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Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton and pion. QCD is a type of quantum field theory called a non-abelian gauge theory, with symmetry group SU; the QCD analog of electric charge is a property called color. Gluons are the force carrier of the theory, like photons are for the electromagnetic force in quantum electrodynamics; the theory is an important part of the Standard Model of particle physics. A large body of experimental evidence for QCD has been gathered over the years. QCD exhibits two main properties: Color confinement; this is a consequence of the constant force between two color charges as they are separated: In order to increase the separation between two quarks within a hadron, ever-increasing amounts of energy are required. This energy becomes so great as to spontaneously produce a quark–antiquark pair, turning the initial hadron into a pair of hadrons instead of producing an isolated color charge.

Although analytically unproven, color confinement is well established from lattice QCD calculations and decades of experiments. Asymptotic freedom, a steady reduction in the strength of interactions between quarks and gluons as the energy scale of those interactions increases; the asymptotic freedom of QCD was discovered in 1973 by David Gross and Frank Wilczek, independently by David Politzer in the same year. For this work all three shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. Physicist Murray Gell-Mann coined the word quark in its present sense, it comes from the phrase "Three quarks for Muster Mark" in Finnegans Wake by James Joyce. On June 27, 1978, Gell-Mann wrote a private letter to the editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, in which he related that he had been influenced by Joyce's words: "The allusion to three quarks seemed perfect." The three kinds of charge in QCD are referred to as "color charge" by loose analogy to the three kinds of color perceived by humans. Other than this nomenclature, the quantum parameter "color" is unrelated to the everyday, familiar phenomenon of color.

The force between quarks is known as the colour force or strong interaction, is responsible for the strong nuclear force. Since the theory of electric charge is dubbed "electrodynamics", the Greek word χρῶμα chroma "color" is applied to the theory of color charge, "chromodynamics". With the invention of bubble chambers and spark chambers in the 1950s, experimental particle physics discovered a large and ever-growing number of particles called hadrons, it seemed. First, the particles were classified by isospin by Eugene Wigner and Werner Heisenberg. To gain greater insight, the hadrons were sorted into groups having similar properties and masses using the eightfold way, invented in 1961 by Gell-Mann and Yuval Ne'eman. Gell-Mann and George Zweig, correcting an earlier approach of Shoichi Sakata, went on to propose in 1963 that the structure of the groups could be explained by the existence of three flavors of smaller particles inside the hadrons: the quarks; the first remark that quarks should possess an additional quantum number was made as a short footnote in the preprint of Boris Struminsky in connection with the Ω− hyperon being composed of three strange quarks with parallel spins: Three identical quarks cannot form an antisymmetric S-state.

In order to realize an antisymmetric orbital S-state, it is necessary for the quark to have an additional quantum number. Boris Struminsky was a PhD student of Nikolay Bogolyubov; the problem considered in this preprint was suggested by Nikolay Bogolyubov, who advised Boris Struminsky in this research. In the beginning of 1965, Nikolay Bogolyubov, Boris Struminsky and Albert Tavkhelidze wrote a preprint with a more detailed discussion of the additional quark quantum degree of freedom; this work was presented by Albert Tavkhelidze without obtaining consent of his collaborators for doing so at an international conference in Trieste, in May 1965. A similar mysterious situation was with the Δ++ baryon. In 1964–65, Greenberg and Han–Nambu independently resolved the problem by proposing that quarks possess an additional SU gauge degree of freedom called color charge. Han and Nambu noted. Since free quark searches failed to turn up any evidence for the new particles, because an elementary particle back was defined as a particle which could be separated and isolated, Gell-Mann said that quarks were convenient mathematical constructs, not real particles.

The meaning of this statement was clear in context: He meant quarks are confined, but he was implying that the strong interactions could not be described by quantum field theory. Richard Feynman argued that high energy experiments showed quarks are real particles: he called them partons. By particles, Feynman meant objects which travel along paths, elementary particles in a field theory; the difference between Feynman's and Gell-Mann's approaches reflected a deep split in the theoretical physics community. Feyn


Berbérati is the third-largest city in the Central African Republic, with a population of 76,918. Located in the south-west of the country near the border with Cameroon, it serves as capital of the Mambéré-Kadéï Prefecture and gives its name to the main Sub-prefecture; the city was founded in 1893. In the early 20th century Berbérati was part of Oubangui-Chari, one of the four territories comprising French Equatorial Africa which became Central African Republic. In 1911 it was ceded to German Empire under the terms of the Morocco–Congo Treaty and Treaty of Fez, becoming part of the German colony of Neukamerun, until it was reconquered by the French in 1916 following the defeat of German forces in western Africa during World War I; the state-owned university hospital of Berbérati is an unfenced complex of several bungalows near the town center. The hospital was operated by French military doctors until the 1980s; the French hospital administrators were succeed by an expatriate Italian Catholic nun, although the hospital receives Protestant support.

Berbérati is served by the Berbérati Airport. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical dry. Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples: Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Central African Republic, Evangelical Baptist Church of the Central African Republic, Roman Catholic Diocese of Berbérati. There are Muslim mosques. Dzanga-Sangha Special Reserve List of cities in the Central African Republic Prefectures of the Central African Republic

Hidden City (film)

Hidden City is a political thriller drama film written and directed by Stephen Poliakoff. It starred Charles Dance, Cassie Stuart, Richard E. Grant and Bill Paterson, was Poliakoff's directorial debut, it had a limited theatrical release in 1988, before being shown in Channel 4's Film on Four strand on 9 May 1989. Infuriated by receiving the wrong piece of film, statistician James Richards arranges for the researcher who made the mistake, Sharon Newton, to be sacked; when she realises that he is responsible, Sharon contacts James and demands his help. She has obtained a mysterious piece of film which, while superficially a collection of street scenes, seems to show the abduction of a woman; the film abruptly cuts off. As this film has been registered classified by the Ministry of Defence, obsessed by the identity of the woman, needs James, with his official credentials, to help her find it. James tracks down the location of the film, but a visit to an old tram depot and an archive beneath Oxford Street proves frustrating, as the film has now been moved.

He and Sharon chase it to a landfill site, where they notice a police presence, to the incinerator at Edmonton, where they manage to rescue it before it is burned. But upon viewing the film, they find that it is poor quality, revealing only a dark image of a woman in front of some kind of tribunal. A card at the end tells them. James is not unhappy to find his comfortable life disrupted by the search for the film, wakes up, after a drunken evening spent at a video duplication service, at Sharon's house, where he discovers that she has a young daughter. Needing to go out to work, she leaves her daughter with James. Taking the baby out to meet his ex-wife, James is cornered by two officials, who beat him up and demand to know the whereabouts of something he has found. Shaken, he goes to see his City friend Anthony, who advises him to forget about it, but Anthony drops a hint that he too has been questioned, James realises that he is in serious danger. Returning to his house, he finds it has been searched and realises that the officials want some medical records which he idly picked up from the landfill site.

After an unexpected encounter with them, James manages to escape and is reunited with a distressed Sharon, worried about her daughter. Meanwhile, a friend of Sharon's does some illicit searching for her in the archives and discovers the film Hop-Picking In Kent. Within the bland information film is a full version of the mysterious film, featuring a different woman along with a man; some kind of emergency left the participants dead. Moving forward in time, the film documents the birth of an abruptly aborted government project named Magnificat; the women from the original film reappears, sitting in a location which James recognises: an official building which has re-opened as a café. The film ends with the woman reunited with a horribly scarred man and confronting the cameraman, asking why he is filming. James suggests that this was the result of an accident with nuclear power, hushed up and that the café was once a secure convalescent unit, he wonders why the film was made in the first place. James and Sharon decide to keep the film secret and he throws the offending medical records into a bin.

Meanwhile, somewhere in London, a cleaner has her break in an isolated room where the remnants of Project Magnificat are still stored. Hidden City on IMDb Hidden City at Rotten Tomatoes Hidden City at the BFI's Screenonline

Baker v. Morton

Baker v. Morton, 79 U. S. 150, was the first "serious" court case to come out of Omaha, Nebraska Territory, prior to statehood. In the trial a claim jumper fought against local land barons to stake out a homestead in the area, to become the city of Omaha; the case was important for establishing homesteaders rights and ensuring the future growth of Omaha would benefit everyone, not only wealthy landowners. The case of Alexander H. Baker v. William S. Morton was a case of an ill-gotten land claim. Baker was an early settler in the Omaha area who lived on 160 acres of land in an area of town known as Orchard Hill, now in North Omaha. An adjoining 160-acre plot of land was owned by a man named Brown; the Omaha Claim Club did not recognize the men as legal residents for either of the plots and threatened the two men with death if they did not turn over the titles to the land. In 1857 Baker filed suit against the Club, soon after the courts of the Nebraska Territory decided against Baker; the case ended up in the U.

S. Supreme Court which decided that regardless of the situation, the property was obtained under duress and was to be reinstated to the rightful owners. Today this case is cited by legal experts as precedent in cases of contractual holdup to establish the illegal nature of the Omaha Claim Club's activities and subsequent activities that reflect this form of collusion. Scriptown Works related to Baker v. Morton at Wikisource Text of Baker v. Morton, 79 U. S. 150 is available from: Justia Library of Congress OpenJurist

Al Jib

Al Jib or al-Jib is a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem Governorate, located ten kilometers northwest of Jerusalem, in the seam zone of the West Bank. The surrounding lands are home to Al Jib Bedouin. Since 1967, Al Jib is occupied by Israel and about 90% of its lands are assigned as Area C. About a quarter of the land is seized by Military Orders for the establishment of Israeli settlements; the neighborhood Al Khalayleh was separated by the West Bank barrier. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Al Jib had a population of 4,700 in 2006; the modern village is identified with the ancient city of Gibeon. Al Jib is a Palestinian village located 9.5 kilometers north-west of Jerusalem. It is bordered by Bir Nabala and Al Judeira to the east, Beituniya to the north, Beit Ijza and Biddu to the west, An Nabi Samwil to the south; the 10th-century lexicographer, David ben Abraham al-Fasi, identified Al Jib with the ancient city, which view was corroborated by the Hebrew Lexicon compiled by Wilhelm Gesenius and Frants Buhl.

However, the first scientific identification of Al Jib with the ancient Canaanite city of Gibeon was made by Edward Robinson in 1838. Archaeological excavations led by James Pritchard in 1956, 1957, 1959 confirmed this identification with the discovery of 56 jar handles inscribed with the Semitic triliteral gb'n; the inscriptions were dated to the end of the Judean monarchy and have been cross-referenced against genealogical lists in the Book of Chronicles. While they include many Benjaminite names, they include non-Israelite names, attesting to the intermixing of local population. A vaulted building still remaining in the centre of Al Jib has been dated from between the mid-5th and mid-8th centuries CE; the building has earlier been described as a church from the Crusader era, with "total length of the chapel appears to have been 40 feet east and west, 22 feet north and south. The apses have been built up. There were three bays of arches, in the side walls are small doors with lintels". D. Pringle dismissed the possibility that this was a former church, suggest instead that it was an Umayyad palace building, or dating from the Abbasid era.

In 1152, during the Crusader era, a confrere of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Baldwin of Tournai, was granted a prebend relating to juxta Gabeon. In 1172, after the fall of Jerusalem, Saladin halted before continuing to Beit Nuba. El-Jib was described by the geographer Yâkût in 1225 as having two fortresses standing close together. By the 1550s the agricultural revenues of Al Jib belonged to the endowment of Mamluk Sultan Inal in Egypt. However, three tribes of the Hutaym Bedouin were affiliated with the village; the taxes they paid plus levies earmarked for the military were in the 1550s designated for the waqf of Hasseki Sultan Imaret in Jerusalem. In the 1596 tax-records it appeared as Jib, located in the Nahiya of Jabal Quds of the Liwa of Al-Quds; the population was 103 households, large enough to be divided into four quarters. The villagers paid a fixed tax-rate of 33,3% on agricultural products, including wheat, olive trees, fruit trees, grape syrup or molasse, in addition to occasional revenues and beehives.

In 1838 Edward Robinson described it as a village of moderate size, with the houses standing irregularly and unevenly. He further noted "One large massive building still remains a castle or tower of strength; the lower rooms a vaulted with round arches of hewn stones fitted together with great exactness. The stones outside are large. El-Jib was further noted as part of the El-Kuds district. In 1863 Victor Guérin found that Al Jib had 500 inhabitants, while an Ottoman village list from about 1870 found that the village had a population of 219, in a total of 65 houses, though that population count included men, only. In 1883, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described it as "on the end of a hill, rising 300 feet above the valley. On the south is a narrow plain, there is an open valley on the east, whilst to the north and west there is a flat plain; the hill is thus isolated, a position of great strength. The houses cover the northern part of the hill; the village is of moderate size, the houses of stone, with a central tower, massive foundations exist among the modern buildings.

On the east, rather lower than the village and a little below the top of the ridge, is the spring, which issues from a cave. Below it are remains of a good-sized reservoir. There are many springs on the south and west, caves in the southern side of the hill. Olives, pears and vines are cultivated round the village and in the plain. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jib had a population 465, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 643, still all Muslim, in 153 houses. In the 1945 statistics, Al Jib had a population of 830 Muslims, a total land area of 8,205 dunams. 1,132 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 4,754 for cereals, while 57 dunams were built-up area. In the wake of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Al Jib came under Jordanian rule, it was annexed by Jordan in 1950. In 1961, the population of Jib was 1,123. In the 1967 Six-Day war, Israel has continued to occupy it since; the population in the 1967 census conducted by the Israeli authorities was 1,173, 27 of whom originated from Israeli territory.

Since 1967, Israel confiscated

Butte, Alaska

Butte is a census-designated place in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, United States. It is part of Alaska Metropolitan Statistical Area. At the 2010 census, the population was 3,246, up from 2,561 in 2000. Butte is located between the Matanuska River and the Knik River 5 miles southeast of Palmer, it is accessible via the Old Glenn Highway. Butte has its own elementary school; the town of Butte surrounds the geological formation Bodenburg Butte, from which the town draws its name. There are two hikes to the 900-foot summit, which offers 360-degree views of the surrounding Matanuska Valley and distant Knik Glacier. Located within town is the Knik River Public Use Area, which provides a full spectrum of outdoor recreational opportunities and is open to motorized and non-motorized recreational pursuits. Activities common to the area include riding off-highway vehicles, fishing, target shooting, flying planes, horseback riding, hiking and wildlife viewing. Butte is home to the Alaska Raceway Park, operating for more than 50 years.

The track holds races from Mother's Day until most between. The 1/3 mile asphalt oval track is certified for NASCAR races in the Whelen All American Series. Located on the southern flank of the Bodenburg Butte is the Williams Reindeer Farm, operating since 1987; the Reindeer farm is featured in an episode of Discovery's Dirty Jobs. The economic backbone of Butte is a substantial agricultural network of producing farms as well as the State of Alaska Plant Materials Center. Organic and conventional farms in the area supply a bounty of produce to the local farmer's markets of the surrounding areas. A variety of other small businesses in the area include equestrian centers, coffee shops and restaurants, a boatbuilder. Butte is located at 61°32′53″N 149°1′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 41.0 square miles, of which 40.3 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it is water. Butte first appeared on the 1960 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village.

In 1980, the name was made a census-designated place. In 1990, the name reverted to Butte; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,561 people, 884 households, 671 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 63.6 people per square mile. There were 964 housing units at an average density of 23.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.50% White, 0.51% Black or African American, 2.89% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 3.40% from two or more races. 1.25 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 884 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.0% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.28. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 30.5% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $55,573, the median income for a family was $58,796. Males had a median income of $46,298 versus $32,933 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $22,522. About 7.2% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.8% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over