers pass through the rivers. A few of them are Tartaro and Adige. Media related to Province of Verona at Wikimedia Commons Tourist information