A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company. It was founded in 1927 in Illinois, by William Bernard Ziff Sr. and Bernard George Davis. Throughout most of Ziff Davis' history, it was a publisher of hobbyist magazines ones devoted to expensive, advertiser-rich technical hobbies such as cars and electronics. However, since 1980, Ziff Davis has published computer-related magazines, its websites, derived from its magazines, have established Ziff Davis as an internet information company. Ziff Davis had several broadcasting properties, first during the mid-1970s, with its own technology network ZDTV renamed to TechTV, sold to Vulcan Ventures in 2001. Ziff Davis' magazine publishing and internet operations offices are based in New York City and San Francisco. On January 6, 2009, the company sold 1UP.com to UGO Entertainment, a division of Hearst Corporation and announced the January 2009 issue of the long-running Electronic Gaming Monthly magazine as the final one. Former Time Inc. executive Vivek Shah, with financial backing from Boston private equity company Great Hill Partners, announced on June 4, 2010, the acquisition of Ziff Davis Inc. as the "first step in building a new digital media company that specializes in producing and distributing content for consumers making important buying decisions."On November 12, 2012, Ziff Davis Inc. was acquired by cloud computing services company j2 Global of Hollywood, Calif. for $167 million cash.
According to a late 2015 Fortune article, Ziff Davis comprises 30% of parent company j2 Global's $600 million annual revenue and is increasing 15% to 20% each year. Analyst Gregory Burns of Sidoti & Company calculates; the William B. Ziff Company, founded in 1920, was a successful Chicago advertising agency that secured advertising from national companies such as Procter & Gamble for all African American weekly newspapers. In 1923, Ziff acquired E. C. Auld Company, a Chicago publishing house. Ziff's first venture in magazine publishing was Ziff's Magazine, which featured short stories, one-act plays, humorous verse, jokes; the title was changed to America's Humor in April 1926. Bernard George Davis was the student editor of the University of Pittsburgh's humor magazine, the Pitt Panther, was active in the Association of College Comics of the East. During his senior year he attended the association's convention and met William B. Ziff; when Davis graduated in 1927 he joined Ziff as the editor of America's Humor.
Ziff, an aviator in World War I, created a new magazine, Popular Aviation, in August 1927, published by Popular Aviation Publishing Company of Chicago, Illinois. Under editor Harley W. Mitchell it became the largest aviation magazine, with a circulation of 100,000 in 1929; the magazine's title became Aeronautics in June 1929 and the publishing company's name became Aeronautical Publications, Inc. The title was changed back to Popular Aviation in July 1930; the magazine is still published today by the Bonnier Corporation. The magazine celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2017; the company histories give the founding date as 1927. This is when B. G. Davis joined and Popular Aviation magazine started. However, it was not until 1936 that the company became the "Ziff-Davis Publishing Company". Davis was given a substantial minority equity interest in the company and was appointed a vice-president and director, he was named president in 1946. Davis was a photography enthusiast and the editor of the Popular Photography magazine started in May 1937.
In early 1938, Ziff-Davis acquired the magazines Amazing Stories. These were started by Hugo Gernsback but sold as a result of the Experimenter Publishing bankruptcy in 1929. Both magazines had declined since the bankruptcy but the resources of Ziff-Davis rejuvenated them starting with the April 1938 issues. Radio News was published until 1972; the magazine Popular Electronics, derived from Radio News, was begun in 1955 and published until 1985. Amazing Stories was a leading science fiction magazine and Ziff Davis soon added a new companion, Fantastic Adventures. In 1954 FA was merged into the newer magazine Fantastic, founded in 1952 to great initial success. ZD published a number of other pulp magazines and digest-sized fiction magazines during the 1940s and 1950s, continued to publish Amazing and Fantastic until 1965. Ziff-Davis published comic books during the early 1950s, operating by their own name and the name Approved Comics. Eschewing superheroes, they published horror, sports and Western comics, though most titles didn't last more than a few issues.
Superman co-creator Jerry Siegel was the art director of the comics line. In 1953, the company abandoned comics, selling its most popular titles—the romance comics Cinderella Love and Romantic Love, the Western Kid Cowboy, the jungle adventure Wild Boy of the Congo—to St. John Publications. Ziff-Davis continued to publish one title, G. I. Joe, until 1957, a total of 51 issues. William B. Ziff, Sr. died in 1953 and son William B. Ziff, Jr. returned from Germany to assume his role in the company. In 1958 Bernard G. Davis sold his share of Ziff Davis to found Davis Publications, although Ziff-Davis continued to use his surname. With the younger Ziff's direction, ZD soon became a successful publisher of enthusiast magazines. Ziff Davis purchased titles like Car And Driv
Future US, Inc. is an American media corporation specializing in targeted magazines and websites in the video games and technology markets. Future US is headquartered in New York City with small offices in Minneapolis. Future US is owned by parent company, Future plc, a specialist media company based in the United Kingdom, its magazines and websites include: PC Gamer Official Xbox Magazine TechRadar Maximum PC Electronic Musician Guitar Player Guitar World Multichannel News Broadcasting & Cable TWICE Founded in 1985 in the UK by Chris Anderson Future Publishing was the fastest growing UK publisher of the nineties. From a start in computer and video games magazines, Future diversified into sports, entertainment and general interest magazines becoming the UK's fourth largest publisher. Anderson wanted to expand Future into the United States, bought struggling Greensboro video game magazine publisher GP Publications, publisher of Game Players magazine in 1993; the company launched a number of titles including PC Gamer, relocated from North Carolina to the Bay area, occupying various properties in Burlingame and South San Francisco.
When Anderson sold Future to Pearson PLC he retained GP, renamed Imagine Media, Inc. in June 1995, operated it as his sole company for a few years. However, when Future bought itself out from Pearson in an MBO, Anderson came back on board, when Future floated on the stock exchange in 1999 Imagine's print magazines were merged with Future Publishing to form the Future Network PLC, a company floated on the London Stock Exchange; the on-line properties, including IGN, were put into a separate company snowball.com. Buoyed by the Internet economy and the success of Business 2.0 in the US, Future rode the boom of the late nineties. During this period the company won the exclusive worldwide rights to produce the official magazine for Microsoft's Xbox video game console and cemented its position as a leader in the games market. In the spring of 2001, buffeted by economic factors and the market downturn, Future Network USA went through a strategic reset of its business that included the closure of some titles and Internet operations and the sale of Business 2.0 to AOL/Time Warner.
By early fall 2002, Imagine Media had refocused on its core business, publishing five games and technology magazines: Official Xbox Magazine, PC Gamer, PSM: 100% Independent PlayStation 2 Magazine, Maximum PC and MacAddict. It was that Imagine became Future Network USA, adopting the name of its parent company, Future plc. Future used this strong portfolio and its strength in creating media for young men as a platform for growth into the action sports and music markets. In December 2005, after three years of organic growth and strategic acquisition, Future Network USA became Future US, to reflect its diversification into markets beyond games and technology. In 2005, Future US made its first venture into the women's market with the launch of Scrapbook Answers and with the addition of Women's Health & Fitness and Decorating Spaces, to its portfolio of titles with the Future plc acquisition of Highbury House plc. On September 19, 2007, Nintendo and Future announced that Future US would obtain the publishing rights to Nintendo Power magazine.
This came into effect with the creation of issue #222. On October 1, 2007, it was announced that Future US would be making PlayStation: The Official Magazine, which ended up replacing PSM and first hit newsstands in November 2007. With this launch, Future US is the publisher of the official magazines of all three major console manufacturers in the US. In 2012, NewBay Media bought the Music division of Future US. In 2018, Future reacquired majority of the assets sold to NewBay by buying NewBay outright for US13.8 million. Future used this acquisition to expand its US footprint in B2B segment. CD-ROM Today Daily Radar Games Radar Decorating Spaces Do! Future Music Future Snowboarding Magazine Game Players Guitar One Guitar World Acoustic Guitar World Legends Guitar World's Bass Guitar Maximum Linux Men's Edge Mobile PC netPOWER Next Generation Magazine Nintendo Power Official Dreamcast Magazine PC Accelerator PlayStation: The Official Magazine Revolution Scrapbook Answers Skateboard Trade News Snowboard Trade News T3 The Net Total Movie Women's Health & Fitness Official website
Corpse Killer is a game released for the Sega CD, Sega CD 32X, 3DO, Sega Saturn, Windows 95 and Macintosh computers that features live action full motion video in a format similar to other games developed by Digital Pictures. The quality of the full motion video on the Sega CD version is less than that of the others. After the release of the Sega CD version, Digital Pictures created an option to have English subtitles during the full motion video as critics had complained that it was difficult to understand what the driver was saying in the Sega CD and Sega 32X versions. Corpse Killer was the first CD game released for the Sega 32X. Footage from the game was recycled for the 2003 film Game Over. An unnamed United States Marine is airdropped onto a tropical island on a top secret mission to stop the evil Dr. Hellman, who plans to release his army of zombies on the world, he is bitten by a zombie and meets an attractive female reporter and a Rastafarian male driver. Four of the marine lieutenant's comrades are turned into zombies.
To rescue them, the lieutenant infiltrates Hellman's compound and shoots each of them with bullets coated with extract from Datura plants, which can turn freshly created zombies back into humans. Most of the gameplay is similar to other shooting full motion video games such as Lethal Enforcers; the player moves through the jungle shooting various zombies, collecting better ammunition and medicine to recover health. The video footage for the game was filmed on location in the Caribbean, with most scenes being shot in Puerto Rico; the actors portraying the zombies wore latex masks. The Sega Saturn version of the title was released with the subtitle of "Graveyard Edition"; this version features a few exclusives such as full-screen video, improved video quality, a difficulty select and power-ups that drop down from the top of the screen and can be shot and collected, "in your face" zombie attacks. These attacks involve a zombie that pops up in front of the "camera" and attacks the player, they can only be killed with Datura rounds.
The Saturn version is the only version of the game to lack light gun support. Reviewing the Sega CD version, GamePro's Game Over Man wrote that "This frisky first-person blast-a-thon looks and feels like a bad live-action movie, but your taste for'bad' just might bring this Corpse to life." He praised the B-movie production values, "typically grainy but stylish" FMV graphics, the effective controls when using a standard gamepad instead of a light gun. The four reviewers of Electronic Gaming Monthly said that the "campy, bad b-movie" cutscenes are entertaining but the gameplay is dull, that the graphics are only improved from the Sega CD version. A reviewer for Next Generation commented that the game itself is "decent", but that the improvement in graphics over the Sega CD version "is so small that only an expert could notice." Toxic Tommy of GamePro reviewed that the 32X version retains the elements that made the Sega CD version fun and has far better graphics. Electronic Gaming Monthly reversed their position on the game's cutscenes when reviewing the Saturn version, with all save Andrew Baran now saying that the scenes are dull and repetitive.
They criticized the substandard video quality of the FMV and the "laughable" gameplay. GamePro's brief review, while acknowledging the FMV is grainy, noted it was at least superior to any previous version of the game; the reviewer praised the cursor movement's easy control and concluded, "This'll do for zombified Saturn gamers." A brief review from Next Generation published over a year after the game's release criticized the "Cheesy graphics and repetitious gameplay". Corpse Killer at MobyGames Corpse Killer at Internet Movie Database
Ground Zero: Texas
Ground Zero: Texas is a full motion video game, released for the Sega CD in November 1993. The game relies on video footage, with which the player interacts, it contains 110 minutes of interactive footage from four different cameras. It was directed by Dwight H. Little, known for the films Marked for Death and Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers. Aliens known as Reticulans have attacked El Cadron, a small border town in Texas; the player has arrived to save the townspeople. The aliens have clever ways of disguising themselves as townspeople; the player's mission is to do away with the Reticulans. The player is armed with four BattleCams, with a stunning particle beam that stops the alien temporarily; the player must rid the world of the Reticulan menace before the entire area is destroyed by a nuclear bomb. Four special operatives will help the player by providing clues to the Reticulan base; when a special operative is fighting with a Reticulan, the player has to shoot the enemy before they can abduct the special operative.
After the enemy is disposed of, the special operative can look at its pendant. On each pendant is a number and a shape that corresponds to a special lock. Once the code is cracked, the vaulted door opens to reveal the Reticulans' weapons arsenal and a cold storage area. After the base is secured, all of the player's BattleCams become reprogrammed with Reticulan weaponry. Upon learning of this development, the Reticulans deploy stormtroopers to destroy the town and its people; the Special Forces fight back as the areas of the town explode into debris. In a desperate attempt to stop the Special Forces, the Reticulans abduct Reece, take him to their mothership, prepare to take off. DiSalvo rigs a special BattleCam armed with a giant alien cannon. With a single well-placed shot, the mothership is obliterated, saving the town and Earth from the Reticulan army. Ground Zero Texas was a "second-generation" title for Digital Pictures, their first titles for the Sega CD having been rehashes of titles developed for Hasbro's aborted NEMO system.
The game had a two million dollar budget - most of, generated by the bundling of Sewer Shark with Sega CD consoles. The game started life with the codename Project X, a script written by Digital Pictures co-founder Ken Melville, inspired by Invasion of the Body Snatchers and Invaders from Mars. By the time development started, the script had been re-written by Alan B. McElroy, Edward Neumeier and Joshua Stallings; the game's FMV was shot by a full Hollywood film crew, which meant that Digital Pictures had to negotiate with the Directors Guild, Screen Actors Guild and Writers Guild - the first time this had been done for a video game. In the game, the film elements suffered due to the technical limitations of the Sega CD; the film had to be processed to reduce it to a palette of 64 colours and to accommodate the slow data transfer rate of the CD drive. Despite the limitations, the game's visual appearance was still described as "breathtaking" for 1993 by Edge. In a retrospective interview with Edge, Ken Melville of Digital Pictures expressed his displeasure at the technical limitations of the video, "All our video had to be tortured and screaming, into the most horrifying, reduced-colour-palette mess imaginable in the Sega CD.
I shudder to think about it" Ground Zero: Texas was a bestseller in the UK for two months, was awarded Best Sega Mega-CD Game of 1994 by Electronic Gaming Monthly. Though their review of the game criticized it for poor control design, bad acting, corny dialogue, they praised the music and storyline and scored it a 7.5 out of 10. Ground Zero: Texas at MobyGames
A mobile app or mobile application is a computer program or software application designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch. Apps were intended for productivity assistance such as Email and contact databases, but the public demand for apps caused rapid expansion into other areas such as mobile games, factory automation, GPS and location-based services, order-tracking, ticket purchases, so that there are now millions of apps available. Apps are downloaded from application distribution platforms which are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the App Store or Google Play Store; some apps are free, others have a price, with the profit being split between the application's creator and the distribution platform. Mobile applications stand in contrast to desktop applications which are designed to run on desktop computers, web applications which run in mobile web browsers rather than directly on the mobile device. In 2009, technology columnist David Pogue said that newer smartphones could be nicknamed "app phones" to distinguish them from earlier less-sophisticated smartphones.
The term "app", short for "software application", has since become popular. Most mobile devices are sold with several apps bundled as pre-installed software, such as a web browser, email client, mapping program, an app for buying music, other media, or more apps; some pre-installed apps can be removed by an ordinary uninstall process, thus leaving more storage space for desired ones. Where the software does not allow this, some devices can be rooted to eliminate the undesired apps. Apps that are not preinstalled are available through distribution platforms called app stores, they began appearing in 2008 and are operated by the owner of the mobile operating system, such as the Apple App Store, Google Play, Windows Phone Store, BlackBerry App World. However, there are independent app stores, such as GetJar and F-Droid; some apps are free. They are downloaded from the platform to a target device, but sometimes they can be downloaded to laptops or desktop computers. For apps with a price a percentage, 20-30%, goes to the distribution provider, the rest goes to the producer of the app.
The same app can, cost a different price depending on the mobile platform. Apps can be installed manually, for example by running an Android application package on Android devices. Mobile apps were offered for general productivity and information retrieval, including email, contacts, the stock market and weather information. However, public demand and the availability of developer tools drove rapid expansion into other categories, such as those handled by desktop application software packages; as with other software, the explosion in number and variety of apps made discovery a challenge, which in turn led to the creation of a wide range of review and curation sources, including blogs and dedicated online app-discovery services. In 2014 government regulatory agencies began trying to regulate and curate apps medical apps; some companies offer apps as an alternative method to deliver content with certain advantages over an official website. With a growing number of mobile applications available at app stores and the improved capabilities of smartphones, people are downloading more applications to their devices.
Usage of mobile apps has become prevalent across mobile phone users. A May 2012 comScore study reported that during the previous quarter, more mobile subscribers used apps than browsed the web on their devices: 51.1% vs. 49.8% respectively. Researchers found that usage of mobile apps correlates with user context and depends on user's location and time of the day. Mobile apps are playing an ever-increasing role within healthcare and when designed and integrated can yield many benefits. Market research firm Gartner predicted that 102 billion apps would be downloaded in 2013, which would generate $26 billion in the US, up 44.4% on 2012's US$18 billion. By Q2 2015, the Google Play and Apple stores alone generated $5 billion. An analyst report estimates that the app economy creates revenues of more than €10 billion per year within the European Union, while over 529,000 jobs have been created in 28 EU states due to the growth of the app market. There are three kinds of apps — native and web-based. All apps targeted towards particular mobile platforms are known as native apps.
Therefore, an app meant for Apple device will never open in Android devices. This is. While developing native apps, professionals incorporate best-in-class user interface modules; this accounts for better performance and good user experience. Users benefit from wider access to APIs and make limitless use of all apps from the particular device. Further, they switch over from one app to another effortlessly; the main purpose behind creating such apps is to ensure best performance for specific mobile operating system. Concept of hybrid apps is a mix of web-based apps. Apps developed using Xamarin, React Native, Sencha Touch and other similar technology fall within this category; these are made to support web and native technologies across multiple platforms, hence the name hybrid. Moreover, these apps are faster to develop, it involves use of single code. Despite such advantages, hybrid apps are slower in performance. Apps fail to bear the same look n feel in different mobile op
1996 in video gaming
1996 has seen many sequels and prequels in video games and several new titles such as Blazing Heroes, Super Mario 64, NiGHTS into Dreams... Crash Bandicoot, Resident Evil, Dead or Alive, Duke Nukem 3D and Tomb Raider. May 16–18 — The second annual E3 is held in Los Angeles, United States. February 21 — Sega Model 3, an arcade system board considered to have the most technically impressive graphics at the time November 23 — Bandai's Tamagotchi virtual pet handheld Nintendo's Nintendo 64, the first true 64-bit home console Nintendo's Game Boy Pocket handheld console Sega's Net Link modem for the Sega Saturn home console SNK's Neo Geo CDZ Namco's Alpine Racer arcade game, including a new type of user interface February — Blizzard Entertainment acquires a development group known as Condor, renaming it Blizzard North February 13 — Atari Corporation announces a plan to merge with JTS Corp. April — Eidos Interactive acquires CentreGold plc, which holds Core Design and U. S. Gold May 1 — GameSpot and GameFAQs are launched June — Firaxis Games is formed By Jeff Briggs with Sid Meier and Brian Reynolds July — GT Interactive purchases Humongous Entertainment July 24 — CUC International, Inc purchases Sierra On-Line, Blizzard Entertainment and Davidson & Associates for about $3 billion in a stock swap.
August 6 — AOL buys Sierra's ImagiNation Network from AT&T for a reported $15m. August 24 — Valve Corporation is founded. September 1 — AOL closes ImagiNation Network, the first online video game with graphics, after 5 years of service. November 13 — Tom Clancy and Virtus Corp. found Red Storm Entertainment, headed by Doug Littlejohns Infogrames Entertainment SA acquires Ocean Software Ltd. Midway Games, Inc. acquires Atari Games Corp. from Warner Communications Inc. Technos Japan Corporation, originator of the Nekketsu Kouha Kunio Kun series and Double Dragon series, goes out of business Black Isle Studios forms as a division by Interplay; the 3DO Company purchases New World Computing 1996 saw a major shakeup in the crowded home console market, with the Virtual Boy, Atari Jaguar, 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, Sega CD, 32X, CD-i all being discontinued