click links in text for more info

Romani society and culture

The Romani people are a distinct ethnic and cultural group of peoples living all across the globe, who share a family of languages and sometimes a traditional nomadic mode of life. Though their exact origins are unclear, western India is a notable point of origin, their language stems from and is similar to modern-day Gujarati and Rajasthani, borrowing loan words from other languages as they migrated from India. In Europe though their culture has been victimized by other cultures, they have still found a way to maintain their heritage and society. Linguistic and phonological research has traced the Roma people's origin to places in the Indian subcontinent linking Proto-Romani groups to Central India. Many report in extracts from popular literature that Romani emerged from the North-west regions of India, rather than from Central India. Features of phonological developments which emerged during the early transition stage from Old to Middle Indic prove that the history of Romani began in Central India.

The Romani language shares many features with the Central Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Urdu and Rajasthani. Linguists use these phonological similarities as well as features of phonological developments which emerged during the early transition stage from Old to Middle Indic to conclude that the history of Romani began in Central India. Other factors such as blood groups and unwritten customs suggest Central Indian origins of the Roma; the Roma find issues with documenting their own exact origin due to a lack of finding specific records left by ancestors. Their history however is retold by clan family customs, such as storytelling. Records cannot identify why the Roma migrated from India; the Romani people are today found in many countries. Romani adopt given names that are common in the country of their residence. Do modern Romani use traditional names from their own language, such as Papush, Patrin, etc, it is the only Indo-Aryan language, spoken around Europe since the Middle Ages. Speakers use many terms for their language.

They refer to their language as řomani čhib translated as ‘the Romani language’, or řomanes, ‘in a Rom way’. The English term, has been used by scholars since the 19th Century, where they had used the term'Gypsy Language'. Traditionally, Roma place a high value on the extended family. Marriage in Romani society underscores the importance of family and demonstrates ties between different groups transnationally. Traditionally an arranged marriage is the desired setup, with the parents of each family looking for an ideal partner for their child. Parents force a particular spouse on their child, although being married by your mid-twenties is regarded as the norm. School and other events are popular environments for finding a prospective spouse. With the emergence of social media such as Facebook and mobile phones, education of women becoming more prominent and conservative views are becoming less rigid. In some Romani groups, for example the Finnish Roma, the idea of marriage is ignored altogether.

Traditionally, it is a patriarchal society, virginity is considered essential in unmarried women, because it is a visible representation of the girl's representation and the honour of her family. Men and women marry young; the Romani practice of child marriage has generated controversy in many countries. In 2003, one of the many self-styled Romani "kings", Ilie Tortică, prohibited marriage before the parties were of legal age in their country of residence. A Romani patriarch, Florin Cioabă, ran afoul of Romanian authorities in late 2003 when he married off his youngest daughter, Ana-Maria, at the age of twelve, well below the legal marriageable age. Bride kidnapping is thought to be a traditional Romani practice. Girls as young as twelve years old may be kidnapped for marriage to teenage boys; this practice has been reported in Ireland, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Slovakia. Kidnapping has been seen as a way to avoid a bride price or a way for a girl to marry a boy she wants but that her parents do not want.

The tradition's normalisation of kidnapping puts young women at higher risk of becoming victims of human trafficking. The practices of bride kidnapping and child marriage are not universally accepted throughout Romani culture; some Romani women and men seek to eliminate such customs. Romani mothers breastfed their children for health. Romani law considers oral sex and homosexuality crimes against nature. Roma men are allowed to express their libido more than women. Pregnancy means. Having sexual intercourse before marriage is considered dirty. Parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs, because they produce impure emissions, the lower body. Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are washed in a different place. Childbirth must occur outside the dwelling place. Death is seen as "impure" and affects the whole family of the dead, who may remain "impure" for a period after the death.

Albany Ward

Hannam Edward Albany Ward, known as Albany Ward, was a pioneer English theatre proprietor and cinema developer, who ran one of the largest cinema circuits in Britain in the early part of the twentieth century. He was born Hannam Edward Bonnor in Stoke Newington, the youngest son of William Bonnor, a surgeon from Hereford, his wife Emma, he was educated at Christ's Hospital. After leaving school he joined his widowed mother in Ilfracombe, before starting work in 1896 as an assistant to pioneer filmmaker Birt Acres in High Barnet, he joined the Velograph Company, managed by Adolphe Langfier, as a projectionist, began touring the country with films of such events as Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. In 1898 he formed his own company and toured Wales and the south-west of England, becoming the first moving picture exhibitor in parts of the country, he introduced offstage sound effects, such as imitations of train and battle noises, to accompany the film showings. He opened his first theatre, the Empire Theatre in Oxford, in 1900, showing a mixture of films and variety acts.

By 1901 he was referring to himself as Albany Ward, with no forenames, described himself as "Theatrical manager". He established his first permanent theatre, in Weymouth, Dorset, in 1906; the town became his main residence. He built up one of the largest circuits of cinemas in the country, owning 29 cinemas by 1914 in small towns in the west of England and south Wales. In some cases, as at Exeter and Monmouth, he took over and refurbished existing theatres, he sold his cinema and theatre chain to Provincial Cinematograph Theatres Ltd. in 1920, while retaining management responsibilities for them as part of PCT. He formally changed his surname from Bonnor to Albany Ward by deed poll in 1922, he married Edith Robertson in 1899. He married again to Dorothy Hembrow, he died in a nursing home in Torquay, Devon, in 1966 at the age of 86

Adaline Kent

Adaline Dutton Kent or Adaline Kent Howard was an American sculptor from California. She created abstract sculptures with forms inspired by the natural landscape. Kent was born on August 7, 1900 in Kentfield, one of seven children of women's rights activist Elizabeth Thacher Kent and U. S. congressman William Kent. Her grandfather, Albert Emmett Kent, had purchased an 800-acre farm in 1871, which became the town of Kentfield, she began her education at Vassar College before returning to the Bay Area to study at the California School of Fine Arts. She studied in Paris with Antoine Bourdelle at the Grande Chaumiere, she married Robert Boardman Howard on August 5, 1930, after they worked together on the Pacific Stock Exchange building, a Miller and Pflueger architecture firm project. They had two daughters and Galen; the first fifteen years of her career her art focused on the human body. She loved the fact that sculpting the human body offered anyone to have their own personal interpretation to the craft.

According to Kent, there is no awkwardness to the human body and its representation is not subjective to anyone other than the creator. Kent felt comfortable with taking ideas from the human form because our bodies are familiar and easy to shape into various artistic position; this foundation in the form of the human body led her to discover her true passion of creating works of art that dealt with the flow of nature. Kent loved to explore various trails in the Sierra Mountains. Kent found a lot of influence from the rock formations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In her travels Kent was able to find the meditation that influenced her use the ideas of others in her art, she ventured outside of the human form and into more three-dimensional curved form that left her art to interpretation. Kent found influence in mountain formations, she explored the way gravity works with a few sketches, her most notable sketch “Song” was made in 1945 and centered on the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the music of nature.

Kent made sculptures from various material such as seashells and crystals. Adaline Kent felt that “works of nature are one with works of art”. Kent took influence from primitive resources that originated in other cultures, she admired certain artworks from witchcraft and spiritual customs. According to Kent they represented a great deal of mystery and left interpretation up to the imagination, she was able to identify. The sharper edges an object might have, the more emotion it might trigger; the more a sculpture had rounder, smoother edges the more relaxed. Her sculptures remain an important part of surrealist and modern art because of her eye of interpreting the world and its forms. To Kent sculpting was an adventure into the unknown with meaning being attached to personal vision. During the Golden Gate International Exposition, Kent produced a group of 20 statues called Pacific Unity, that were grouped around the Fountain of Western Waters surrounded the statue of Pacifica by Ralph Stackpole.

Each cast stone statue was created to represent the four different population groups in the Pacific. In 1941 the US Navy removed all but six of the statues. In 1994, six of the remaining statues were restored and put on display on Treasure Island at Building One. On March 24, 1957, Kent died in an accident while driving on the Pacific Coast Highway in Marin County. Adaline Kent was an alumna and a former board member of the San Francisco Art Institute, left it $10,000 to establish an annual award for promising artists from California; the prize was awarded from 1957 to 2005. Winners included Ron Nagle, Wally Hedrick, David Ireland, Mildred Howard, Clare Rojas, the last recipient, Scott Williams. 1934 – San Francisco Art Center, San Francisco, California. 1951 – Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America, Museum of Modern Art, New York City, New York 2010 – 75 Years of Looking Forward, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California. Kent, Adaline Dutton. Autobiography from the notebooks and sculpture of Adaline Kent.

Adaline Kent, collection from San Francisco Museum of Modern Art

Ohio State Route 355

State Route 355 was a short 1.37-mile-long state highway in southwestern Ohio. The route served the former Fort St. Clair State Memorial in Preble County; the route began at SR 122 in western Eaton, traveled south along Camden Road for about 0.3 miles before turning into the memorial, looping through the entire site, ending at itself just south of the route's start at SR 122. The route was removed from the state highway system shortly after the park's jurisdiction was transferred from the state to the City of Eaton. SR 355 began at an unsignalized intersection with SR 122 known as West Main Street, in the western extents of Eaton. SR 355 headed south on the two-lane Camden Road first past the park exit and between the park and the Mound Hill Cemetery; the route turned right into the park and wound its way throughout the park, past the museum and parking areas. The route ended at the park exit at Camden Road, just 170 feet south of where the route started at SR 122; the route was created in 1932 as an unnumbered spur from SR 122 in Eaton to Fort St. Clair State Memorial.

By 1934, Ohio maps showed the spur as SR 355. Official state maps prior to 1969 showed the route as a 0.5-mile-long route, but maps after 1971 showed it as one-mile-long. The short route would not undergo any major changes throughout its history until the park had its jurisdiction transferred from the state to the city in 1992; the route was still in existence as of 1997 but was removed from state maps in 1999. The entire route was in Eaton, Preble County


Eragon is the first book in The Inheritance Cycle by American fantasy writer Christopher Paolini. Paolini, born in 1983, wrote the novel while still in his teens. After writing the first draft for a year, Paolini spent a second year rewriting and fleshing out the story and characters, his parents in 2001 decided to self-publish Eragon. By chance, the book was discovered by Carl Hiaasen; the re-published version was released on August 26, 2003. The book tells the story of a farm boy named Eragon. Not knowing the stone's origin or worth, he attempts to use it as payment to a butcher. A dragon he names Saphira hatches from the stone, an egg; when the evil King Galbatorix finds out the general location of the egg he sends the Ra'zac to acquire it. By that time Saphira had been growing for a while and takes Eragon to the Spine after Ra'zac appear in their village, Carvahall. Eragon and Saphira are forced to flee from their hometown with a storyteller named Brom, who Eragon learns to be an old member of an extinct group called the Riders.

Brom was supposed to teach Eragon'The Ways of the Rider.' Eragon was the third-best-selling children's hardback book of 2003, the second-best-selling paperback of 2005. It placed on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks and was adapted as a feature film of the same name, released on December 15, 2006. Christopher Paolini started reading fantasy books. At the age of 14, as a hobby, he started writing the first novel in a series of four books, but he could not get beyond a few pages because he had "no idea" where he was going, he began reading everything he could about the "art of writing", plotted the whole Inheritance Cycle book series. After a month of planning out the series, he started writing the draft of Eragon by hand, it was finished a year and Paolini began writing the "real" version of the book. After another year of editing, Paolini's parents saw the final manuscript, they saw its potential and decided to publish the book through their small, home-based publishing company, Paolini International.

Paolini created the cover art for this edition of Eragon. He drew the maps inside the book. Paolini and his family toured across the United States promoting the book, he gave over 135 talks at bookshops and schools, many with Paolini dressed up in a medieval costume. Paolini said he "would stand behind a table in my costume talking all day without a break – and would sell maybe forty books in eight hours if I did well, it was a stressful experience. I couldn't have gone on for much longer." In the summer of 2002, American novelist Carl Hiaasen was on vacation in one of the cities that Paolini gave a talk in. While there, Hiaasen's stepson bought a copy of Eragon that he "immediately loved", he showed it to Hiaasen, who brought the book to the attention of the publishing house Alfred A. Knopf. Michelle Frey, executive editor at Knopf, contacted Paolini and his family to ask if they were interested in having Knopf publish Eragon; the answer was yes, after another round of editing, Knopf published Eragon in August 2003, with a new cover, drawn by John Jude Palencar.

Paolini cites old myths, folk tales, medieval stories, the epic poem Beowulf, authors J. R. R. Tolkien and Eric Rücker Eddison as his biggest influences in writing. Other literary influences include David Eddings, Andre Norton, Brian Jacques, Anne McCaffrey, Raymond E. Feist, Mervyn Peake, Ursula K. Le Guin, Frank Herbert, Philip Pullman, Garth Nix; the ancient language used by the elves in Eragon is based "almost entirely" on Old Norse, Anglo Saxon, Russian myth. Paolini commented: " did a god-awful amount of research into the subject when I was composing it. I found that it gave the world a much richer feel, a much older feel, using these words, around for centuries and centuries. I had a lot of fun with that." Picking the right names for the characters and places was a process that could take "days, weeks, or years". Paolini said: "if I have difficulty choosing the correct moniker, I use a placeholder name until a replacement suggests itself." He added that he was "really lucky" with the name Eragon, "because it's just dragon with one letter changed."

Paolini commented that he thought of both parts of the name "Eragon" - "era" and "gone" - as if the name itself changes the era in which the character lives. He thought the name fit the book but some of the other names caused him "real headaches"; the landscape in Eragon is based on the "wild territory" of Montana. He said in an interview: "I go hiking a lot, oftentimes when I'm in the forest or in the mountains, sitting down and seeing some of those little details makes the difference between having an okay description and having a unique description." Paolini said that Paradise Valley, Montana is "one of the main sources" of his inspiration for the landscape in the book. Paolini "roughed out" the main history of the land before he wrote the book, but he did not draw a map of it until it became important to see where Eragon was traveling, he started to get history and plot ideas from seeing the landscape depicted. Paolini chose to have Eragon mature throughout the book because, "for one thing, it's one of the archetypal fantasy elements".

He thought Eragon's growth and maturation throughout the book "sort of mirrored my own growing abilities as a writer and as