A barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers. The English word comes via French from an old Catalan word "barraca" referring to temporary shelters or huts for various people and animals, but today barracks are permanent buildings for military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes, the plural form refers to a single structure and may be singular in construction. The main object of barracks is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline and esprit de corps, they have been called "discipline factories for soldiers". Like industrial factories, some are considered to be shoddy or dull buildings, although others are known for their magnificent architecture such as Collins Barracks in Dublin and others in Paris, Madrid, Vienna, or London. From the rough barracks of 19th-century conscript armies, filled with hazing and illness and differentiated from the livestock pens that housed the draft animals, to the clean and Internet-connected barracks of modern all-volunteer militaries, the word can have a variety of connotations.
Early barracks such as those of the Roman Praetorian Guard were built to maintain elite forces. There are a number of remains of Roman army barracks in frontier forts such as Vercovicium and Vindolanda. From these and from contemporary Roman sources we can see that the basics of life in a military camp have remained constant for thousands of years. In the Early Modern Period, they formed part of the Military Revolution that scholars believe contributed decisively to the formation of the nation state by increasing the expense of maintaining standing armies. Large, permanent barracks were developed in the 18th century by the two dominant states of the period, France the "caserne" and Spain the "cuartel"; the English term ‘barrack’, on the other hand, derives from the Spanish word for a temporary shelter erected by soldiers on campaign, barraca. Early barracks were multi-story blocks grouped in a quadrangle around a courtyard or parade ground. A good example is Berwick Barracks, among the first in England to be purpose-built and begun in 1717 to the design of the distinguished architect Nicholas Hawksmoor.
During the 18th century, the increasing sophistication of military life led to separate housing for different ranks and married quarters. The pavilion plan concept of hospital design was influential in barrack planning after the Crimean War; the first large-scale training camps were built in the Kingdom of France and the Germany during the early 18th century. The British Army built Aldershot camps from 1854. By the First World War, infantry and cavalry regiments had separate barracks; the first naval barracks were old wooden sailing vessels. These were inadequate for the enormous armies mobilized after 1914. Hut camps were developed using variations of the eponymous Nissen hut, made from timber or corrugated iron. In many military forces, NCOs and enlisted personnel will be housed in barracks for service or training. Junior enlisted and sometimes junior NCOs will receive less space and may be housed in bays, while senior NCOs and officers may share or have their own room; the term "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has military barracks, i.e. a permanent military presence nearby.
Barracks blockhouses were used to house troops in forts in Upper Canada. The Stone Frigate, completed in 1820, served as barracks in 1837–38, was refitted as a dormitory and classrooms to house the Royal Military College of Canada by 1876; the Stone frigate is a large stone building designed to hold gear and rigging from British warships dismantled to comply with the Rush–Bagot Treaty. The Portuguese Army bases is referred as a quartel. In a barracks, each of the dormitory buildings is referred as a caserna. Most of them are regimental barracks, constituting the fixed component of the Army system of forces and being responsible for the training and general support to the Army. In addition to the regimental administrative and training bodies, each barracks can lodge one or more operational units. Although there are housing blocks within the perimeter of some regimental barracks, the Portuguese current practice is for the members of the Armed Forces to live out of the military bases with their families, inserted in the local civilian communities.
Many of the Portuguese regimental barracks are of the CANIFA model. These type of barracks were built in the 1950s and 1960s, following a standardized architectural model with an area of between 100,000 and 200,000 square metres, including a headquarters building, a guard house, a general mess building, an infirmary building, a workshop and garage building, an officer house building, a sergeant house building, three to ten rank and file caserns, fire ranges and sports facilities. In the 17th and 18th centuries there were concerns around the idea of a standing army housed in barracks.
Mead is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content ranges from about 3.5% ABV to more than 20%. The defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the beverage's fermentable sugar is derived from honey, it may be still, carbonated, or sparkling. Mead was produced in ancient history throughout Europe and Asia, has played an important role in the mythology of some peoples. In Norse mythology, for example, the Mead of Poetry was crafted from the blood of the wise being Kvasir and turned the drinker into a poet or scholar; the terms "mead" and "honey-wine" are used synonymously. Some cultures, differentiate honey-wine from mead. For example, Hungarians hold that while mead is made of honey and beer-yeast, honey-wine is watered honey fermented by recrement of grapes or other fruits. Pottery vessels dating from 7000 BC discovered in northern China have shown chemical signatures consistent with the presence of honey and organic compounds associated with fermentation.
In Europe, it is first described from residual samples found in ceramics of the Bell Beaker Culture. The earliest surviving description of mead is the soma mentioned in the hymns of the Rigveda, one of the sacred books of the historical Vedic religion and Hinduism dated around 1700–1100 BC. During the Golden Age of ancient Greece, mead was said to be the preferred drink. Aristotle discussed mead in his Meteorologica and elsewhere, while Pliny the Elder called mead militites in his Naturalis Historia and differentiated wine sweetened with honey or "honey-wine" from mead; the Hispanic-Roman naturalist Columella gave a recipe for mead in De re rustica, about 60 CE. Take rainwater kept for several years, mix a sextarius of this water with a pound of honey. For a weaker mead, mix a sextarius of water with nine ounces of honey; the whole is exposed to the sun for 40 days, left on a shelf near the fire. If you have no rain water boil spring water. There is a poem attributed to the Brythonic-speaking bard Taliesin, who lived around 550 CE, called the Kanu y med or "Song of Mead".
The legendary drinking and boasting of warriors in the mead hall is echoed in the mead hall Din Eidyn as depicted in the poem Y Gododdin, attributed to the poet Aneirin who would have been a contemporary of Taliesin. In the Old English epic poem Beowulf, the Danish warriors drank mead. In both Insular Celtic and Germanic poetry mead was the primary heroic or divine drink, see Mead of poetry. Taxation and regulations governing the ingredients of alcoholic beverages led to commercial mead becoming a more obscure beverage until recently; some monasteries kept up the old traditions of mead-making as a by-product of beekeeping in areas where grapes could not be grown. The English mead – "fermented honey drink" – derives from the Old English meodu or medu, Proto-Germanic, *meduz; the name has connections to Old Norse mjöðr, Middle Dutch mede, Old High German metu, among others. The yeast used in mead making is identical to that used in wine making. Many home mead makers choose to use wine yeasts to make their meads.
By measuring the specific gravity of the mead once before fermentation and throughout the fermentation process by means of a hydrometer or refractometer, mead makers can determine the proportion of alcohol by volume that will appear in the final product. This serves another purpose. By measuring specific gravity throughout fermentation, a mead maker can troubleshoot a "stuck" batch, one where the fermentation process has been halted prematurely. Meads will ferment well at the same temperatures in which wine is fermented. After primary fermentation slows down the mead is racked into a second container; this is known as secondary fermentation. Some larger commercial fermenters are designed to allow both primary and secondary fermentation to happen inside of the same vessel. Racking is done for two reasons: it lets the mead sit away from the remains of the yeast cells that have died during the fermentation process. Second, this lets. If the mead maker wishes to backsweeten the product or prevent it from oxidizing, potassium metabisulfite and potassium sorbate are added.
After the mead clears, it is distributed. Mead can have a wide range of flavors depending on the source of the honey, additives including fruit and spices, the yeast employed during fermentation, the aging procedure; some producers have marketed white wine sweetened and flavored with honey after fermentation as mead, sometimes spelling it "meade." This is closer in style to a hypocras. Blended varieties of mead may be known by the style represented. A mead that contains spices, or herbs, is called a metheglin. A mead that contains fruit is called a melomel, used as a means of food preservation, keeping summer produce for the winter. A mead, fermented with grape juice is called a pyment. Mulled mead is a popular drink at Christmas time, where mead is flavored with spices and warmed, traditionally by having a hot poker plunged into it; some meads retain some measure of the sweetness of the original honey, some may be considered as de
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress. Articles Four and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it, it is regarded as the oldest codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.
The majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, of the federal and state governments."The first permanent constitution of its kind, adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, has influenced the constitutions of other nations. From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.
Delegates to the First and the Second Continental Congress were chosen through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or state legislatures. In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments; the process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body. Endowed by the people collectively, the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense, while the separate states, exercising a limited or internal sovereignty, may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress, which preceded them and brought them into being; the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781.
The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. Although, in a way, the Congressional powers in Article 9 made the "league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history", the chief problem was, in the words of George Washington, "no money"; the Continental Congress could print money but it was worthless. Congress couldn't pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes. Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments. By 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts. Internationally, the United States had little ability to defend its sovereignty. Most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil.
They had not been paid. Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce. If any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states. Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U. S. and named each of the American states, various states proceeded blithely to violate it. New York and South Carolina prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands. Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes, negotiated directly with foreign authorities, raised armies, and
General Thomas Gage was a British Army general officer and colonial official best known for his many years of service in North America, including his role as British commander-in-chief in the early days of the American Revolution. Being born to an aristocratic family in England, he entered military service, seeing action in the French and Indian War, where he served alongside his future opponent George Washington in the 1755 Battle of the Monongahela. After the fall of Montreal in 1760, he was named its military governor. During this time he did not distinguish himself militarily, but proved himself to be a competent administrator. From 1763 to 1775 he served as commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, overseeing the British response to the 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion. In 1774 he was appointed the military governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to implement the Intolerable Acts, punishing Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party, his attempts to seize military stores of Patriot militias in April 1775 sparked the Battles of Lexington and Concord, beginning the American Revolutionary War.
After the Pyrrhic victory in the June Battle of Bunker Hill, he was replaced by General William Howe in October, 1775, returned to Great Britain. Thomas Gage was born on 10 March 1718/19 and christened 31 March 1719 at Westminster St James, England, son of Thomas Gage, 1st Viscount Gage and Benedicta Maria Teresa Hall. Firle Place, Sussex, is where the Gage family had been seated since the 15th century, his father, Thomas Gage, 1st Viscount Gage, was a noted nobleman given titles in Ireland. Thomas Gage had three children; the first son, William Hall Gage, 2nd Viscount Gage, was born 6 January 1717/18 and christened 29 January 1717/18 at Westminster St James. In 1728 Gage began attending the prestigious Westminster School where he met such figures as John Burgoyne, Richard Howe, Francis Bernard, George Germain. Despite the family's long history of Catholicism, Viscount Gage had adopted the Anglican Church in 1715. During his school years Thomas the younger became attached to the latter church.
After graduating from Westminster in 1736 there is no record of Gage's activities until he joined the British Army receiving a commission as ensign. His early duties consisted of recruiting in Yorkshire. In January 1741 he purchased a lieutenant's commission in the 1st Northampton Regiment, where he stayed until May 1742, when he transferred to Battereau's Regiment with the rank of captain-lieutenant. Gage received promotion to captain in 1743, saw action in the War of the Austrian Succession with British forces in Flanders, where he served as aide-de-camp to the Earl of Albemarle in the Battle of Fontenoy, he saw further service in the Second Jacobite Uprising, which culminated in the 1746 Battle of Culloden. From 1747 to 1748, Gage saw action under Albemarle in the Low Countries. In 1748 he transferred to the 55th Foot Regiment; the regiment was stationed in Ireland from 1748 to 1755. During his early service years, he spent leisure time at White's Club, where he was a member, travelled, going at least as far as Paris.
He was a popular figure in the army and at the club though he neither liked alcohol nor gambled much. His friendships spanned ability. Charles Lee once wrote to Gage, "I respected your understanding, lik'd your manners and ador'd the qualities of your heart." Gage made some important political connections, forming relationships with important figures like Lord Barrington, the future Secretary at War, Jeffery Amherst, a man his age who rose to great heights in the French and Indian War. In 1750, Gage became engaged to a "lady of rank and fortune, whom he persuaded to yield her hand in an honourable way"; the engagement was broken, leaving Gage broken-hearted. In 1753, both Gage and his father stood for seats in Parliament. Both lost in the April 1754 election though his father had been a Member of Parliament for some years prior, they both contested the results, but his father died soon after, Gage withdrew his protest in early 1755, as his regiment was being sent to America following the outbreak of the French and Indian War.
In 1755 Gage's regiment was sent to North America as part of General Edward Braddock's expeditionary force, whose objective was the expulsion of French forces from the Ohio Country, territory disputed between French and British colonies where there had been military clashes in 1754. On this expedition Gage's regiment was in the vanguard of the troops when they came upon a company of French and Indians who were trying to set up an ambush; this skirmish began the Battle of the Monongahela, in which Braddock was mortally wounded, George Washington distinguished himself for his courage under fire and his leadership in organising the retreat. The commander of the 44th, Colonel Sir Peter Halkett, was one of many officers killed in the battle and Gage, who temporarily took command of the regiment, was wounded; the regiment was decimated, Captain Robert Orme levelled charges that poor field tactics on the part of Gage had led to the defeat. Gage and Washington maintained a somewhat friendly relationship for several years after the expedition, but distance and lack of frequent contact cooled the relationship.
By 1770, Washington was publicly condemning
Minutemen were civilian colonists who independently organized to form well-prepared militia companies self-trained in weaponry and military strategies from the American colonial partisan militia during the American Revolutionary War. They were known for being ready at a minute's notice, hence the name, they provided a mobile deployed force that allowed the colonies to respond to war threats. The minutemen were among the first to fight in the American Revolution, their teams constituted about a quarter of the entire militia. They were younger and more mobile, served as part of a network for early response; the term has been applied to various United States civilian-based paramilitary forces to recall the success and patriotism of the originals. In the British colony of Massachusetts Bay, all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60 were required to participate in their local militia; as early as 1645 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, some men were selected from the general ranks of town-based "training bands" to be ready for rapid deployment.
Men so selected were designated as minutemen. They were drawn from settlers of each town, so it was common for them to be fighting alongside relatives and friends; some towns in Massachusetts had a long history of designating a portion of their militia as minutemen, with "minute companies" constituting special units within the militia system whose members underwent additional training and held themselves ready to turn out for emergencies, "at a minute's notice" and hence their name. Other towns, such as Lexington, preferred to keep their entire militia in a single unit. Members of the minutemen, by contrast, were no more than 30 years old, were chosen for their enthusiasm, political reliability, strength, they were the first armed militia to await a battle. Officers were elected by popular vote, as in the rest of the militia, each unit drafted a formal written covenant to be signed upon enlistment; the militia assembled as an entire unit in each town two to four times a year for training during peacetime but, as the inevitability of war became apparent, the militia trained three to four times a week.
In this organization, it was common for officers to make decisions through consultation and consensus with their men, as opposed to giving orders to be followed without question. The Massachusetts Provincial Congress found that the colony's militia resources were short just before the American Revolutionary War, on October 26, 1774, after observing the British military buildup, they found that, "including the sick and absent, it amounted to about 17,000 men, far short of the number wanted, that the council recommended an immediate application to the New England governments to make up the deficiency,", resolving to organize the militia better:The Massachusetts Provincial Congress recommended to the militia to form themselves into companies of minute-men, who should be equipped and prepared to march at the shortest notice. These minute-men were to comprise one-quarter of the whole militia, to be enlisted under the direction of the field-officers, divide into companies, consisting of at least 50 men each.
The privates were to choose their captains and subalterns, these officers were to form the companies into battalions, chose the field-officers to command the same. Hence the minute-men became a body distinct from the rest of the militia, and, by being more devoted to military exercises, they acquired skill in the use of arms. More attention than was bestowed on the training and drilling of militia; the need for efficient minuteman companies was illustrated by the Powder Alarm of 1774. Militia companies were called out to resist British troops, who were sent to capture ammunition stores. By the time the militia was ready, the British regulars had captured the arms at Cambridge and Charlestown and had returned to Boston. In August 1636, the first offensive military attack by militias failed when Massachusetts dispatched John Endecott with four companies on an unsuccessful campaign against the Pequot Indians. According to one man's account, the expedition succeeded only in killing one Indian and burning some wigwams.
Weeks elapsed between the incidents that caused the march and the arrival of Endecott's men in the area. Once they got there, they did not know why; this feeble response served to encourage the Indians, attacks increased on the settlers in the Connecticut Valley. In the following year, Massachusetts again put a force on the field in collaboration with Plymouth and Connecticut. By the time that Plymouth had gotten their force packed and ready to march, the campaign had ended. Massachusetts Bay sent 150 militiamen, Plymouth sent 50, Connecticut sent 90. In May 1643, a joint council was formed, they published the articles of the New England confederation. The real power of the confederation was that all four of the colonies promised to contribute soldiers to an alert force that would fight anywhere in the colonies. On September 7, 1643 the towns were given more tactical control. A new rule allowed any general to call up his militia at any time. On August 12, 1645, 30% of all militia were made into short-notice groups.
Command and control were decentralized to the extent that individual company commanders could put their troops into a defensive battle if necessary. A portion of the militia was well trained and well equipped, set aside as a ready force. In May 1653, the Council of Massachusetts said that an eighth of the militia should be ready to march within one day to anywhere in the colony. Eighty militiamen marched on the Narragansett tribe in Massachusetts. Since the colonies were expanding, t
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples. Cider is popular in the United Kingdom and Ireland in the West Country, available; the UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as its largest cider-producing companies. Cider is popular in many Commonwealth countries, such as India, Canada and New Zealand. Aside from the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in other European countries including Portugal, northern Italy, Spain. Central Europe has its own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a tart version known as Apfelwein. In the U. S. and parts of Canada, varieties of fermented cider are called hard cider to distinguish alcoholic cider from non-alcoholic "cider" or "sweet cider" made from apples. The juice of any variety of apple can be used to make cider; the addition of sugar or extra fruit before a second fermentation increases the ethanol content of the resulting beverage. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% to 8.5% ABV or more in traditional English ciders, 3.5% to 12% in continental ciders.
In UK law, it must contain at least 35% apple juice, although CAMRA says that "real cider" must be at least 90% fresh apple juice. In the US, there is a 50% minimum. In France, cider must be made from apples. In 2014, a study found that a 1-US-pint bottle of mass-market cider contained five teaspoons of sugar, nearly the amount the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, 5–10 times the amount of sugar in lager or ale. Perry is a similar product to cider made from fermented pear juice; the flavour of cider varies. Ciders can be classified from dry to sweet, their appearance ranges from cloudy with sediment to clear, their colour ranges from colourless to amber to brown. The variations in clarity and colour are due to filtering between pressing and fermentation; some apple varieties will produce a clear cider without any need for filtration. Both sparkling and still ciders are made. Modern, mass-produced ciders resemble sparkling wine in appearance. More traditional brands tend to be cloudier.
They are stronger than the mass-produced varieties and taste more of apples. Colourless, white cider has the same apple juice content as conventional cider but is harder to create because the cider maker has to blend various apples to create a clearer liquid. White ciders tend to be more refreshing, they are 7–8 % ABV in strength. Black cider, by contrast, is dry amber premium cider which has an alcohol content of 7–8 % ABV; the descriptor black comes after the brand name such as Union Black and Barnstormer Black. Cider is an ancient beverage. No-one knows when or where it was first made, because the native distribution of its principal component, the apple, is so widespread, from the Near East to Northwestern Europe. In the cider market, ciders can be broken down into two main styles and specialty; the first group consists of modern ciders and heritage ciders. Modern ciders are produced from culinary apples such as Gala. Heritage ciders are produced like Golden Russet. Cider was made from the only resources available to make it, so style wasn't a large factor when considering the production process.
Apples were confined to the cooler climates of Western Europe and Britain where civilization was slow to develop record keeping. Cider was first made from crab apples, ancestors of the bittersweet and bittersharp apples used by today's English cider makers. English cider contained a drier, higher alcohol content version, using open fermentation vats and bittersweet crab apples; the French developed a sweet, low alcohol "cidre" taking advantage of the sweeter apples and the keeving process. These are the roots of the standard styles. Cider styles evolved based on the methods used, the apples local tastes. Production techniques developed, as with most technology, by error. In fact, the variables were nearly too widespread to track, including: spontaneous fermentation, the type of vessels used, environmental conditions, the apple varieties. Refinements came much when cider became a commercial product and the process was better understood. However, since there is growing popularity in ciders, the production of specialty styles has begun to increase.
Modern ciders are made from culinary apples and are lower in tannins and higher in acidity than other cider styles. Common culinary apples used in modern ciders include McIntosh, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Fuji. A sweet or low alcohol cider may tend to have a strong aromatic and flavor character of apple, while drier and higher alcohol ciders will tend to produce a wider range of fruity aromas and flavors. Modern ciders can range from brilliant to a hazy clarity. Clarity can be altered through various cider making practices, depending on the cider maker's intentions. Heritage ciders are made from both culinary and cider apples, including bittersweet, heirlooms, wild apples, crabapples. Common apples used in heritage cider production include Dabinett, Kingston Black, Roxbury Russet, Wickson. Heritage ciders are higher in tannins than modern ciders, they range in colour from yellow to amber ranging from brilliant to hazy. Clarity of heritage ciders depends on the cider making pract