Eureeka's Castle is an American children's television series which aired on Nick Jr. from September 4, 1989 until June 30, 1995. The program featured various puppet characters; the show was a joint development by Nickelodeon, animators Kit Laybourne and Eli Noyes of Noyes & Laybourne Enterprises, the puppeteers at 3/Design Studio. R. L. Stine was the Head Writer for the episodes. Reruns of the show aired on Noggin from 1999 to 2002. Eureeka's Castle's ending credits state the show comes from an original concept by Debby Reece and Judy Katschke. In 1988, development of the show began by staff members at Nickelodeon and animator Eli Noyes and his partner Kit Laybourne, whose wife Geraldine Laybourne was the Head of Programming for Nickelodeon. “Jovial Bob Stine”, best known for his children's horror novels written under the pen name R. L. Stine, was hired as the Head Writer to develop the concept and episode scripts; the puppet design and construction for the characters were done at 3/Design Studio where the puppets were built by Jim Kroupa, John Orberg, Kip Rathke and Matt Stoddart.
The show's fourth season, which ran concurrently with the third season, was designed for international distribution and featured clips from previous episodes. Production on Eureeka's Castle ended in 1992, as some of the show's crew began working on Gullah Gullah Island; the show follows various puppet characters, including a sorceress-in-training. Eureeka and her friends live in a wind-up castle music box owned by a friendly giant. Other characters include Magellan the dragon, twin moat dwellers Bogge and Quagmire, Batly the bat, Mr. Knack the handyman. There are various appearing creatures such as mice, singing fish statues called the Fishtones, Magellan's pets Cooey and the Slurms, Batly's pet spider Webster. Featured were animated segments such as the Weston Woods Studios films based on popular children's books, live-action short films, UK imports such as Roobarb, The Shoe People and Gran. Eureeka – The title character. Eureeka is a friendly sorceress-in-training, her spells are not successful most of the time.
Magellan – A large green dragon with a tail that has a mind of its own. He doesn't always understand new concepts. Magellan tends to make great big sneezes. Cooey – Magellan's pet of indeterminate species. Slurms – Magellan's pet worm hybrids, they were animated with clay animation. Batly – An egotistical clumsy blue bat who wears glasses due to being near-sighted. Despite being different in every way, he and Magellan are good friends, his flying ends with a crash landing prompting him to say "I meant to do that." Batly has a large bug collection. In a 2016 Reddit AMA, Stine said that Batly's face was modeled after Matt. Webster – Batly's pet spider. Bogge and Quagmire – The Moat Twins are siblings who spend most of their time swimming in the castle moat, eating peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, playing in the basement. Bogge is orange, they work together when it comes to causing trouble. Bogge and Quagmire try to steal Magellan's peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, but never succeed. Mr. Knack – The castle's handyman and tinkerer.
He uses many unconventional methods for fixing things around the castle. He loves to barter when he sells some of his inventions that he has made from his pushcart. Mr. Knack always gets some postcards. Sir Klank – A blue mouse with a long gray beard who resides in a suit of armor. Kate – A pink mouse who reports on what happens in the castle. Emma – An orange mouse who loves to eat. Fishtones – A trio of singing fish in the form of a stone fountain who spray water when they're not singing; the Giant – A friendly full-bodied giant with a long nose who owns the wind-up castle music box where the show takes place. Pam Arciero – Quagmire, Emma Cheryl Blaylock – Eureeka Lynn Hippen – Cooey, Kate James J. Kroupa – Batley, Sir Klank, Giant Noel MacNeal – Magellan, Webster Brian Muehl – Bogge, Mr. Knack Robert J. Gardner John Kennedy Joey Mazzarino Several episodes of Eureeka's Castle were released on VHS first by Hi-Tops Video from 1990 to 1992 and redistributed by Sony Wonder from 1995 to 1996 and redistributed again by Paramount Home Video in 1997.
To date, the series has not been released on DVD, nor iTunes, Hulu and Amazon Instant Video. Sing Along With Eureeka Christmas at Eureeka's Castle Wide Awake at Eureeka's Castle In 1990, Eureeka's Castle won an Ace Award for best children's program. Eureeka's Castle on IMDb Eureeka's Castle at TV.com Entertainment Weekly article
The Clan McDuck is a fictional Scottish clan of cartoon ducks from which Disney character Scrooge McDuck is descended. Within the Donald Duck universe, the clan is related to the American Duck family through the marriage of Hortense McDuck and Quackmore Duck, Donald's parents. Clan McDuck was created by American comic book author Carl Barks, who created the character of Scrooge McDuck. Barks' 1948 story "The Old Castle's Secret," in which Scrooge and his nephews search for hidden treasure in McDuck Castle, introduced the backstory of the clan. Other authors built on Barks' work, most notably Don Rosa in his 12-part comic saga The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck which introduced Scrooge's immediate family. In the early 1950s, Carl Barks was in his second decade of creating comic book stories starring Donald Duck and his various relatives, he had created several of the latter, including cousin Gladstone Gander and uncle Scrooge McDuck, although the specific relationships between them were still uncertain.
To better define these relationships, Barks created a version of the McDuck/Duck/Coot family tree for his own personal benefit, incidentally creating several additional characters. During his retirement, Barks' stories gained him unexpected fame. Barks gave several interviews during which he answered questions about his stories and the characters he had created. In 1981, Barks described his personal version of Donald's family tree, used by amateur artist Mark Worden in drawing the family tree and including portraits of the characters mentioned. Worden's tree was first published in several fanzines, in the Disney-licensed Carl Barks Library, a ten-volume hardcover collection of Barks' stories in black-and-white. In 1987, Don Rosa, a long-time fan of Carl Barks and a personal friend of Mark Worden, started creating his own stories featuring Scrooge McDuck, his stories contained numerous references to older stories by Barks as well as several original ideas. After several years he gained a fan base of his own.
In the early 1990s, the Egmont Group, the publishing house employing Rosa, offered him an ambitious assignment: he was to create the definitive version of Scrooge's biography and a family tree to accompany it. The project was intended to end decades of contradictions between stories which caused confusion to readers; the project was to become The Times of Scrooge McDuck. The family tree accompanying it was first published in Norway on July 3, 1993. In the process of working on Scrooge's biography, Rosa studied Barks' old stories in detail. Rosa made note of as many clues as he could of Scrooge's past given by Barks – which Rosa dubbed "Barksian facts" – and used them to write new stories. Despite the ambitious nature of the project, Rosa himself stressed in the introduction to the book "...this version of Scrooge's life is not the'official' version – there's no particular reason why I should expect other Duck writers to adhere to my vision of Scrooge's history. As and authentically as I sought to construct it, it was never intended to be anything but my personal telling of the life of Scrooge McDuck."
The family tree below shows the McDuck portion of Donald's family tree according to Carl Barks. The chart is based on a 1950s sketch made by Barks for personal use, latter illustrated by artist Mark Worden in 1981. According to Barks, Matilda McDuck is married to Goosetail Gander, the couple adopts Donald's cousin Gladstone; the character Old "Scotty" McDuck does not appear in any stories, but became Fergus McDuck in Don Rosa's stories. This family tree is based on the work of Don Rosa; the seat of Clan McDuck is McDuck Castle, located in Dismal Downs, somewhere in Rannoch Moor, a non-fictional location within Scotland. The nearest village is the fictional MacDuich; the castle appears in good condition considering its great age. However, in the Barks story "Hound of the Whiskervilles" the castle is in ruins; the comics continuity does not establish when McDuck Castle was built, but it first appears in 946 when the Saxons laid siege to it. For many centuries the castle served as the home of the clan chief.
In 1675, the McDucks were run out of the castle due to the depredations of a "monstrous devil dog" in Dismal Downs discovered to be a plot by the rival Clan Whiskerville. At this time, many of the McDucks moved to Glasgow. After their departure, the clan still owned the castle and continued to pay the taxes by pooling their incomes. By 1885, only Fergus and Jake McDuck remain to pay the taxes, but their combined income is not enough, causing the Crown to auction it off. Scrooge buys the estate, allowing his family to reoccupy the castle, he hires local dogface Scottie McTerrier as caretaker. Sometime after Scottie's death, Scrooge's sister Matilda becomes caretaker. In the DuckTales continuity, Castle McDuck was built by Scrooge's great-great grandfather Silas who incorporated the castle into an existing Druid stone circle to save on construction costs; this story would date the castle itself to about the 18th century. The Druids, seeking revenge on the McDucks for taking away their sacred meeting place, scared the clan away using trained phosphorescent hounds.
Years Scrooge returns with Huey, Dewey and Webby and uncovers the mystery. Scrooge befriends the partners with them to turn Castle McDuck into a tourist attraction. Scrooge plans to give a share of the profit to the Druids as reparations for desecrating their stone circle; the story is loosely based on the Barks story "Hound of the Whiskervilles", in turn loosely based on The Hound of the Baskervilles. The castle appears in the Carl
World of Warcraft
World of Warcraft is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game released in 2004 by Blizzard Entertainment. It is the fourth released game set in the Warcraft fantasy universe. World of Warcraft takes place within the Warcraft world of Azeroth four years after the events at the conclusion of Blizzard's previous Warcraft release, Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne; the game was announced in 2001, was released for the 10th anniversary of the Warcraft franchise on November 23, 2004. Since launch, World of Warcraft has had seven major expansion packs released for it: The Burning Crusade, Wrath of the Lich King, Mists of Pandaria, Warlords of Draenor and Battle for Azeroth. World of Warcraft was the world's most popular MMORPG by player count of nearly 10 million in 2009; the game had a total of over a hundred million registered accounts by 2014. By 2017, the game had grossed over $9.23 billion in revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing video game franchises of all time. At BlizzCon 2017, a "classic" version of the game was announced, planned to provide a way to experience the base game before any of its expansions launched.
Blizzard announced at BlizzCon 2018 that WoW Classic will be released in the summer of 2019, will be included with the standard subscription. As with other MMORPGs, players control a character avatar within a game world in third- or first-person view, exploring the landscape, fighting various monsters, completing quests, interacting with non-player characters or other players. Similar to other MMORPGs, World of Warcraft requires the player to pay for a subscription by using a credit or debit card, using prepaid Blizzard game cards or using a WoW Token purchased in-game. Players without a subscription may use a trial account that lets the player character reach up to level 20 but has many features locked. To enter the game, the player must select a server, referred to in-game as a realm; each realm falls into one of two categories. Available realms types are: Normal – a regular type realm where the gameplay is focused on defeating monsters and completing quests, with player-versus-player fights and any roleplay are optional.
RP – which works the same way as a "Normal" realm, but focuses on players roleplaying in-character. Before the introduction of World of Warcraft's seventh expansion "Battle for Azeroth", both "Normal" and "RP" servers were each divided into two separate categories; this has since been removed after the implementation of the "War Mode" option, which allows any player on any server to determine whether they want to participate in PvP combat or not, by enabling War Mode in two of the game's capital cities. Realms are categorized by language, with in-game support in the language available. Players can make new characters on all realms within the region, it is possible to move established characters between realms for a fee. To create a new character, in keeping with the storyline of previous Warcraft games, players must choose between the opposing factions of the Alliance or the Horde. Characters from the opposing factions can perform rudimentary communication, but only members of the same faction can speak, mail and join guilds.
The player selects the new character's race, such as orcs or trolls for the Horde, or humans or dwarves for the Alliance. Players must select the class for the character, with choices such as mages and priests available. Most classes are limited to particular races; as characters become more developed, they gain various talents and skills, requiring the player to further define the abilities of that character. Characters can choose two primary professions that can focus on producing items, such as tailoring, blacksmithing or jewelcrafting or on gathering from resource nodes, such as skinning or mining. Characters can learn all four secondary skills: archeology, cooking and first aid. Characters may form and join guilds, allowing characters within the guild access to the guild's chat channel, the guild name and optionally allowing other features, including a guild tabard, guild bank, guild repairs, dues. Much of World of Warcraft play involves the completion of quests; these quests are available from NPCs.
Quests reward the player with some combination of experience points, in-game money. Quests allow characters to gain access to new skills and abilities, as well as the ability to explore new areas, it is through quests that much of the game's story is told, both through the quest's text and through scripted NPC actions. Quests are linked by a common theme, with each consecutive quest triggered by the completion of the previous, forming a quest chain. Quests involve killing a number of creatures, gathering a certain number of resources, finding a difficult to locate object, speaking to various NPCs, visiting specific locations, interacting with objects in the world, or delivering an item from one place to another to acquire experience and treasures. While a character can be played on its own, players can group with others to tackle more challenging content. Most end-game challenges are designed in a way. In this way, character classes are used in specific roles within a group. World of Warcraft uses a "rested bonus" system, increasing the rate that a character can gain experience points after the player has spent time away from the game.
When a character dies, it becomes a ghost—or wisp for Night Elf characters—at a nearby graveyard. Characters c
Quagmire! is a 1984 adventure module for the Expert Rules of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. In the beginning of this adventure, the player characters set off in search of the city of Quagmire; the characters must travel through a monster-infested swamp to get to the city, being swallowed into the sea. Quagmire is a whelk-shaped "spiral city", built by a dead race in the Serpent Peninsula; the module includes a description of the city. The player characters stumble upon a message in a bottle sent by the king of Quagmire requesting their help in overcoming the oppressive lizard men who hold them captive. X6 Quagmire! was written by Merle M. Rasmussen, with cover art by Steve Peregrine, was published by TSR in 1984 as a 32-page booklet with an outer folder; the module featured interior art by Jeffrey Butler. The scenario was written for the Expert Rules. Rick Swan reviewed the adventure in The Space Gamer No. 72. He commented that "Just when you thought adventure modules had exhausted every conceivable variation on dungeon design, along comes Quagmire with its 13-level cities in the shape of gigantic spiral seashells."
Swan continued: "Quagmire is perfect for DMs who balk at the thought of having to absorb pages of background information before they can run an adventure. Since all of the preliminary information is contained in a few paragraphs and the plot itself is simple, a DM could conceivably have his adventurers on the road within a few minutes of his first reading. Most of the module concerns the journey to the spiral cities, a trip that may involve travel across deserts and the open sea. Designer Merle Rasmussen has provided dozens of encounters to spice up the journey, neatly addressing a fundamental problem of many wilderness adventures: how to keep the party occupied while they travel long distances. Though it sounds gimmicky, the spiral cities setting is a nice change of pace from the usual underground dungeons and haunted houses." He added: "Quagmire suffers from one of the most common failings of roleplaying modules, the anti-climactic ending. After hours or days of working through an adventure, players have the right to expect a big finish to make all their trials and tribulations worthwhile.
Though the architecture is interesting, there's not much going on in the spiral cities, rescuing the good guys involved little more than beating up the bad guys. The encounters along the way are good ones, but they're totally unrelated to the purpose of the mission." Swan concluded his review by saying: "Quagmire isn't engaging for either players or DM. The flimsy story line that makes it easy to run makes it a drag to play, it should be notes, that the extensive wilderness section has a lot of useful ideas and imaginative encounters that could be used elsewhere. "Quagmire makes a good supplement, but as a self-contained adventure, it's not much."Graham Staplehurst reviewed Quagmire! for White Dwarf, gave it 8/10 overall, calling it "a useful acquisition for any D&D player as a first excursion into a fledged wilderness." Staplehurst praised the module, stating that it "promotes a whole'experience', a total environment and ecosystem, with background colour and depth which more localised scenarios and modules lack.
The designers have done a good job in describing large areas of wild lands, giving inspiration and yet not pedantic detail to DMs with players itching to see a bit of their characters' world and feel it come to life." He called the eponymous city a "superb piece of original design", although he noted that DMs running the scenario "will want to dress up the city a little to add to the scenario as it is a little sparsely populated". Staplehurst concluded the review stating, "The weather, the fatigue of travel, the question of provisions, all play a major part in the characters' concerns, this increases enjoyment of the game no end. A good scenario."In his 1991 book Heroic Worlds, Lawrence Schick provides an alliterative summary of the scenario: "Sea swallows seashell-shaped swamp city". Games historian Jon Peterson used Quagmire! as the subject of a detailed study of TSR's internal operations during the height of the Dungeons & Dragons fad in the 1980s, showing how staff designers moved projects from concept briefs to story boards and drafts up to publication
Magic: The Gathering
Magic: The Gathering is both a collectible and digital collectible card game created by Richard Garfield. Released in 1993 by Wizards of the Coast, Magic was the first trading card game and has twenty million players as of 2015, over twenty billion Magic cards produced in the period from 2008 to 2016 alone. Magic can be played by two or more players in various rule formats, which fall into two categories: constructed and limited. Limited formats involve players building a deck spontaneously out of a pool of random cards with a minimum deck size of 40 cards. In constructed formats, players create decks from cards they own—usually 60 cards, with no more than 4 of any given card, except for "basic land" cards; the game is played in person with printed cards, or using a deck of virtual cards through the Internet-based software Magic: The Gathering Online, or on a smartphone or tablet, or through other video games such as Magic: The Gathering Arena. Each game of Magic represents a battle between wizards known as planeswalkers who cast spells, use artifacts, summon creatures as depicted on individual cards in order to defeat their opponents but not always, by draining them of their 20 starting life points.
Although the original concept of the game drew from the motifs of traditional fantasy role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons, the gameplay bears little similarity to pencil-and-paper adventure games, while having more cards and more complex rules than many other card games. New cards are released on a regular basis through expansion sets. An organized tournament system played at the international level and a worldwide community of professional Magic players have developed, as well as a substantial resale market for Magic cards. Certain cards can be monetarily valuable due to their rarity in production and utility in gameplay, with prices ranging from a few cents to thousands of dollars. Richard Garfield was a doctoral candidate in combinatorial mathematics at University of Pennsylvania when he first started to design the game. During his free time he worked with local volunteer playtesters to help refine the game, he had been brought on as an adjunct professor at Whitman College in 1991 when Peter Adkison first met with Garfield to discuss Garfield's new game RoboRally.
Adkison saw the game as promising, but decided that Wizards of the Coast lacked the resources to produce it at that point. He did like Garfield's ideas and mentioned that he was looking for a portable game that could be played in the downtime that occurs at gaming conventions. Garfield presented the general outline of the concept of a trading card game, it was based on Garfield's game Five Magics from 1982. Adkison saw the potential of this idea and agreed to produce it. Magic: The Gathering underwent a general release on August 5, 1993. While the game was called Magic through most of playtesting, when the game had to be named a lawyer informed them that the name Magic was too generic to be trademarked. Mana Clash was instead chosen to be the name used in the first solicitation of the game, everybody involved with the game continued to refer to it as Magic. After further consultation with the lawyer, it was decided to rename the game Magic: The Gathering, thus enabling the name to be trademarked.
A patent was granted to Wizards of the Coast in 1997 for "a novel method of game play and game components that in one embodiment are in the form of trading cards" that includes claims covering games whose rules include many of Magic's elements in combination, including concepts such as changing orientation of a game component to indicate use and constructing a deck by selecting cards from a larger pool. The patent has aroused criticism from some observers. In 2003, the patent was an element of a larger legal dispute between Wizards of the Coast and Nintendo, regarding trade secrets related to Nintendo's Pokémon Trading Card Game; the legal action was settled out of court, its terms were not disclosed. Magic was an immediate success for Wizards of the Coast. Early on they were reluctant to advertise the game because they were unable to keep pace with existing demand. Magic attracted many Dungeons & Dragons players, but the following included all types of other people as well; the success of the game led to the creation of similar games by other companies as well as Wizards of the Coast themselves.
Companion Games produced the Galactic Empires CCG, which allowed players to pay for and design their own promotional cards, while TSR created the Spellfire game, which included five editions in six languages, plus twelve expansion sets. Wizards of the Coast produced a game about modern-day vampires. Other similar games included trading card games based on Star Star Wars. Magic is cited as an example of a 1990s collecting fad, though the game's makers were able to overcome the bubble traditionally associated with collecting fads; the success of the initial edition prompted a reissue in 1993, along with expansions to the game. Arabian Nights was released as the first expansion in December 1993. New expansions and revisions of the base game have since been released on a regular basis, amounting to four releases a year. By the end of 1994, the game had printed over a billion cards; until the release of Mirage in 1996, expansions were released on an irregular basis. Beginning in 2009 one revision of the core set
A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants. Mires arise because of incomplete decomposition of organic matter, due to waterlogging and subsequent anoxia. Like coral reefs, mires are unusual landforms in that they derive from biological rather than physical processes, can take on characteristic shapes and surface patterning. There are four types of mire: bog, fen and swamp. A bog is a mire that due to its location relative to the surrounding landscape obtains most of its water from rainfall, while a fen is located on a slope, flat, or depression and gets most of its water from soil- or groundwater, thus while a bog is always acidic and nutrient-poor, a fen may be acidic, neutral, or alkaline, either nutrient-poor or nutrient-rich. Although marshes are wetlands within which vegetation is rooted in mineral soil, some marshes form shallow peat deposits: these should be considered mires. Swamps are characterized by their forest canopy and, like fens, are of higher pH and nutrient availability than bogs.
Some bogs and fens can support limited tree growth on hummocks. For botanists and ecologists, the term peatland is a more general term for any terrain dominated by peat to a depth of at least 30 cm if it has been drained. Mires are a kind of "...living relic... living skin on an ancient body" in which successive layers of regular plant growth and decay are preserved stratigraphically with a quality of preservation unknown in other wetland environments. Mires, although at their greatest extent at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, are found around the globe. Mires occur wherever conditions are right for peat accumulation: where organic matter is waterlogged; the distribution of mires therefore depends on topography, parent material and time. The type of mire - bog, fen or swamp - depends on each of these factors. In polar regions, mires are shallow, because of the slow rate of accumulation of dead organic matter, contain permafrost. Large swathes of Canada, northern Europe and northern Russia are covered by boreal mires.
In temperate areas mires are more scattered due to historical drainage and peat extraction, but can cover large areas as blanket bog where precipitation is high. In the sub-tropics, mires are restricted to the wettest areas. In the tropics, mires can again be extensive underlying tropical rainforest. Mires are in rapid decline globally due to drainage for agriculture and forestry, for peat harvesting. For example, more than 50% of original European mire area, more than 300000 km2, has been lost. Mires have unusual chemistry, which influences inter alia their biota and the chemistry of the water outflow. Peat has high cation-exchange capacity due to its high organic matter content: cations such as Ca2+ are preferentially adsorbed onto the peat in exchange for H+ ions. Water passing through peat declines in nutrients and in pH; therefore mires are nutrient-poor and acidic unless the inflow of groundwater is high. Mires elevate the ground surface above the original topography. Mires can reach considerable heights above the underlying mineral soil or bedrock: peat depths of above 10m have been recorded in temperate regions, above 25m in tropical regions.
When the absolute decay rate in the catotelm matches the rate of input of new peat into the catotelm, the mire will stop growing in height. A simplistic calculation, using typical values for a Sphagnum bog of 1mm new peat added per year and 0.0001 proportion of the catotelm decaying per year, gives a maximum height of 10m. More advanced analyses incorporate expectable nonlinear rates of catotelm decay. All types of mires share the common characteristic of being saturated with water at least seasonally with forming peat while having its own set of vegetation and organisms. Mires influence carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere such that when the water table rises, such as during a rainstorm, the peat and its microbes are submerged under water and inhibits the access to oxygen, giving opportunity for anaerobic microorganisms to flourish. Carbon dioxide is released when the water table shrinks, such as during a drought, as this supplies the aerobic microbes with oxygen to decompose the peat, subsequently releasing carbon dioxide.
Levels of methane, CH4 varies with the water table position and somewhat with temperature. Methanogens are responsible for producing methane via decomposition of the peat which increases as the water table rises and oxygen levels are depleted. Increased temperatures in the soil contributes to increased seasonal methane flux, though at a lower intensity, it is shown that the methane increased by as much as 300% seasonal from increased precipitation and temperature of the soil. Mires are important reservoirs of climatic information to the past because they are sensitive to changes in the environment and can reveal levels of isotopes, macrofossils, metals from the atmosphere, pollen. For example, carbon-14 dating can reveal the age of the peat; the dredging and destruction of a mire will release the carbon dioxide that could reveal irreplaceable information about the past climatic conditions. It is known that a plethora of microorganisms inhabit mires due to the regular supply of
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th