Emperor Suzong of Tang
Emperor Suzong of Tang, personal name Li Heng, né Li Sisheng, known as Li Jun from 725 to 736, known as Li Yu from 736 to 738, known as Li Shao in 738, was an emperor of the Tang dynasty and the son of Emperor Xuanzong. Suzong ascended the throne after his father fled to Sichuan during the An Lushan Rebellion in 756. Much of Emperor Suzong's reign was spent in quelling the aforementioned rebellion, put down in 763 during the reign of his son Emperor Daizong. During Emperor Suzong's reign, the tradition of eunuchs becoming top-ranked officials began, with Li Fuguo becoming the commander of the imperial guards and possessing nearly absolute power near Emperor Suzong's reign. In 762, with Emperor Suzong gravely ill, Li Fuguo killed Emperor Suzong's wife Empress Zhang in a power struggle and shortly after that, Emperor Suzong died of myocardial infarction, he was succeeded by his son Emperor Daizong, able to kill Li Fuguo, but the tradition of eunuchs in power had started. Suzong's death on 16 May came only 13 days after the death of the Emperor Xuanzong.
Li Sisheng was born in 711, during the second reign of his grandfather Emperor Ruizong, as the third son of his father the Crown Prince, Li Longji, who would become Emperor Xuanzong. His mother Consort Yang Guipin was from the imperial clan of the preceding Sui dynasty, her great-grandfather Yang Shida was a high -level official during Sui and had been given the title Prince of Zheng. Her father Yang Zhiqing was a general of the imperial guards during Tang. At the time that Consort Yang Guipin was pregnant with Li Sisheng, Li Longji was locked in a power struggle with his aunt, Emperor Ruizong's sister Princess Taiping, it was said that Princess Taiping had placed many associates in the crown prince's palace to spy on Li Longji and that she did not want him to have many sons. Li Longji was worried that, if Princess Taiping found out that Yang Guipin was pregnant, Princess Taiping's associates might harm him, he spoke to a close associate, Zhang Shuo, stating: "A powerful individual did not want me to have many sons.
I am afraid. What do you think?" Li Longji began to prepare an herbal stew that, in traditional Chinese medicine, was believed to be able to induce an abortion, but as he did so, fell asleep and had a dream that a god descended and overturned the ding holding the stew. When he told Zhang this as well, Zhang responded, "This is heaven's will. You should not worry." In 712, Emperor Ruizong passed the throne to Li Longji, who took the throne as Emperor Xuanzong, but Emperor Ruizong retained actual power as Taishang Huang. Shortly after Emperor Xuanzong took the throne, Emperor Ruizong, as retired emperor, was the one who created Li Sisheng the Prince of Shan. Li Siqian, whose mother Consort Zhao was Emperor Xuanzong's favorite concubine, was created crown prince. Li Sisheng, although his mother alive, was raised by Emperor Xuanzong's wife Empress Wang, herself sonless, it was said that in his childhood, he was kind and studious, Emperor Xuanzong was pleased with him. Emperor Xuanzong thus made the officials He Zhizhang, Pan Su, Lü Xiang, Huangfu Bin, Xing Su accompany him in his studies.
In 724, due to the machinations of Consort Wu, who had by become Emperor Xuanzong's favorite concubine, Empress Wang was deposed, she died shortly after. Thereafter, Consort Wu began a campaign, in association with the chancellor Li Linfu, to have her own son Li Qing the Prince of Shou made crown prince, but was not able to succeed. Meanwhile, in 726, Li Sisheng's title was changed to the Prince of Zhong, his name was changed to Li Jun. In 728, his own mother Consort Yang Guipin died. In 729, when there was a Khitan and Kumo Xi incursion, Li Jun was put in titular command of the army sent to repel the Khitan and the Xi, with Emperor Xuanzong's second cousin Li Hui the Prince of Xin'an in actual command of the army. After Li Hui defeated the Khitan and the Xi, Li Jun was rewarded with the honorific title of Situ, one of the Three Ducal Ministers. In 735, his name was changed to Li Yu. In 737, due to the machinations of Consort Wu, Li Ying, along with his brothers Li Yao the Prince of E and Li Ju the Prince of Guang, was accused of crimes and forced to commit suicide.
Consort Wu and Li Linfu continued to lobby for Li Qing to be created crown prince, but with Consort Wu having died herself in 737 and Emperor Xuanzong believing that Li Yu was capable, he hesitated. At the urging of the eunuch Gao Lishi, who believed that one of his older sons should be made crown prince, Emperor Xuanzong created Li Yu crown prince in 738 and renamed him Li Shao. One of his consorts, Consort Wei, the sister of the official Wei Jian
Mortal Kombat is a video game franchise developed by Midway Games' Chicago studio in 1992. The development of the first game was based on an idea that Ed Boon and John Tobias had of making a video game starring Jean-Claude Van Damme, but as that idea fell through, a horror-fantasy themed fighting game titled Mortal Kombat was created instead; the original game has spawned many sequels and spin-offs consisting of several action-adventure games and television series, as well as a comic book series, a card game and a live-action tour. Along with Street Fighter and Tekken, Mortal Kombat has become one of the most successful fighting franchises in the history of video games and one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time; the series has a reputation for high levels of violent content, most notably, its Fatalities. Controversies surrounding Mortal Kombat, in part, led to the creation of the ESRB video game rating system. Early games in this series were noted for their realistic digitized sprites and an extensive use of palette swapping to create new characters.
Following Midway's bankruptcy, the Mortal Kombat development team was acquired by Warner Bros. and turned into NetherRealm Studios. Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment owns the rights to the franchise which it rebooted in 2011; the original three games and their updates, Mortal Kombat, Mortal Kombat II, Mortal Kombat 3, Ultimate Mortal Kombat 3, Mortal Kombat Trilogy, were styled in a 2D fighting fashion. The first two of them were played in the arcades with a joystick and five buttons: high punch, low punch, high kick, low kick, block. Mortal Kombat 3 and its updates added a sixth "run" button. Characters in the early Mortal Kombat games play identically to one another, with the only major differences being their special moves. Through the 1990s, the developer and publisher Midway Games would keep their single styled fighting moves with four attack buttons for a different array of punches and kicks and blocks. Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance changed this by differentiating characters normal moves and giving them multiple fighting styles.
Beginning in Deadly Alliance and until Mortal Kombat: Deception, the characters would have three fighting styles per character: two unarmed styles, one weapon style. Few exceptions to this arose in Mortal Kombat: Armageddon, such as monster-like boss characters like Moloch and Onaga who would have only one fighting style. While most of the styles used in the series are based on real martial arts, some are fictitious. Goro's fighting styles, for example, are designed to take advantage of the fact that he has four arms. For Armageddon, fighting styles were reduced to a maximum of two per character due to the sheer number of playable characters. Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe dropped the multiple fighting style trend altogether in favor of giving each character a much wider variety of special moves, but some characters still use multiple fighting styles. 2011's Mortal Kombat returned to a single 2D fighting plane although characters are rendered in 3D. Mortal Kombat: Deception and Mortal Kombat: Armageddon feature "Konquest", a free-roaming action-adventure mode that expanded on the single-player experience.
Both games include distinct minigame modes such "Chess Kombat", an action-strategy game similar to Archon. Two other bonus minigames, "Puzzle Kombat" inspired by Puzzle Fighter and "Motor Kombat" inspired by Mario Kart, feature super deformed versions of Mortal Kombat characters; the games contain various unlockable content and hidden "cheats". The defining and best-known feature of the Mortal Kombat series is its finishing move system called Fatality. An original idea behind it was to give gamers a free hit at the end of the fight; the basic Fatalities are finishing moves that allow the victorious characters to end a match in a special way by murdering their defeated, defenseless opponents in a gruesome manner in the predefined ways exclusive for the given character. The only exception from this is Mortal Kombat: Armageddon, which instead features the Kreate-A-Fatality, allowing the players to perform their own Fatalities by conducting a series of violent moves chosen from a pool, common for all characters.
Other finishing moves in the various Mortal Kombat games include Animalities turning a victor into an animal to violently finish off the opponent. Mortal Kombat: Deception added the Hara-Kiri, a self-Fatality allowing the losers to engage in a suicide-based finishing move. There are some non-violent finishing moves in the series. Frien
Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War
Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War is a tactical role-playing game developed by Intelligent Systems and published by Nintendo for the Super Famicom home video game console in 1996. It is the fourth installment of the Fire Emblem series, the second to be developed for the platform. Genealogy of the Holy War takes place on the continent of Jugdral, split between eight different countries founded by the Twelve Crusaders, an ancient group of soldiers who ended the rule of the ancient dragon Loptyr with divine aid. In the present, a cult working to revive Loptyr stir up war among the countries; the story is told over two generations — the first generation follows the Grannvalian prince Sigurd, while the second follows his son Seliph as he works to defeat the cult and avenge his father. Gameplay follows the traditional Fire Emblem system of tactical battles taking place on grid-based maps, while adding the Weapons Triangle and Support systems, which directly impacted both gameplay and story. Development began after the completion of Fire Emblem: Mystery of the Emblem.
Returning staff included director and scenario writer Shouzou Kaga, composer Yuka Tsujiyoko, character designer Katsuyoshi Koya, producer Gunpei Yokoi. A greater focus was placed on the story compared to previous entries, although the gameplay saw new additions. Production was turbulent due to staff moves and the unexpected addition of character romance and expanded storyline. First unveiled under the title Inheritors of Light, it was scheduled for a March release, before releasing in May, it met with commercial success. A follow-up title based within the game's storyline, Fire Emblem: Thracia 776, was released in 1999. Many elements introduced in Genealogy of the Holy War would reappear in titles. Fire Emblem: Genealogy of the Holy War is a tactical role-playing game in which the player takes the roles of Sigurd and his son Seliph across a variety of story-driven missions on the continent of Jugdral; the story is divided into chapters. Before and during missions, the player units may settle in a home base, where various actions can be taken such as repairing weapons and selling items, participating in arena battles.
Castle towns within mission maps can be visited for similar services. Battles play out using a turn-based system where each unit on both sides is given their chance to move and act. Characters move and attack within the same turn, in a few cases units can take two moves in a turn. A key part of combat is the Weapon Triangle, a new addition which governs the opposing strengths and weaknesses of weapon types based on a rock–paper–scissors system - lances are stronger than swords, swords are stronger than axes, axes are stronger than lances. A secondary system governs the magic system, where Fire and Wind spells have varying strengths and weaknesses against each other; each unit has a character class which determines their weapon, skill set and attack range, how much effect they have on other units, which latent skills they possess, whether they use passive or aggressive skills when in combat. Different weapon types affect battle performance: for instance, a powerful axe deals more damage, but weighs a character down more than a sword.
The actions taken in earlier parts of a map can affect parts of that mission, triggering scripted changes in objectives and enemy behavior: for instance, when a castle is raided, the neighboring castle will have troops ready to swarm attackers. After each battle, a player character gains experience points; when a unit gains 100 experience points, they receive random boosts to their statistics such as health and agility. All characters are subject to permanent death if they are defeated in battle, removing them from the rest of the game. If the army's leader is killed, the map must be restarted. Victory is achieved when the map's objective has been completed, which can vary from defeating an enemy force to capturing specific points on a map. Character relationships form a core part of gameplay, include both optional conversations and story-driven character romances. Conversations see selected characters in the mission map talking with each other, some romances are triggered by the story when certain characters have joined the party during the first generation storyline.
The second generation units have their stat values and personal skills influenced by the assigned attributes of their parents. Second generation units can form optional romantic attachments, but this only influences stats; when characters with family or romantic connection are next to each other, they grant stat boosts to each other, which can provide a higher chance to hit critically. In addition to normal stat growth, different high-ranking units on both sides have a separate "Leadership" rank, which grants stat boosts to all units within range, with the boost varying depending on that unit's current Leadership rank. Genealogy of the Holy War takes place on the continent of Jugdral, divided between eight countries: the Kingdom of Grannvale, the Kingdom of Verdane, the Dominion of Agustria, the Republic of Manster, the Kingdom of Thracia, the Republic of Miletos, the Kingdom of Silesse, the Kingdom of Isaach. According to staff, Jugdral is within the same world as Archanea, the continent featured in the original Fire Emblem and its sequels: the events of Genealogy of the Holy War are set hundreds of years prior to the time period of Archanea, with the latter being in a civilized state.
It was during this time. In ancient times in the year Grann 440, the Earth Dragon Loptyr made a pact with
Gwonbeop is a system of unarmed methods in Korean martial arts, developed during the Joseon era. It is the Korean rendition of the Chinese quan fa. There are visual differences between the original Chinese Quan Fa; the following is the 300 years old Korean pictures on Korean Gwonbub/Gwonbeop. Mas Oyama recorded in his book about Chosun-Gwonbeop. Destruction of the Korean palace and its libraries in 1126 and the 1231 Mongol invasion and domination of Korea eliminated Korea's prior literary history, no first-hand accounts of the origins of gwonbeop are extant. In 1145, King Injong ordered Confucian scholar Kim Bu-sik to compile the Samguk Sagi. About a century a Buddhist monk, compiled the Samguk Yusa. According to both works, militancy between and among the three major states during the Three Kingdoms Period resulted in each state developing an institution for training warriors. Although the term gwonbeop was not used, cadets of the Pyong Dang in Goguryeo learned punches and kicks. In Baekje, open-handed fighting was included in the training.
Consolidation of the Korean peninsula under Silla in 668 enhanced its approach to hand-to-hand combat. Infrequent references to soo bak indicate that contests in unarmed combat with wagering by the audience, were held on holidays and other special occasions until the invasion of Korea by the Mongols. With the end of Mongol dominance, incursions by wa-ko inspired the Korean administration to rebuild the Korean military. Korea was unprepared for the 1591 invasion by Japanese armies intent on using Korea as a springboard to conquer China. Known as the Imjin Waerum, the Japanese advance overran the Korean army and was stopped only by the Ming army and Koreans who formed "righteous armies". In September 1593, King Seonjo of Joseon established the Hunlyun Dokam. With the encouragement of Ming general Liu T’ing, Korean prime minister Yu Song-Nyong tried to reorganize the Korean army into a structured, versatile organization, his reference for this effort was Jin Xiao Shin Shu, written by Qi Jiguang and published in 1567.
Chapter 14 of the manual described 32 methods of hand-to-hand combat. These 32 methods, gleaned from an examination of 16 major fighting systems in Ming China, were recorded in 32 short poems. After the end of hostilities in 1598, the Korean government wanted to record useful material from General Qi's manual instead of adopting it in its entirety; the Muyejebo was published in 1610. Commissioned by King Seonjo, the manual was compiled by military officer Han Kyo and contained six fighting methods: kon bong, dung pae, nang sun, jang chang, dang pa and ssang soo do. Four volumes of a Japanese martial-arts manual were added, leading to the compilation of the Muyejebo Beonyeoksokjip the same year; the latter included about 30 methods of unarmed combat. During the reign of King Yeongjo of Joseon, the Muyejebo was revised and supplemented with 12 additional fighting methods by Crown Prince Sado. A modified form of gwonbeop reappeared in this work; the revision, the Muyesinbo, was published in 1759. During the reign of King Jeongjo of Joseon, the Muyesinbo was revised by Park Je-ga and Lee Duk-moo beginning in 1790.
With six additional fighting skills, the "new" methods were little more than ground methods modified for mounted execution. Although the material was intended to reflect neo-Confucianism by having partners use methods which would produce a stalemate, it fell into disuse due to its lack of practical combat effectiveness; the Muyedobotongji was published in 1795. During the second half of the 19th century, Western practices were adopted and traditions abandoned. Bolt-action rifles and breech-loading artillery changed military tactics and the role of the soldier. Casualties of this trend were spears, cudgels and the bow and arrow; the Russo-Japanese War and World War I demonstrated that the future of warfare lay with encounters by small units, rather than between waves of troops. Armies tried to identify ways. Korea's efforts were eclipsed by Japan, which occupied the country from 1910 to 1946. During the occupation, Japanese forces imposed their customs on the Korean population. Korea had a trading history across the Yellow Sea with northeastern China in general and Shandong in particular.
Long associated with military science, the province gave Korea a variety of martial arts. "'백만인의 가라테'의 저자 소개를 보면, 그는 9세 경에 권법을 배워 중학 2년에 초단이 되었다고 하고 있어 권법을 배웠다고 할 수 있다. 하지만, 전 세계의 무예를 소개하는 내용에는 조선의 무예를 서술하면서 그 특징으로 박치기와 머리카락 치기, 어깨치기 등의 특이한 기법이 있었다고 하며 발을 사용하는 소년과 선비의 대결 모습을 그림으로 표현하면서, ‘조선권법’이라고 기재하고 있어". Translation: "In the author biography in the book'1 Million'
Quan Bray is an American football wide receiver, on the rights list for the Birmingham Iron of the Alliance of American Football. He played college football at Auburn, signed with the Indianapolis Colts as an undrafted free agent in 2015. Quan Bray was ranked as the nation's number 5 athlete by the 40th overall recruit, he was projected by scouts as a running back, wide receiver and safety, committed to Auburn over Alabama on February 2, 2011. Following his senior year, Bray was selected to the 2011 Under Armour All-America Game. At Auburn, Bray was a second team coaches all-SEC team as a return specialist in his senior year and was the first player in Auburn history to score a rushing and punt return touchdown in the same season. Bray did not receive an invite to the 2015 NFL Combine. After going undrafted in the 2015 NFL Draft, Bray was signed by the Indianapolis Colts on May 5, 2015. During training camp, Bray caught the eye of several Colts coaches. Bray was waived by the Colts on September 5, 2015 and was signed to the practice squad on September 6, 2015.
On October 27, Bray was elevated to the active roster after wide receiver Phillip Dorsett suffered a fractured fibula. On October 18, 2016, Bray was placed on injured reserve. On November 7, 2017, Bray was placed on injured reserve, he was released with an injury settlement on December 26, 2017. On December 30, 2017, Bray was signed to the Buffalo Bills' practice squad, he signed a reserve/future contract with the Bills on January 8, 2018. He was released on August 5, 2018. On August 12, 2018, Bray signed with the Houston Texans, he was waived on September 1, 2018. In 2019, Bray joined the Birmingham Iron of the Alliance of American Football, he was placed on injured reserve after the third game of the season on February 25, 2019. He was waived from injured reserve on March 26, he was added to the team's rights list and re-signed to a contract on April 1. On July 3, 2011, Bray's mother Tonya was murdered by Jeffrey Jones. Jones was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Bray was arrested in September 2012 on the campus of West Georgia during a traffic stop.
He was charged for playing possession of alcohol by a minor. Indianapolis Colts bio Auburn Tigers bio
Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are classified according to common traits, identified as "families", "sects" or "schools" of martial arts. Examples of such traits include Shaolinquan physical exercises involving Five Animals mimicry, or training methods inspired by Old Chinese philosophies and legends. Styles that focus on qi manipulation are called internal, while others that concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness are called "external". Geographical association, as in northern and "southern", is another popular classification method. Kung fu and wushu are loanwords from Cantonese and Mandarin that, in English, are used to refer to Chinese martial arts. However, the Chinese terms kung fu and wushu have distinct meanings; the Chinese equivalent of the term "Chinese martial arts" would be Zhongguo wushu. In Chinese, the term kung fu refers to any skill, acquired through learning or practice.
It is a compound word composed of the words 功 meaning "work", "achievement", or "merit", 夫, a particle or nominal suffix with diverse meanings. Wǔshù means "martial art", it is formed from the two words 武術: 武, meaning "martial" or "military" and 術 or 术, which translates into "art", "discipline", "skill" or "method". The term wushu has become the name for the modern sport of wushu, an exhibition and full-contact sport of bare-handed and weapons forms and judged to a set of aesthetic criteria for points developed since 1949 in the People's Republic of China. Quanfa is another Chinese term for Chinese martial arts, it means "fist method" or "the law of the fist", although as a compound term it translates as "boxing" or "fighting technique." The name of the Japanese martial art kempō is represented by the same hanzi characters. The genesis of Chinese martial arts has been attributed to the need for self-defense, hunting techniques and military training in ancient China. Hand-to-hand combat and weapons practice were important in training ancient Chinese soldiers.
Detailed knowledge about the state and development of Chinese martial arts became available from the Nanjing decade, as the Central Guoshu Institute established by the Kuomintang regime made an effort to compile an encyclopedic survey of martial arts schools. Since the 1950s, the People's Republic of China has organized Chinese martial arts as an exhibition and full-contact sport under the heading of “wushu”. According to legend, Chinese martial arts originated during the semi-mythical Xia Dynasty more than 4,000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China’s leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and the martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling; the earliest references to Chinese martial arts are found in the Spring and Autumn Annals, where a hand-to-hand combat theory, one that integrates notions of "hard" and "soft" techniques, is mentioned.
A combat wrestling system called jiǎolì is mentioned in the Classic of Rites. This combat system included techniques such as strikes, joint manipulation, pressure point attacks. Jiao Di became a sport during the Qin Dynasty; the Han History Bibliographies record that, by the Former Han, there was a distinction between no-holds-barred weaponless fighting, which it calls shǒubó, for which training manuals had been written, sportive wrestling known as juélì. Wrestling is documented in the Shǐ Jì, Records of the Grand Historian, written by Sima Qian. In the Tang Dynasty, descriptions of sword dances were immortalized in poems by Li Bai. In the Song and Yuan dynasties, xiangpu contests were sponsored by the imperial courts; the modern concepts of wushu were developed by the Ming and Qing dynasties. The ideas associated with Chinese martial arts changed with the evolution of Chinese society and over time acquired some philosophical bases: Passages in the Zhuangzi, a Daoist text, pertain to the psychology and practice of martial arts.
Zhuangzi, its eponymous author, is believed to have lived in the 4th century BCE. The Dao De Jing credited to Lao Zi, is another Taoist text that contains principles applicable to martial arts. According to one of the classic texts of Confucianism, Zhou Li, Archery and charioteering were part of the "six arts" of the Zhou Dynasty; the Art of War, written during the 6th century BCE by Sun Tzu, deals directly with military warfare but contains ideas that are used in the Chinese martial arts. Daoist practitioners have been practicing Tao Yin from as early as 500 BCE. In 39–92 CE, "Six Chapters of Hand Fighting", were included in the Han Shu written by Pan Ku; the noted physician, Hua Tuo, composed the "Five Animals Pl
The Sui dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities within its territory, it was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which inherited its foundation. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an and Luoyang. Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various centralized reforms, most notably the equal-field system, intended to reduce economic inequality and improve agricultural productivity, they spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire. By the middle of the dynasty, the newly unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth. A lasting legacy of the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal. With the eastern capital Luoyang at the center of the network, it linked the west-lying capital Chang'an to the economic and agricultural centers of the east towards Hangzhou, to the northern border near modern Beijing.
While the pressing initial motives were for shipment of grains to the capital, for transporting troops and military logistics, the reliable inland shipment links would facilitate domestic trades, flow of people and cultural exchange for centuries. Along with the extension of the Great Wall, the construction of the eastern capital city of Luoyang, these mega projects, led by an efficient centralized bureaucracy, would amass millions of conscripted workers from the large population base, at heavy cost of human lives. After a series of costly and disastrous military campaigns against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, ended in defeat by 614, the dynasty disintegrated under a series of popular revolts culminating in the assassination of Emperor Yang by his ministers in 618; the dynasty, which lasted only thirty-seven years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects, which overstretched its resources. Under Emperor Yang, heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would induce widespread revolts and brief civil war following the fall of the dynasty.
The dynasty is compared to the earlier Qin dynasty for unifying China after prolonged division. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, with long-lasting influences beyond their short dynastic reigns. Towards the late Northern and Southern dynasties, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi in 577 and reunified northern China, The century trend of gradual conquest of the southern dynasties of the Han Chinese by the northern dynasties, which were ruled by ethnic minority Xianbei, would become inevitable. By this time, the founder of the Sui dynasty, Yang Jian, an ethnic Han Chinese, became the regent to the Northern Zhou court, his daughter was the Empress Dowager, her stepson, Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou, was a child. After crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui. While the Duke of Sui when serving at the Zhou court, where the character "Sui 隨" means "to follow" and implies loyalty, Emperor Wen created the unique character "Sui", morphed from the character of his former title, as the name of his newly founded dynasty.
In a bloody purge, he had fifty-nine princes of the Zhou royal family eliminated, yet became known as the "Cultured Emperor". Emperor Wen reclaimed his Han surname of Yang. Having won the support of Confucian scholars who held power in previous Han dynasties, Emperor Wen initiated a series of reforms aimed at strengthening his empire for the wars that would reunify China. In his campaign for southern conquest, Emperor Wen assembled thousands of boats to confront the naval forces of the Chen dynasty on the Yangtze River; the largest of these ships were tall, having five layered decks and the capacity for 800 non-crew personnel. They were outfitted with six 50-foot-long booms that were used to swing and damage enemy ships, or to pin them down so that Sui marine troops could use act-and-board techniques. Besides employing Xianbei and other Chinese ethnic groups for the fight against Chen, Emperor Wen employed the service of people from southeastern Sichuan, which Sui had conquered. In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the northern bank of the Yangtze River, stretching from Sichuan to the East China Sea.
The Chen dynasty could not withstand such an assault. By 589, Sui troops entered the last emperor of Chen surrendered; the city was razed to the ground, while Sui troops escorted Chen nobles back north, where the northern aristocrats became fascinated with everything the south had to provide culturally and intellectually. Although Emperor Wen was famous for bankrupting the state treasury with warfare and construction projects, he made many improvements to infrastructure during his early reign, he established granaries as sources of food and as a means to regulate market prices from the taxation of crops, much like the earlier Han dynasty. The large agricultural surplus supported rapid growth of population to a historical peak, only surpassed at the zenith of the Tang Dynasty more than a century later; the state capital of Chang'an, while situated in the militarily secure heartland of Guanzhong, was remote from the economic centers to the east and south of the empire. Emperor Wen in