Quantum suicide is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics and the philosophy of physics. Purportedly, it can distinguish between the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Everett many-worlds interpretation by means of a variation of the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment, from the cat's point of view. Quantum immortality refers to the subjective experience of surviving quantum suicide. Most experts believe. Hugh Everett did not mention quantum quantum immortality in writing. Keith Lynch's biography states that "Everett believed that his many-worlds theory guaranteed him immortality: his consciousness, he argued, is bound at each branching to follow whatever path does not lead to death"; the thought experiment was published independently by Hans Moravec in 1987 and Bruno Marchal in 1988 and independently developed further by Max Tegmark in 1998. The quantum suicide thought experiment involves a similar apparatus to Schrödinger's cat – a box which kills the occupant in a given time frame with probability one-half due to quantum uncertainty.
The only difference is to have the experimenter recording observations be the one inside the box. The significance of this is that someone whose life or death depends on a qubit could distinguish between interpretations of quantum mechanics. By definition, fixed observers cannot. At the start of the first iteration, under both interpretations, the probability of surviving the experiment is 50%, as given by the squared norm of the wave function. At the start of the second iteration, assuming the Copenhagen interpretation is true, the wave function has collapsed. However, if the many-worlds interpretation is true, a superposition of the live experimenter exists. Now, barring the possibility of life after death, after every iteration only one of the two experimenter superpositions – the live one – is capable of having any sort of conscious experience. Putting aside the philosophical problems associated with individual identity and its persistence, under the many-worlds interpretation, the experimenter, or at least a version of them, continues to exist through all of their superpositions where the outcome of the experiment is that they live.
In other words, a version of the experimenter survives all iterations of the experiment. Since the superpositions where a version of the experimenter lives occur by quantum necessity, it follows that their survival, after any realizable number of iterations, is physically necessary. A version of the experimenter surviving stands in stark contrast to the implications of the Copenhagen interpretation, according to which, although the survival outcome is possible in every iteration, its probability tends towards zero as the number of iterations increases. Due to the many-worlds interpretation, the above scenario has the opposite property: the probability of a version of the experimenter living is one for any number of iterations. In response to questions about "subjective immortality", Max Tegmark suggested that the flaw in that reasoning is that dying is not a binary event as in the thought experiment, he states. It is only within the confines of an abstract scenario. Tegmark now believes experimenters should only expect a normal probability of survival, not immortality.
The experimenter's probability amplitude in the wavefunction decreases meaning they exist with a much lower measure than they had before. Per the anthropic principle, a person is less to find themselves in a world where they are less to exist, that is, a world with a lower measure has a lower probability of being observed by them. Therefore, the experimenter will have a lower probability of observing the world in which they survive than the earlier world in which they set up the experiment; this same problem of reduced measure was pointed out by Lev Vaidman in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Physicist David Deutsch, though a proponent of the many-worlds interpretation, states regarding quantum suicide that "that way of applying probabilities does not follow directly from quantum theory, as the usual one does, it requires an additional assumption, namely that when making decisions one should ignore the histories in which the decision-maker is absent....y guess is that the assumption is false."
Physicist David Wallace suggests that a decision-theoretic analysis shows that "an agent who prefers certain life to certain death is rationally compelled to prefer life in high-weight branches and death in low-weight branches to the opposite."Physicist Sean M. Carroll, another proponent of the many-worlds interpretation, states regarding quantum suicide that neither experiences nor rewards should be thought of as being shared between future versions of oneself, as they become distinct persons when the world splits, he further states that one cannot pick out some future versions of oneself as "really you" over others, that quantum suicide still cuts off the existence of some of these future selves, which would be worth objecting to just as if there were a single world. Multiverse Quantum mysticism Mallah, J. Many-Worlds Interpretations Can Not Imply'Quantum Immortality' Higgo, J. "Does the'many-worlds' interpretation of quantum mechanics imply immortality?", archived from the original on 27 Augus
John Martin was a Canadian broadcaster, credited with "almost single-handedly" creating music television in Canada. Born in Manchester, Martin left school at 16 and moved to London, where he worked as a rock drummer and freelance writer. At 20, he moved to Canada, finding work as a researcher for CBC Radio CBC Television. On the radio side, he was the first Canadian to break the story of the use of Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. After the cancellation of 90 Minutes Live, Martin found himself driving a taxicab and pitching a new concept to Canadian TV broadcasters: "rock and talk," bringing a sensibility like those of Rolling Stone and the New Musical Express to bear presenting and interpreting musical culture in a documentary television newsmagazine; the idea didn't sell to Canadian television networks of the day – at the CBC, it was caught between the departments of variety and current affairs – but Moses Znaimer, the impresario of Toronto independent station CITY-TV, took on Martin's plan, The NewMusic launched in 1979.
It was a great success. Martin began to plan an entire station devoted to music, the result, MuchMusic launched in 1984 under Znaimer, Martin and CITY's corporate parent CHUM Limited. "We were a bunch of loonies," Martin recalled. "My gig was to sort of mould the anarchy. It was a bunch of crazy people reinventing their lives every day, it was fun." Much went on to great success in its own right, inspired spin-off, joint venture and licensed sister networks and programs, within Canada and internationally, underwrote the music video arts foundation VideoFACT. After leaving Much and CHUM in 1993 – "His mercurial temperament and guerilla management style," CITY's news website would recall after his death, had started "to clash with others in the industry" – he worked on specials, directing The Genius of Lenny Breau, which explores the short and tragic life of Canadian guitar legend Lenny Breau, directing Hank & Jimmie: A Story of Country, a portrait of the troubled lives and relationship of Hank Snow and his only child, singer-turned-preacher Jimmie Rodgers Snow.
Martin was program director for the Canadian dance music specialty channel bpm:tv. He died of esophageal cancer. Music Man Mourned MuchMusic Pioneer John Martin dies Steve. "The New Music/MuchMusic Mastermind Succumbs To Cancer". Chart. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2009-08-07. I'm With the Band MuchMusic Hank & Jimmie: A Story of Country, distributor's catalogue page
Stolen is the debut novel of author Lucy Christopher. It was published in the UK in 2009 and is the story of Gemma Toombs, a 16-year-old girl, kidnapped by a 24-year-old man named Ty and taken to the middle of the Great Sandy Desert in the Australian Outback. Subtitled A Letter to My Captor, the book is told in second person narrative as a letter from Gemma to Ty. Whilst at a Bangkok airport, 16-year-old Gemma is kidnapped by 24-year-old Tyler “Ty” MacFarlane from a coffee shop after he drugs her coffee, he smuggles her away on a plane to Australia and takes her to the middle of the desert, expecting her to fall in love with him. Gemma disapproves of Ty. Ty shouts and screams until Gemma gets up and consoles him. Still Gemma has not forgiven Ty and tries to escape by taking his vehicle but does not succeed as the truck gets stuck in the desert. Ty takes care of her until her burns have healed. Now Gemma has started to think of Ty in a good way and Ty is happy with that. Ty wants her to realize the importance and beauty of nature, the main reason he built this house in the middle of the desert.
For this purpose he paints himself with colors that resemble nature. And this does it; that day Gemma fall asleep outside the house, on the sand itself. Gemma has now started falling for Ty; the next day Ty leaves to collect snakes as their venom is essential for the anti-venom that he is preparing. He leaves a note for Gemma about his whereabouts and Gemma goes in search of Ty behind the house near the water reserve and there a snake bites her. Ty takes Gemma to the mine site/civilization for her treatment after the anti-venom that he had preserved is out of date. Gemma asked Ty to stay with her in the hospital, he is arrested and whilst receiving treatment for her ordeal she is told that any feelings she had for Ty were due to the Stockholm syndrome. Gemma Toombs - the 16-year-old protagonist of the novel. From England and her parents, with whom she has a strained relationship, are on a trip in Thailand when she is kidnapped by a young man who takes her to one of the most isolated parts of the Outback in Australia.
Tyler "Ty" MacFarlane - the 24-year-old man who abducts Gemma. Prior to kidnapping her, Ty had been stalking Gemma for years, decided that the only way to have her would be to drug her and take her to the middle of the Great Sandy Desert in Australia. There, he expects her to not stay with him forever. Stolen was first published in the UK in 2009 by Chicken House; the first American edition was published by Scholastic in 2010. The book has been subsequently translated into French, Greek and German Branford Boase award Prime Minister's Literary Awards Printz Honor Award Southern Schools Book Award Gold Inky Hull Children's Book Award Official web site Interview: Lucy Christopher on the background to Stolen; the Hindu. Lucy Christopher on WorldCat
A test probe is a physical device used to connect electronic test equipment to a device under test. Test probes range from simple, robust devices to complex probes that are sophisticated and fragile. Specific types include oscilloscope probes and current probes. A test probe is supplied as a test lead, which includes the probe and terminating connector. Voltage probes are used to measure voltages present on the DUT. To achieve high accuracy, the test instrument and its probe must not affect the voltage being measured; this is accomplished by ensuring that the combination of instrument and probe exhibit a sufficiently high impedance that will not load the DUT. For AC measurements, the reactive component of impedance may be more important than the resistive. A typical voltmeter probe consists of a single wire test lead that has on one end a connector that fits the voltmeter and on the other end a rigid, tubular plastic section that comprises both a handle and probe body; the handle allows a person to hold and guide the probe without influencing the measurement or being exposed to dangerous voltages that might cause electric shock.
Within the probe body, the wire is connected to a rigid, pointed metal tip that contacts the DUT. Some probes allow an alligator clip to be attached to the tip, thus enabling the probe to be attached to the DUT so that it need not be held in place. Test leads are made with finely stranded wire to keep them flexible, of wire gauges sufficient to conduct a few amperes of electric current; the insulation is chosen to be both flexible and have a breakdown voltage higher than the voltmeter's maximum input voltage. The many fine strands and the thick insulation make the wire thicker than ordinary hookup wire. Two probes are used together to measure voltage and two-terminal components such as resistors and capacitors; when making DC measurements it is necessary to know which probe is positive and, negative, so by convention the probes are colored red for positive and black for negative. Depending upon the accuracy required, they can be used with signal frequencies ranging from DC to a few kilohertz.
When sensitive measurements must be made shields and techniques such as four-terminal Kelvin sensing are used. Tweezer probes are a pair of simple probes fixed to a tweezer mechanism, operated with one hand, for measuring voltages or other electronic circuit parameters between spaced pins. Spring probes are spring-loaded pins used in electrical test fixtures to contact test points, component leads, other conductive features of the DUT; these probes are press-fit into probe sockets, to allow their easy replacement on test fixtures which may remain in service for decades, testing many thousands of DUTs in automatic test equipment. Oscilloscopes display the instantaneous waveform of varying electrical quantities, unlike other instruments which give numerical values of stable quantities. Scope probes fall into two main categories: active. Passive scope probes contain no active electronic parts, such as transistors, so they require no external power; because of the high frequencies involved, oscilloscopes do not use simple wires to connect to the DUT.
Flying leads are to pick up interference, so they are not suitable for low-level signals. Furthermore, the inductance of flying leads make. Instead, a specific scope probe is used, which uses a coaxial cable to transmit the signal from the tip of the probe to the oscilloscope; this cable has two main benefits: it protects the signal from external electromagnetic interference, improving accuracy for low-level signals. Although coaxial cable has lower inductance than flying leads, it has higher capacitance: a typical 50 ohm cable has about 90 pF per meter. A one-meter high-impedance direct coaxial probe may load the circuit with a capacitance of about 110 pF and a resistance of 1 megohm. Oscilloscope probes are characterised by their frequency limit, where the amplitude response has fallen by 3 dB, and/or by their rise time t r; these are related as f 3 d B = 0.35 / t r Thus a 50 MHz probe has a rise time of 7 ns. The response of the combination of an oscilloscope and a probe is given by t r = t r 2 + t r 2 For example, a 50 MHz probe feeding a 50 MHz scope will give a 35 MHz system.
It is therefore advantageous to use a probe with a higher frequency limit to minimize the effect on the overall system response. To minimize loading, attenuator probes are used. A typical probe uses a 9 megohm series resistor shunted by a low-value capacitor to make an RC compensated divider with the cable capacitance and scope input; the RC time constants are adj
A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes and artificial waterways. They are equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such as lake or harbour tour boats; as larger water craft all riverboats are designed and constructed, or alternatively, constructed with special-purpose features that optimizes them as riverine or lake service craft, for instance, survey boats, fisheries management craft and law enforcement patrol craft. These vessels are less sturdy than ships built for the open seas, with limited navigational and rescue equipment, as they do not have to survive the high winds or large waves characteristic to large lakes, seas or oceans, they can thus be built from light composite materials. They are limited in size by width and depth of the river as well as the height of bridges spanning the river, they can be designed with shallow drafts, as were the paddle wheel steamers on the Mississippi River that could operate in water under two metres deep.
While a ferry is used to cross a river, a riverboat is used to travel along the course of the river, while carrying passengers or cargo, or both, for revenue.. The significance of riverboats is dependent on the number of navigable rivers and channels as well as the condition of the road and rail network. Speaking, riverboats provide slow but cheap transport suited for bulk cargo and containers; as early as 20,000 BC people started fishing in lakes using rafts and dugouts. Roman sources dated 50 BC mention extensive transportation of people on the river Rhine. Upstream, boats were powered by sails or oars. In the Middle Ages, towpaths were built along most waterways to use working animals or people to pull riverboats. In the 19th century, steamboats became common; the most famous riverboats were on the rivers of the midwestern and central southern United States, on the Mississippi and Missouri rivers in the early 19th century. Out west, riverboats were common transportation on the Colorado and Sacramento rivers.
These American riverboats were designed to draw little water, in fact it was said that they could "navigate on a heavy dew". Australia has a history of riverboats. Australia's biggest river, the Murray, has an inland port called Echuca. Many large riverboats were working on the Murray; the Kalgan River in Western Australia has had two main riverboats, the Silver Star, 1918 to 1935, would lower her funnel to get under the low bridge. Today, the Kalgan Queen riverboat takes tourists up the river to taste the local wines, she lowers her roof to get under the same bridge. It is these early steam-driven river craft that come to mind when "steamboat" is mentioned, as these were powered by burning wood, with iron boilers drafted by a pair of tall smokestacks belching smoke and cinders, twin double-acting pistons driving a large paddlewheel at the stern, churning foam; this type of propulsion was an advantage as a rear paddlewheel operates in an area clear of snags, is repaired, is not to suffer damage in a grounding.
By burning wood, the boat could consume fuel provided by woodcutters along the shore of the river. These early boats carried a brow on the bow, so they could head in to an unimproved shore for transfer of cargo and passengers. Modern riverboats are screw -driven, with pairs of diesel engines of several thousand horsepower; the standard reference for the development of the steamboat is Steamboats on Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History by Louis C. Hunter. Many of the riverboats shown below were operating on the Yangtze River; some large riverboats are comparable in accommodation, food service, entertainment to a modern oceanic cruise ship. Tourist boats provide a relaxing trip through the segment they operate in. On the Yangtze River employees have double duties: both as serving staff and as evening-costumed dancers. Tourist riverboats Smaller luxury craft operate on European waterways - both rivers and canals, with some providing bicycle and van side trips to smaller villages. High-speed boats such as those shown here had a special advantage in some operations in the free-running Yangtze.
In several locations within the Three Gorges, one-way travel was enforced through fast narrows. While less maneuverable and deeper draft vessels were obliged to wait for clearance, these high-speed boats were free to zip past waiting traffic by running in the shallows. High-speed planing and hydrofoil riverboats Smaller riverboats are used in urban and suburban areas for sightseeing and public transport. Sightseeing boats can be found in Amsterdam and other touristic cities where historical monuments are located near water; the concept of local waterborn public transport is known as water taxi in English-speaking countries, vaporetto in Venice, water/river tramway in former Soviet Union and Poland. Local waterborne public transport is similar to ferry; the transport craft shown below is used for short-distance carriage of passengers between villages and small cities along the Yangtze, while larger craft are used for low-cost carriage over longer distance, without the fancy food or shows seen on the tourist riverboats.
In some cases, the traveller must provide their own food. As the major rivers in China are east-west, most rail and road transport are north
Jerry Lee's Greatest! is the second studio album by the American rock and roll and rockabilly pioneer Jerry Lee Lewis released in 1961 on Sun Records. Although Lewis recorded with Sun Records from 1956 to 1963 - far longer than Elvis Presley or Johnny Cash - only two LPs were issued on Sun under Jerry Lee's name, the second being Jerry Lee's Greatest in 1961. Part of the reason for the lack of material was no doubt producer Sam Phillips' waning enthusiasm in the wake of Lewis' scandalous marriage to his 13-year-old cousin Myra, which erupted on a tour of Britain in 1958, derailing the star's career. In his authorized 2014 biography Jerry Lee Lewis: His Own Story, Rick Bragg quotes Phillips as he explained his reasoning to Sun researcher Martin Hawkins: "I was always cautious about putting out a lot of product on my artists just to ensure a certain amount of income... You only have to look at some of the crap they put out on Elvis Presley, just because he was in a picture show or something...
When Jerry Lee took a beating from the press it would have been stupid to try and cram product down people's throats. Believe me, just before that happened, Jerry was the hottest thing in America." Jerry Lee's Greatest! Includes later cuts from Lewis's run at Sun, with AllMusic's Cub Koda suggesting that, "While tracks like "Let's Talk About Us," "What'd I Say," and "As Long as I Live" have their own charm, this set isn't the place to start a Jerry Lee collection..." The album includes Lewis' biggest hit, "Great Balls of Fire,", left off of his debut LP. Side A Side B † Mislabeled as "Country Music is Here to Stay" on the original LP. Jerry Lee's Greatest! at Discogs Jerry Lee's Greatest! at Allmusic Jerry Lee's Greatest! at Rate Your Music